Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30982
Chemical and Biological Properties of Local Cowpea Seed Protein Grown in Gizan Region
Authors: Abdelatief S. H. El-Jasser
Abstract:The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical and biological properties of local cowpea seed protein cultivated in Gizan region. The results showed that the cowpea and its products contain high level of protein (22.9-77.6%), high carbohydrates (9.4-64.3%) and low fats (0.1-0.3%). The trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were found to be 32.2 and 15.2 units, respectively. These activities were not affected in both defatted and protein concentrate whereas they were significantly reduced in isolated protein and cooked samples. The phytate content of cooked and concentrated cowpea samples varied from 0.25% -0.32%, respectively. Tannin content was found to be 0.4% and 0.23% for cooked and raw samples, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility was very high in cowpea seeds (75.04-78.76%). The biological evaluation using rats showed that the group fed with animal feed containing casein gain more weight than those fed with that containing cowpea. However, the group fed with cooked cowpea gain more weight than those fed with uncooked cowpea. On the other hand, in vivo digestion showed high value (98.33%) among the group consumed casein compared to other groups those consumed cowpea contains feed. This could be attributed to low antinutritional factors in casein contains feed compared to those of cowpea contains feed because cooking significantly increased the digestion rate (80.8% to 83.5%) of cowpea contains feed. Furthermore, the biological evaluation was high (91.67%) of casein containing feed compared to that of cowpea containing feed (80.83%-87.5%). The net protein utilization (NPU) was higher (89.67%) in the group fed with casein containing feed than that of cowpea containing feed (56.33%-69.67%).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1078332Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2654
 Siddhuraju, P., Vijayakumari, K., & Janardhanan, K. (1996). Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of an underexploited legume, Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. Food Chemistry, 57(3), 385-391.
 Shekib, L. A. (1994). In vitro digestibility and microscopic appearance of germinated legume starches and their eVect on dietary protein utilization. Food Chemistry, 39, 247-253.
 Negi, A., Boora, P., & Khetarpaul, N. (2001). Starch and protein digestibility of newly released moth bean cultivars: Effect of soaking, dehulling, germination and pressure cooking. Nahrung/Food, 45(4), 251-254.
 Vose, J. R. (1980). Production and functionality of starchs and protein isolates from legume seeds (field peas and horse beans). Cereal Chemistry, 57, 406-410.
 Phillips, R. D., & Baker, E. A. (1987). Protein nutritional quality of traditional and novel cowpea products measured by in vivo and in vitro methods. Journal of Food Science, 52, 696-699.
 Mwanjala, A. M., Kharidah, M., Jamila, B., & Yaakob, B. (1999). Effects of isolation technique and conditions on the extractability, physicochemical and functional properties of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protein isolates. I. Physicochemical properties. Food Chemistry, 67, 435-443.
 Jane, E. D., Rivas, N. R., & John, C. (1981). Selected functional properties of sesame flour and two protein isolates. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, 32, 557-564.
 Wang, J. C., & Kinsella, J. E. (1976). Functional properties of novel proteins: alfalfa leaf protein. Journal of Food Science, 41, 286-289.
 Kinsella, J. E. (1979). Functional properties of soy proteins. Jouranl of the American Oil Chemist-s Society, 56, 242-249.
 El Tinay, A.H., Nour A. M., Abdel Karim, S .H., and Mahgoub, S. O. (1988). Aqueous protein and gossypol extraction from glanded cottonseed flour. Factor affecting protein extraction. Food Chemistry, 29: 106-107.
 Mattil, K.F (1974). Compositional, nutritional and functional properties and quality criteria of soybean concentrates and soybean protein isolate. Journal of American Chemists Society, 15: 81A-84A.
 AOAC (1995). Official methods of analysis, 16th ed. Association of Official analytical chemistry, Washington, DC.
 Price, M.L., Vanscoyoc, S. and Butler, L.G. (1978). A critical evaluation of the vanillin reaction as on assay for tannins in sorghum grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 26: 1214-1218.
 Wheeler, E.I. and Ferrel, R.E. (1971). Methods for phytic acid determination in wheat and wheat fractions. Cereal Chemistry 48: 312-320.
 Kakade, M.L., Simon, N. and Liener, I E., (1969). An evaluation of natural VS synthetic substances for measuring the antitryptic activity of soybean samples. Cereal Chemistry, 49: 518-526.
 Kakade, M.L., Swenson, D. H. and Liener, I E., (1970). Note on the determination of chymotrypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activity using casein. Analytical Biochemistry, 33: 255-258.
 Hsu, H.W., Vavak, D.L., Satterlee, L.D. and Miller, G.A. (1977). A multi-enzyme technique for estimating protein digestibility. Journal of Food Science, 42: 1269-1274.
 Satterlee, L.D., Marshall, H.F. and Tennyson, J.M. (1979). Measuring protein quality. Journal of the American Oil chemist's Society, 56: 103- 109.
 Eggum, B.O. (1973). A study off certain factors influencing protein utilization in rats and pigs. Report of National Institute of Animal Sciences, Copenhagen. No 406, Copenhagen, Danish National Institute of Animal Sciences.
 SAS (1990). SAS User's Guide (Statistics) SAS Instituge, Cary, Ns.
 Adsule, R. N. and Akapopunam, M. (1996). Food and Feed from legumes and oil seeds. Nwokolo and Smart (Eidtors), pp. 109-215. Chapman and Hall, London.
 Nwokolo, E. and Ilecukwu, S. N. (1996). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). In Food and Feed from legumes and oil seeds. Nwokolo and Smart (Eidtors), pp. 229-242. Chapman and Hall, London.
 Hussain, M. A. and Basahy, A. Y. (1998). Nutrient composition and amino acid pattern of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) grown in the Gizan area of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 49, 117-124.
 Giami S. Y. (1993). Effect of processing on the proximate composition and functional properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour. Food Chemistry, 35, 481-486.
 Edijala, J. K. (1980). Effect of processing on the thiamin, riboflavin and protein contents of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Journal of Food Technology, 15, 435-443.
 Bryant L. A., Montecalvo J., Morey K.S. and Loy, B. (1988). Processing, functional and nutritional properties of okra seed products. Journal of Food Science, 53, 810-816.
 Ologhobo A. D. and Fetuga B. L. (1984). The effect of processing on the trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutinin, tanic acid and phytic acid contents of seeds of ten cowpea varieties. Journal of Food processing and preservation, 8, 31-42.
 Obong H. N. E. (1995). Content of antinutrient and in vitro protein digestibility of the African yambean, pigeon and cowpea. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 48, 225-233.
 Sumathi S. and Pattabiraman T. N. (1976). Natural plant enzymes inhibitors: Part II. Protease inhibitors. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 13, 52-56.
 Preet K. and Punia D. (2000). Antinutrient and digestibility (in vitro) of soaked dehulled and germinated cowpeas. Nutrition and Health, 14, 109- 117.
 Wolzak A., Elias L. G. and Bressani R. (1981). Protein quality of vegetable proteins as determined by traditional biological methods and rapid chemical assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 29, 1063-1069.
 Ahmed, A. H. R. and Nour A. M. (1990). Protein quality of common Sudanese leguminous seeds. Lebensm-Wiss. U. Technology, 23, 301- 304.
 Gauthier S.F., Vachon C., Jones, J. D. and Savoie L. (1982). Assessment of protein digestibility by in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis with simultaneous dialysis. Journal of nutrition, 112, 1718
 Laurena A.C., Garcia V.V. and Mendoza E. M. T. (1987). Effect of heat on the removal of polyphenols and in vitro protein digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 37, 183-192.
 Jenkins M. Y. and Mitchell G. V. (1989). Nutritional assessment of twelve protein foods ingredients. Nutrional Research, 9, 83-92.
 Nielsen S. S. (1991). Digestibility of legume proteins. Food Technology, 9, 112-118.
 Khan M. K., Jacobsen I. and Eggum B. O. (1979). Nutritive value of some improved varieties of legumes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 30, 395-400.
 Gupta Y. B. (1983). Nutritive value of food legumes. In Chemistry and Biochemistry of legumes S.K Arora (editor) pp. 287-318. Edward Arnold, London.
 Liener I. E. (1976). Legumes texins in relation to protein digestibility A review. Journal of Food Science, 41, 1076-1081.
 FAO/WHO (1991). Protein quality evaluation. Report of the joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition paper No. 51. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Itally.
 Obizoba I. E. (1989). Effect of germination, dehulling and cooking on the nutritive value of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour. Journal of Food Science, 54, 1371-1372.