Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 814

Search results for: Milk yield

814 Effect of Restaurant Fat on Milk Yield and Composition of Dairy Cows Limit-Fed Concentrate Diet with Free Access to Forage

Authors: Mofleh S. Awawdeh

Abstract:

Ten lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a cross-over design with two dietary treatments and 28-d periods (with 14 d as an adaptation) to study the effect of restaurant fat on milk production and composition. Each cow was offered 14.7 kg DM /d of the basal concentrate diet based on barley and corn (crude protein = 17.7%, neutral detergent fiber = 23.5%, and acid detergent fiber = 5.8% of dry matter) with free access to alfalfa. Dietary treatments were arranged as supplying each cow with 0 (CONTROL) or 150 g/day (RF) of restaurant fat. Supplemental RF did not significantly (P > 0.25) affect milk yield, composition, and composition yields, except for milk fat contents. Milk fat contents were depressed (P < 0.05) with supplemental RF. Our results indicate that RF could depress milk fat without affecting milk yield and that the depression in milk fat in response to RF precedes the depression in milk yield.

Keywords: Dairy Cows, Restaurant Fat, Lipids.

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813 Influence of κ-Casein Genotype on Milk Productivity of Latvia Local Dairy Breeds

Authors: S. Petrovska, D. Jonkus, D. Smiltiņa

Abstract:

κ-casein is one of milk proteins which are very important for milk processing. Genotypes of κ-casein affect milk yield, fat, and protein content. The main factors which affect local Latvian dairy breed milk yield and composition are analyzed in research. Data were collected from 88 Latvian brown and 82 Latvian blue cows in 2015. AA genotype was 0.557 in Latvian brown and 0.232 in Latvian blue breed. BB genotype was 0.034 in Latvian brown and 0.207 in Latvian blue breed. Highest milk yield was observed in Latvian brown (5131.2 ± 172.01 kg), significantly high fat content and fat yield also was in Latvian brown (p < 0.05). Significant differences between κ-casein genotypes were not found in Latvian brown, but highest milk yield (5057 ± 130.23 kg), protein content (3.42 ± 0.03%), and protein yield (171.9 ± 4.34 kg) were with AB genotype. Significantly high fat content was observed in Latvian blue breed with BB genotype (4.29 ± 0.17%) compared with AA genotypes (3.42 ± 0.19). Similar tendency was found in protein content – 3.27 ± 0.16% with BB genotype and 2.59 ± 0.16% with AA genotype (p < 0.05). Milk yield increases by increasing parity. We did not obtain major tendency of changes of milk fat and protein content according parity.

Keywords: κ-casein, polymorphism, dairy cows, milk productivity.

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812 Effects of Feeding Glycerol to Lactating Dairy Cows on Milk Production and Composition

Authors: Pipat Lounglawan, Wassana Lounglawan, Wisitiporm Suksombat

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding glycerol on dairy cows performance. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in early lactation; averaging 13+2.4 kg of milk, 64+45 days in milk, 55+16 months old and 325+26 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. All cows were fed approximate 8 kg of concentrate together with ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Nil or 150 and 300g of glycerol were supplemented to the cows according to treatment groups. All cows consumed similar concentrate, corn silage and total DM and NELP. There were no significant differences in DM intake, CP intake, NELP intake, milk and milk composition yields. All cows had similar fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat and total solid percentage. All cows gain similar live weight. The present study indicated that, supplementation of glycerol did not enhance milk yield, milk composition and live weight change.

Keywords: Glycerol, Milk production and composition, Dairycattle

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811 The Impact of Copper and Zinc Deficiency on Milk Production Performances of Intensively Grazed Dairy Cows on the North-East of Romania

Authors: Alina Anton, Gheorghe Solcan, Carmen Solcan

Abstract:

The influence of copper and zinc supplements on milk production performances and health indicators was tested in a 20- week feeding trial, with 40 Holstein-Friesian lactating cows, devided in four groups (copper, zinc, copper-zinc and control). Correlations of the Cu and Zn plasma values with some animal performance criteria of health (body condition score and somatic cell counts) and production (milk yield, peak milk yield, fat and crude protein content) were done. During the 140 days of the experiment, the two added minerals caused a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) of their plasma values after the peak of the cows’ lactations. It was also observed that subjects that have received copper and zinc supplements had the lowest number of somatic cell counts in milk. The Pearson correlation test showed a positive corellation (p = 0.007, r = + 0.851) between the plasma Zn and the milk production. The improvement of the nutritional status improved the milk production performances of the cows as well as their health performances.

Keywords: Copper, dairy cows, health, milk production, zinc

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810 Effects of Dry Period Length on, Milk Production and Composition, Blood Metabolites and Complete Blood Count in Subsequent Lactation of Holstein Dairy Cows

Authors: Akbar Soleimani, Alireza Heravi Moussavi, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Abolqasem Golian

Abstract:

Twenty - nine Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effects of different dry period (DP) lengths on milk yield and composition, some blood metabolites, and complete blood count (CBC). Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: 1) 60-d dry period, 2) 35-d DP. Milk yield, from calving to 60 days, was not different for cows on the treatments (p =0.130). Cows in the 35-d DP produced more milk protein and SNF compare with cows in treatment 1 (p ≤ 0.05). Serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. The results of this study demonstrated we can reduce the dry period length to 35 days with no problems.

Keywords: complete blood count, dairy cows, dry period, milk yield

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809 Influence of Environmental Temperature on Dairy Herd Performance and Behaviour

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, S. Harapanahalli, J. Walsh

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stressors on the performance of lactating dairy cows and discuss some future trends. There exists a relationship between the meteorological data and milk yield prediction accuracy in pasture-based dairy systems. New precision technologies are available and are being developed to improve the sustainability of the dairy industry. Some of these technologies focus on welfare of individual animals on dairy farms. These technologies allow the automatic identification of animal behaviour and health events, greatly increasing overall herd health and yield while reducing animal health inspection demands and long-term animal healthcare costs. The data set consisted of records from 489 dairy cows at two dairy farms and temperature measured from the nearest meteorological weather station in 2018. The effects of temperature on milk production and behaviour of animals were analyzed. The statistical results indicate different effects of temperature on milk yield and behaviour. The “comfort zone” for animals is in the range 10 °C to 20 °C. Dairy cows out of this zone had to decrease or increase their metabolic heat production, and it affected their milk production and behaviour.

Keywords: Behaviour, milk yield, temperature, precision technologies.

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808 Interaction Effect of DGAT1 and Composite Genotype of Beta-Kappa Casein on Economic Milk Production Traits in Crossbred Holstein

Authors: A. Molee, N. Duanghaklang, P. Mernkrathoke

Abstract:

The objective was to determine the single gene and interaction effect of composite genotype of beta-kappa casein and DGAT1 gene on milk yield (MY) and milk composition, content of milk fat (%FAT), milk protein (%PRO), solid not fat (%SNF), and total solid (%TS) in crossbred Holstein cows. Two hundred and thirty- one cows were genotyped with PCR-RFLP for DGAT1 and composite genotype data of beta-kappa casein from previous work were used. Two model, (1), and (2), was used to estimate single gene effect, and interaction effect on the traits, respectively. The significance of interaction effects on all traits were detected. Most traits have consistent pattern of significant when model (1), and (2) were compared, except the effect of composite genotype of betakappa casein on %FAT, and the effect of DGAT1 on MY, which the significant difference was detected in only model (1).The results suggested that when the optimum of all traits was necessary, interaction effect should be concerned.

Keywords: composite genotype of beta-kappa casein, DGAT1gene, Milk composition, Milk yield

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807 Influence of Probiotics on Dairy Cows Diet

Authors: V. A. Vieira, M. P. Sforcini, V. Endo, G. C. Magioni, M. D. S. Oliveira

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper was evaluate the effect of diets containing different levels of probiotic on performance and milk composition of lactating cows. Eight Holstein cows were distributed in two 4x4 Latin square. The diets were based on corn silage, concentrate and the treatment (0, 3, 6 or 9 grams of probiotic/animal/day). It was evaluated the dry matter intake of nutrients, milk yield and composition. The use of probiotics did not affect the nutrient intake (p>0.05) neither the daily milk production or corrected to 4% fat (p>0.05). However, it was observed that there was a significant fall in milk composition with higher levels of probiotics supplementation. These results emphasize the need of further studies with different experimental designs or improve the number of Latin square with longer periods of adaptation.

Keywords: Dairy cow, milk composition, probiotics.

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806 Evaluation of Factors Affecting Freezing Point of Milk

Authors: Jelena Zagorska, Inga Ciprovica

Abstract:

The freezing point of milk is in important indicator of the milk quality. The freezing point of milk is determined primarily to prove milk adulteration with water and to determine the amount of water in it. Chemical composition and properties of milk, thermal treatment and presence of any substance can influence freezing point of product. There are different substances, which can be added to milk with main purpose to prolong shelf-life of raw milk. There are detergent, preservatives, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine freezing point of milk, skimmed milk, pasteurized milk and milk with different substances (formaldehyde, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide, disinfectant, and detergent) in different concentrations. The thermal treatment and different undesirable substances presence in milk have significant influence on freezing point of it.

Keywords: Antibiotics, freezing point, milk, pH, thermal treatment.

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805 Energy Evaluation and Utilization of Cassava Peel for Lactating Dairy Cows

Authors: Pipat Lounglawan, Yutthapong Sornwongkaew, Wassana Lounglawan, Wisitiporn Suksombat

Abstract:

The experiment was then conducted to investigate the effect of cassava peel addition in the concentrate on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 12.2+2.1 kg of milk, 119+45 days in milk, 44.1+6.2 months old and 449+33 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. The first, second and third groups were fed concentrates containing the respective cassava peel, 0, 20 and 40%. All cows were fed ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Dry matter intake, 4%FCM, milk composition and body weight change were affected (P<0.05) by the third treatments (40%). The present study indicated that 20% cassava peel can be used in the concentrate for lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: Cassava peel, Energy evaluation, Milk production, Dairy cattle

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804 Effects of Specific Essential Oil Compounds on, Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Ruminal Environment in Dairy Cows during Heat Exposure

Authors: K. Reza-Yazdi, M. Fallah, M. Khodaparast, F. Kateb, M. Hosseini-Ghaffari

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine effect of dietary essential oil (EO) compounds, which contained cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, peppermint, coriander, cumin, lemongrass, and an organic carrier on feed intake, milk composition, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows during heat exposure. Thirty-two Holstein cows (days in milk= 60 ± 5) were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a Control and EO fed. The experiment lasted 28 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured daily while and milk production was measured weekly. Our result showed that DMI and milk yield was decreased (P < 0.01) in control cows relative to EO cows. Furthermore, supplementation with EO was associated with a decrease in the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.05) and increase (P < 0.05) in acetate to propionate ratio. In conclusion, EO supplementations in diets can be useful nutritional modification to alleviate for the decrease DMI and milk production during heat exposure in lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: Dairy cow, feed additive, plant extract.

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803 Heat-treated or Raw Sunflower Seeds in Lactating Dairy Cows Diets: Effects on Milk Fatty Acids Profile and Milk Production

Authors: H. Mansoori, A. Aghazadeh, K. Nazeradl

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with raw or heat-treated sunflower oil seed with two levels of 7.5% or 15% on unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat and performances of high-yielding lactating cows. Twenty early lactating Holstein cows were used in a complete randomized design. Treatments included: 1) CON, control (without sunflower oil seed). 2) LS-UT, 7.5% raw sunflower oil seed. 3) LS-HT, 7.5% heat-treated sunflower oil seed. 4) HS-UT, 15% raw sunflower oil seed. 5) HS-HT, 15% heat-treated sunflower oil seed. Experimental period lasted for 4 wk, with first 2 wk used for adaptation to the diets. Supplementation with 7.5% raw sunflower seed (LS-UT) tended to decrease milk yield, with 28.37 kg/d compared with the control (34.75 kg/d). Milk fat percentage was increased with the HS-UT treatment that obtained 3.71% compared with CON that was 3.39% and without significant different. Milk protein percent was decreased high level sunflower oil seed treatments (15%) with 3.18% whereas CON treatment is caused 3.40% protein. The cows fed added low sunflower heat-treated (LS-HT) produced milk with the highest content of total unsaturated fatty acid with 32.59 g/100g of milk fat compared with the HS-UT with 23.59 g/100g of milk fat. Content of C18 unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat increased from 21.68 g/100g of fat in the HS-UT to 22.50, 23.98, 27.39 and 30.30 g/100g of fat from the cow fed HS-HT, CON, LS-UT and LS-HT treatments, respectively. C18:2 isomers of fatty acid in milk were greater by LSHT supplementation with significant effect (P < 0.05). Total of C18 unsaturated fatty acids content was significantly higher in milk of animal fed added low heat-treated sunflower (7.5%) than those fed with high sunflower. In all, results of this study showed that diet cow's supplementation with sunflower oil seed tended to reduce milk production of lactating cows but can improve C18 UFA (Unsaturated Fatty Acid) content in milk fat. 7.5% level of sunflower oil seed that heated seemed to be the optimal source to increase UFA production.

Keywords: Fatty acid profile, milk production, sunflower seed.

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802 Bioactive Component in Milk and Dairy Product

Authors: Bahareh Hajirostamloo

Abstract:

Recent research has shown that milk proteins can yield bioactive peptides with opioid, mineral binding, cytomodulatory, antihypertensive, immunostimulating, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity in the human body. Bioactive peptides are encrypted in milk proteins and are only released by enzymatic hydrolysis in vivo during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing or by microbial enzymes in fermented products. At present significant research is being undertaken on the health effects of bioactive peptides. A variety of naturally formed bioactive peptides have been found in fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, sour milk and cheese. In particular, antihypertensive peptides have been identified in fermented milks, whey and ripened cheese. Some of these peptides have been commercialized in the form of fermented milks. Bioactive peptides have the potential to be used in the formulation of health-enhancing nutraceuticals, and as potent drugs with well defined pharmacological effects.

Keywords: Milk protein, Bioactive peptides, Health effects, Dairy product.

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801 The Effect of Cow Reproductive Traits on Lifetime Productivity and Longevity

Authors: Lāsma Cielava, Daina Jonkus, Līga Paura

Abstract:

The age of first calving (AFC) is one of the most important factors that have a significant impact on cow productivity in different lactations and its whole life. A belated AFC leads to reduced reproductive performance and it is one of the main reasons for reduced longevity. Cows that calved in time period from 2001-2007 and in this time finished at least four lactations were included in the database. Data were obtained from 68841 crossbred Holstein Black and White (HM), crossbred Latvian Brown (LB), and Latvian Brown genetic resources (LBGR) cows. Cows were distributed in four groups depending on age at first calving. The longest lifespan was conducted for LBGR cows, but they were also characterized with lowest lifetime milk yield and life day milk yield. HM breed cows had the shortest lifespan, but in the lifespan of 2862.2 days was obtained in average 37916.4 kg milk accordingly 13.2 kg milk in one life day. HM breed cows were also characterized with longer calving intervals (CI) in first four lactations, but LBGR cows had the shortest CI in the study group. Age at first calving significantly affected the length of CI in different lactations (p<0.05). HM cows that first time calved >30 months old in the fourth lactation had the longest CI in all study groups (421.4 days). The LBGR cows were characterized with the shortest CI, but there was slight increase in second and third lactation. Age at first calving had a significant impact on cows’ age in each calving time. In the analysis, cow group was conducted that cows with age at first calving <24 months or in average 580.5 days at the time of fifth calving were 2156.7 days (5.9 years) old, but cows with age at first calving >30 months (932.6 days) at the time of fifth calving were 2560.9 days (7.3 years) old.

Keywords: Age at first calving, calving interval, longevity, milk yield.

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800 Heritability Estimates of Lactation Traits in Maltese Goat

Authors: R. Pesce Delfino, M. Selvaggi, G. V. Celano, C. Dario

Abstract:

Data on 657 lactation from 163 Maltese goat, collected over a 5-year period were analyzed by a mixed model to estimate the variance components for heritability. The considered lactation traits were: milk yield (MY) and lactation length (LL). Year, parity and type of birth (single or twin) were significant sources of variation for lactation length; on the other hand milk yield was significantly influenced only by the year. The average MY was 352.34 kg and the average LL was 230 days. Estimates of heritability were 0.21 and 0.15 for MY and LL respectively. These values suggest there is low correlation between genotype and phenotype so it may be difficult to evaluate animals directly on phenotype. So, the genetic improvement of this breed may be quite slow without the support of progeny test aimed to select Maltese breeders.

Keywords: Heritability estimate, lactation traits, Maltese goat

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799 Assessment of Procurement-Demand of Milk Plant Using Quality Control Tools: A Case Study

Authors: Jagdeep Singh, Prem Singh

Abstract:

Milk is considered as an essential and complete food. The present study was conducted at Milk Plant Mohali especially in reference to the procurement section where the cash inflow was maximum, with the objective to achieve higher productivity and reduce wastage of milk. In milk plant it was observed that during the month of Jan-2014 to March-2014 the average procurement of milk was Rs. 4, 19, 361 liter per month and cost of procurement of milk is Rs 35/- per liter. The total cost of procurement thereby equal to Rs. 1crore 46 lakh per month, but there was mismatch in procurementproduction of milk, which leads to an average loss of Rs. 12, 94, 405 per month. To solve the procurement-production problem Quality Control Tools like brainstorming, Flow Chart, Cause effect diagram and Pareto analysis are applied wherever applicable. With the successful implementation of Quality Control tools an average saving of Rs. 4, 59, 445 per month is done.

Keywords: Milk, Procurement-demand, quality control tools.

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798 Quantitative Genetics Researches on Milk Protein Systems of Romanian Grey Steppe Breed

Authors: V. Maciuc, Şt. Creangă, I. Gîlcă, V. Ujică

Abstract:

The paper makes part from a complex research project on Romanian Grey Steppe, a unique breed in terms of biological and cultural-historical importance, on the verge of extinction and which has been included in a preservation programme of genetic resources from Romania. The study of genetic polymorphism of protean fractions, especially kappa-casein, and the genotype relations of these lactoproteins with some quantitative and qualitative features of milk yield represents a current theme and a novelty for this breed. In the estimation of the genetic parameters we used R.E.M.L. (Restricted Maximum Likelihood) method. The main lactoprotein from milk, kappa - casein (K-cz), characterized in the specialized literature as a feature having a high degree of hereditary transmission, behaves as such in the nucleus under study, a value also confirmed by the heritability coefficient (h2 = 0.57 %). We must mention the medium values for milk and fat quantity (h2=0.26, 0.29 %) and the fat and protein percentage from milk having a high hereditary influence h2 = 0.71 - 0.63 %. Correlations between kappa-casein and the milk quantity are negative and strong. Between kappa-casein and other qualitative features of milk (fat content 0.58-0.67 % and protein content 0.77- 0.87%), there are positive and very strong correlations. At the same time, between kappa-casein and β casein (β-cz), β lactoglobulin (β- lg) respectively, correlations are positive having high values (0.37 – 0.45 %), indicating the same causes and determining factors for the two groups of features.

Keywords: breed, genetic preservation, lactoproteins, Romanian Grey Steppe

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797 Comparison of Nutritional and Chemical Parameters of Soymilk and Cow milk

Authors: Bahareh Hajirostamloo

Abstract:

Cow milk, is a product of the mammary gland and soymilk is a beverage made from soybeans; it is the liquid that remains after soybeans are soaked. In this research effort, we compared nutritional parameters of this two kind milk such as total fat, fiber, protein, minerals (Ca, Fe and P), fatty acids, carbohydrate, lactose, water, total solids, ash, pH, acidity and calories content in one cup (245 g). Results showed soymilk contains 4.67 grams of fat, 0.52 of fatty acids, 3.18 of fiber, 6.73 of protein, 4.43 of carbohydrate, 0.00 of lactose, 228.51 of water, 10.40 of total solids and 0.66 of ash, also 9.80 milligrams of Ca, 1.42 of Fe, and 120.05 of P, 79 Kcal of calories, pH=6.74 and acidity was 0.24%. Cow milk contains 8.15 grams of fat, 5.07 of fatty acids, 0.00 of fiber, 8.02 of protein, 11.37 of carbohydrate, ´Çá4.27 of lactose, 214.69 of water, 12.90 of total solids, 1.75 of ash, 290.36 milligrams of Ca, 0.12 of Fe, and 226.92 of P, 150 Kcal of calories, pH=6.90 and acidity was 0.21% . Soy milk is one of plant-based complete proteins and cow milk is a rich source of nutrients as well. Cow milk is containing near twice as much fat as and ten times more fatty acids do soymilk. Cow milk contains greater amounts of mineral (except Fe) it contain more than three hundred times the amount of Ca and nearly twice the amount of P as does soymilk but soymilk contains more Fe (ten time more) than does cow milk. Cow milk and soy milk contain nearly identical amounts of protein and water and fiber is a big plus, dairy has none. Although what we choose to drink is really a mater of personal preference and our health objectives but looking at the comparison, soy looks like healthier choices.

Keywords: Soymilk, cow milk, nutritional, comparison.

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796 Effects of Different Plant Densities on the Yield and Quality of Second Crop Sesame

Authors: Ö. Öztürk, O. Şaman

Abstract:

Sesame is one of the oldest and most important oil crops as main crop and second crop agriculture. This study was carried out to determine the effects of different inter- and intra-row spacings on the yield and yield components on second crop sesame; was set up in Antalya West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institue in 2009. Muganlı 57 sesame cultivar was used as plant material. The field experiment was set up in a split plot design and row spacings (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 cm) were assigned to the main plots and and intra-row spacings (5, 10, 20 and 30 cm) were assigned to the subplots. Seed yield, oil ratio, oil yield, protein ratio and protein yield were investigated. In general, wided inter row spacings and intra-row spacings, resulted in decreased seed yield, oil yield and protein yield. The highest seed yield, oil yield and protein yield (respectively, 1115.0 kg ha-1, 551.3 kg ha-1, 224.7 kg ha-1) were obtained from 30x5 cm plant density while the lowest seed yield, oil yield and protein yield (respectively, 677.0 kg ha-1, 327.0 kg ha-1, 130.0 kg ha-1) were recorded from 70x30 cm plant density. As a result, in terms of oil yield for second crop sesame agriculture, 30 cm row spacing, and 5 cm intra row spacing are the most suitable plant densities.

Keywords: Sesamum indicum L., oil ratio, oil yield, protein ratio, protein yield

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795 The Influence of Heat Treatment on Antimicrobial Proteins in Milk

Authors: Jelena Zagorska, Inga Ciprovica

Abstract:

the obligatory step during immunoglobulin and lysozyme concentration process is thermal treatment. The combination of temperature and time used in processing can affect the structure of the proteins and involve unfolding and aggregation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the heat stability of total Igs, the particular immunoglobulin classes and lysozyme in milk. Milk samples were obtained from conventional dairy herd in Latvia. Raw milk samples were pasteurized in different regimes: 63 °C 30 min, 72 °C 15-20 s, 78 °C 15-20 s, 85 °C 15-20 s, 95 °C 15-20 s. The concentrations of Igs (IgA, IgG, IgM) and lysozyme were determined by turbodimetric method. During research was established, that activity of antimicrobial proteins decreases differently. Less concentration reduce was established in a case of lysozyme.

Keywords: immunoglobulins, lysozyme, milk, pasteurization

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794 Nutrient Modelling to Fabricate Dairy Milk Constituents: Let Milk Serve More Than a Food Item

Authors: M.Aasif Shahzad, N.Mukhtar, M.Sarwar

Abstract:

Dietary macro and micro nutrients in their respective proportion and fractions present a practical potential tool to fabricate milk constituents since cells of lactating mammary glands obtain about 80 % of milk synthesis nutrients from blood, reflecting the existence of an isotonic equilibrium between blood and milk. Diverting milk biosynthetic activities through manipulation of nutrients towards producing milk not only keeping in view its significance as natural food but also as food item which prevents or dilutes the adverse effects of some diseases (like cardiovascular problem by saturated milk fat intake) has been area of interest in the last decade. Nutritional modification / supplementation has been reported to enhance conjugated linoleic acid, fatty acid type and concentration, essential fatty acid concentration, vitamin B12& C, Se, Cu, I and Fe which are involved to counter the health threats to human well being. Synchronizing dietary nutrients aimed to modify rumen dynamics towards synthesis of nutrients or their precursors to make their drive towards formulated milk constituents presents a practical option. Formulating dietary constituents to design milk constituents will let the farmers, consumers and investors know about the real potential and profit margins associated with this enterprise. This article briefly recapitulates the ways and means to modify milk constituents keeping an eye on human health and well being issues, which allows milk to serve more than a food item.

Keywords: Nutritional modification, fabricating milk composition, human health.

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793 Use of Green Coconut Pulp as Cream, Milk, Stabilizer and Emulsifier Replacer in Germinated Brown Rice Ice Cream

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul, Supitcha Boonchai, Nawapat Pengpengpit

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical and sensory properties of germinated brown rice ice cream as affected by replacement of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with green coconut pulp. Five different formulations of ice cream were performed. Regular formulation of ice cream consisted of GBR juice, milk cream, milk powder, stabilizer, emulsifier, sucrose and salt. Replacing of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with coconut pulp resulted in an increase in viscosity and overrun, but a decrease in hardness, melting rate, lightness (l*) and redness (a*). However, there was no significant difference among all formulations on any sensory attributes. The results also showed that the ice cream with replacement of coconut pulp contained less fat and protein than those of the regular ice cream. The findings suggested that green coconut pulp can be used as alternative ingredient to replace fat, milk stabilizer and emulsifier even in a high carbohydrate ice cream formulation.

Keywords: Ice cream, germinated brown rice, coconut pulp, milk, cream.

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792 Effects of Sowing Time on Yield and Oil Content of Different Sunflower Genotypes in Years with Different Water Supply

Authors: A. Novák, K. Máriás

Abstract:

We examined the effects of the sowing time on the yield production and oil content of the sunflower hybrids in 2010 and 2012. The crop year and the sowing time had both a strong impact on the yield, on the oil- content and yield. By delaying the sowing time both the yield crop result and the oil yield increased. In 2010 in terms of crop yield and oil yield results PR64H42 was the best, in 2012 NK Neoma, in all three sowing times. The oil content of the hybrids was better in 2010. The highest oil content was recorded at early sowing time. We found out that the hybrid had a stronger impact in 2010 on both crop yield result and on oil content than in 2012. The sowing time played a bigger role regarding yield results in 2012. In addition the sowing time influenced oil content development highly.

Keywords: Genotypes, oil content, sowing time, sunflower, yield.

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791 Leukocytes Count and Lymphocyte Proliferation of Dinitrochlorobenzene Sensitized Rat Supplemented with Fermented Goat Milk

Authors: Nurliyani, Eni Harmayani, Marsetyawan HNE Soesatyo

Abstract:

Goat milk has an hypoallergenic effects, and allergic diseases related to abnormal of intestinal flora. Probiotic microorganisms do exert an activity on the immune system in the skin of the individual.The purpose of this study are to determine the number of leukocyte and lymphocyte proliferation in rat supplemented with fermented goat milk (acidophilus milk and kefir) and sensitized with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Female Wistar rats 6-8 weeks olds were divided into 3 treatment groups. The first group supplemented goat milk kefir, second group acidophilus goat milk, and third group as control. During 28-day experiment, on day 15 rat sensitized with allergen DNCB on the dorsal of the body, and on day 24 was challenged with DNCB on the ear. Sampling of blood and tissue of intestinal Peyer'patch (PP) were performed on day 14 (before DNCB sensitized) and on day 28 (after DNCB sensitized). The results showed the number of neutrophils in rats supplemented with acidophilus milk was higher (P<0.05) in after DNCB sensitized than before, but the lymphocyte count was lower. The number of monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils before and after DNCB sensitized have the same average for all treatments of milk fermented and control. Fermented goat milk (kefir and acidophilus milk) did not affect on rat PP lymphocyte proliferation culture supernatant, whereas the rat that had been DNCB sensitized showed higher in proliferative response to PHA mitogen (P <0.05) than before sensitized. In conclusion, supplementation of acidophilus goat milk with a dose of 2.0 ml / head / day on DNCB sensitized rat, can increase the number of neutrophils that play a role in innate immunity, however it was not able to increase lymphocyte proliferation that related to adaptive immunity.

Keywords: Leukocytes, Lymphocyte proliferation, Kefir, Acidophilus milk, Dinitrochlorobenzene

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790 The Effect of Goat Milk Fractions Supplementation on Serum IgE Response and Leukocytes Count in Dinitrochlorobenzene Sensitized Rat

Authors: Nurliyani, E. Harmayani, MHNE. Soesatyo

Abstract:

In Indonesia, goat milk is often consumed and believed as anti-allergy. The objective of this research was to study the effect of goat milk and their fractions (casein and whey) supplementation on total serum IgE concentrations and leukocytes count in rat sensitized with contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Female Wistar rats 6-8 weeks old were divided into four groups: 1) whey, 2) casein, 3) whole milk supplementation and 4) phosphate-buffered saline/PBS (control). The results showed that supplementation of goat milk on rats did not affects on total serum IgE concentrations and number of leukocytes. After sensitized with DNCB, the monocyte percentage in rats was higher (P<0.01) than before. In conclusion, goat milk or their fractions supplementation unable to decrease the total serum IgE concentrations and also had no effect on leukocytes count. However, 1% DNCB could increase the number of monocytes, but could not induce the IgE response.

Keywords: Dinitrochlorobenzene, Goat Milk Fractions, IgE, Leukocytes.

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789 Mix Goat and Sheep Yogurt: Development and Product Characterization

Authors: Susana Matos, António Pinto, Conceição Castilho, Paula Reis Correia, António Cardoso Monteiro

Abstract:

Yogurts are prepared by fermenting milk with bacterial cultures consisting of a mixture of Streptococcus ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. The main aim of this investigation was to develop a majority goat yogurt, with the addition of sheep milk in order to have a final product with good physicochemical quality properties and sensorial attributes. Four types of yogurts were prepared presenting the following proportion of goat and sheep milk respectively: C100 – 100%; C80 – 80%/20%; C60 – 60%/40%; C50 – 50%/50%. The goat milk was from the Serrana Jarmelista breed and the sheep milk from the Serra da Estrela breed. The inclusion of sheep milk improved attractiveness to consumers, and it also improved the nutritional value of the product, mainly the fatty acid and mineral contents. The C50 yogurt was preferred by 28% of the panellists, followed by the C100 with 16%  and the commercial cow yogurt was 40% of preferences.

Keywords: Goat, sheep, yogurt.

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788 Effect of Nutrient Supply on Yield and Photosynthetic Parameters of Maize Hybrids

Authors: L. G. Karancsi, K. Máriás

Abstract:

We examined the crop yield results of hybrids in 2012. We found out that in the control treatments the lowest yield was reached with the hybrid PR37M81: 10,012 kg ha-1. The highest yield was in case of hybrid P37N01: 11,581 kg ha-1. As we raised the nutrient doses the lowest yield of all examined nutrient levels was in case of hybrid PR37M81. We measured at N60+PK nutrient level 12,517 kg ha-1, at N120+PK nutrient level 12,760 kg ha-1, and at N150+PK nutrient level 12,535 kg ha-1 yield results. At N60+PK and N120+PK nutrient level the highest yield was reached with the hybrid P9494 (N60+PK: 13,970 kg ha-1, N120+PK: 13,871 kg ha-1). In case of the N150+PK fertilization treatment the hybrid P37N01 gave the highest yield results (13,962 kg ha-1).

Keywords: Hybrids, maize, nutrient levels, SPAD and LAI values.

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787 Determination of Yield and Yield Components of Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rapacea Koch.) Cultivars under the Konya Region Conditions

Authors: A. Özköse

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determination of yield and yield components of some fodder beet types (Amarilla Barres, Feldherr, Kyros, Magnum ve Rota) under the Konya region conditions. Fodder beet was obtained from the Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, at 2006-2007 season and the experiment was established in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Differences among the averages of the fodder beet cultivars are statistically important in terms of all the characteristics investigated. Leaf attitude value was 1.2 – 2.2 (1=erect; 5= prostrate), root shape scale value was (1=spheroidal – 9=cylindrical), root diameter 11.0 – 12.2cm, remaining part of root on the ground was 6.3 – 13.7cm, root length was 21.4 – 29.6cm, leaf yield 1592 – 1917 kg/da, root yield was 10083 – 12258 kg/da, root dry matter content was %8.2 – 18.6 and root dry matter yield was 889 – 1887 kg/da. As a result of the study, it was determined that fodder beet cultivars are different conditions in terms of yield and yield components. Therefore, determination of appropriate cultivars for each region affect crop yield importantly.

Keywords: Fodder beet, root yield, yield components.

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786 Electronic Nose Based On Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensors as an Alternative Technique for the Spoilage Classification of Oat Milk

Authors: A. Deswal, N. S. Deora, H. N. Mishra

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid method for electronic nose for online quality control of oat milk. Analysis by electronic nose and bacteriological measurements were performed to analyze spoilage kinetics of oat milk samples stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions for up to 15 days. Principal component analysis (PCA), Discriminant Factorial Analysis (DFA) and Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) classification techniques were used to differentiate the samples of oat milk at different days. The total plate count (bacteriological method) was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system. The e-nose was able to differentiate between the oat milk samples of varying microbial load. The results obtained by the bacteria total viable countsshowed that the shelf-life of oat milk stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions were 20hrs and 13 days, respectively. The models built classified oat milk samples based on the total microbial population into “unspoiled” and “spoiled”.

Keywords: Electronic-nose, bacteriological, shelf-life, classification.

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785 Effects of Different Sowing Dates on Oil Yield of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

Authors: Ö. Öztürk, G. P. Gerem, A. Yenici, B. Haspolat

Abstract:

Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the important non-edible oilseed crops having immense industrial and medicinal value. Oil yield per unit area is the ultimate target in growing oilseed plants and sowing date is one of the important factors which have a clear role on production of active substances particularly in oilseeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sowing date on the seed and oil yield of castor in Central Anatolia of Turkey in 2011. The field experiment was set up in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Black Diamond-2 castor cultivar was used as plant material. The treatment was four sowing dates of May 10, May 25, June 10, June 25. In this research; seed yield, oil content and oil yield were investigated. Results showed that the effect of different sowing dates were significant on all of characteristics. In general; delayed sowing dates, resulted in decreased seed yield, oil content and oil yield. The highest value of seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 2523.7 kg ha-1, 51.18% and 1292.2 kg ha-1) were obtained from the first sowing date (May 10) while the lowest seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 1550 kg ha-1, 43.67%, 677.3 kg ha-1) were recorded from the latest sowing date (June 25). Therefore, it can be concluded that early May could be recommended as an appropriate sowing date in the studied location and similar climates for achieved high oil yield of castor.

Keywords: Castor bean, Ricinus communis L., sowing date, seed yield, oil content.

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