Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 149

Search results for: Brain balancing

149 Brainwave Classification for Brain Balancing Index (BBI) via 3D EEG Model Using k-NN Technique

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

Abstract:

In this paper, the comparison between k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithms for classifying the 3D EEG model in brain balancing is presented. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 51 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, maximum PSD values were extracted as features from the model. There are three indexes for balanced brain; index 3, index 4 and index 5. There are significant different of the EEG signals due to the brain balancing index (BBI). Alpha-α (8–13 Hz) and beta-β (13–30 Hz) were used as input signals for the classification model. The k-NN classification result is 88.46% accuracy. These results proved that k-NN can be used in order to predict the brain balancing application.

Keywords: Brain balancing, kNN, power spectral density, 3D EEG model.

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148 Characterization of 3D-MRP for Analyzing of Brain Balancing Index (BBI) Pattern

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

Abstract:

This paper discusses on power spectral density (PSD) characteristics which are extracted from three-dimensional (3D) electroencephalogram (EEG) models. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 150 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, the values of maximum PSD were extracted as features from the model. These features are analyzed using mean relative power (MRP) and different mean relative power (DMRP) technique to observe the pattern among different brain balancing indexes. The results showed that by implementing these techniques, the pattern of brain balancing indexes can be clearly observed. Some patterns are indicates between index 1 to index 5 for left frontal (LF) and right frontal (RF).

Keywords: Power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, mean relative power, different mean relative power.

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147 Performance Analysis of Load Balancing Algorithms

Authors: Sandeep Sharma, Sarabjit Singh, Meenakshi Sharma

Abstract:

Load balancing is the process of improving the performance of a parallel and distributed system through a redistribution of load among the processors [1] [5]. In this paper we present the performance analysis of various load balancing algorithms based on different parameters, considering two typical load balancing approaches static and dynamic. The analysis indicates that static and dynamic both types of algorithm can have advancements as well as weaknesses over each other. Deciding type of algorithm to be implemented will be based on type of parallel applications to solve. The main purpose of this paper is to help in design of new algorithms in future by studying the behavior of various existing algorithms.

Keywords: Load balancing (LB), workload, distributed systems, Static Load balancing, Dynamic Load Balancing

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146 A Class of Recurrent Sequences Exhibiting Some Exciting Properties of Balancing Numbers

Authors: G.K.Panda, S.S.Rout

Abstract:

The balancing numbers are natural numbers n satisfying the Diophantine equation 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + (n - 1) = (n + 1) + (n + 2) + · · · + (n + r); r is the balancer corresponding to the balancing number n.The nth balancing number is denoted by Bn and the sequence {Bn}1 n=1 satisfies the recurrence relation Bn+1 = 6Bn-Bn-1. The balancing numbers posses some curious properties, some like Fibonacci numbers and some others are more interesting. This paper is a study of recurrent sequence {xn}1 n=1 satisfying the recurrence relation xn+1 = Axn - Bxn-1 and possessing some curious properties like the balancing numbers.

Keywords: Recurrent sequences, Balancing numbers, Lucas balancing numbers, Binet form.

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145 Riemannian Manifolds for Brain Extraction on Multi-modal Resonance Magnetic Images

Authors: Mohamed Gouskir, Belaid Bouikhalene, Hicham Aissaoui, Benachir Elhadadi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an application of Riemannian geometry for processing non-Euclidean image data. We consider the image as residing in a Riemannian manifold, for developing a new method to brain edge detection and brain extraction. Automating this process is a challenge due to the high diversity in appearance brain tissue, among different patients and sequences. The main contribution, in this paper, is the use of an edge-based anisotropic diffusion tensor for the segmentation task by integrating both image edge geometry and Riemannian manifold (geodesic, metric tensor) to regularize the convergence contour and extract complex anatomical structures. We check the accuracy of the segmentation results on simulated brain MRI scans of single T1-weighted, T2-weighted and Proton Density sequences. We validate our approach using two different databases: BrainWeb database, and MRI Multiple sclerosis Database (MRI MS DB). We have compared, qualitatively and quantitatively, our approach with the well-known brain extraction algorithms. We show that using a Riemannian manifolds to medical image analysis improves the efficient results to brain extraction, in real time, outperforming the results of the standard techniques.

Keywords: Riemannian manifolds, Riemannian Tensor, Brain Segmentation, Non-Euclidean data, Brain Extraction.

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144 Dynamic Behavior of Brain Tissue under Transient Loading

Authors: Y. J. Zhou, G. Lu

Abstract:

In this paper, an analytical study is made for the dynamic behavior of human brain tissue under transient loading. In this analytical model the Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law is coupled with visco-elastic constitutive equations to take into account both the nonlinear and time-dependent mechanical behavior of brain tissue. Five ordinary differential equations representing the relationships of five main parameters (radial stress, circumferential stress, radial strain, circumferential strain, and particle velocity) are obtained by using the characteristic method to transform five partial differential equations (two continuity equations, one motion equation, and two constitutive equations). Analytical expressions of the attenuation properties for spherical wave in brain tissue are analytically derived. Numerical results are obtained based on the five ordinary differential equations. The mechanical responses (particle velocity and stress) of brain are compared at different radii including 5, 6, 10, 15 and 25 mm under four different input conditions. The results illustrate that loading curves types of the particle velocity significantly influences the stress in brain tissue. The understanding of the influence by the input loading cures can be used to reduce the potentially injury to brain under head impact by designing protective structures to control the loading curves types.

Keywords: Analytical method, mechanical responses, spherical wave propagation, traumatic brain injury.

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143 Heterogeneity-Aware Load Balancing for Multimedia Access over Wireless LAN Hotspots

Authors: Yen-Cheng Chen, Gong-Da Fang

Abstract:

Wireless LAN (WLAN) access in public hotspot areas becomes popular in the recent years. Since more and more multimedia information is available in the Internet, there is an increasing demand for accessing multimedia information through WLAN hotspots. Currently, the bandwidth offered by an IEEE 802.11 WLAN cannot afford many simultaneous real-time video accesses. A possible way to increase the offered bandwidth in a hotspot is the use of multiple access points (APs). However, a mobile station is usually connected to the WLAN AP with the strongest received signal strength indicator (RSSI). The total consumed bandwidth cannot be fairly allocated among those APs. In this paper, we will propose an effective load-balancing scheme via the support of the IAPP and SNMP in APs. The proposed scheme is an open solution and doesn-t need any changes in both wireless stations and APs. This makes load balancing possible in WLAN hotspots, where a variety of heterogeneous mobile devices are employed.

Keywords: Wireless LAN, Load balancing, IAPP, SNMP.

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142 Viscoelastic Modeling of Brain MRE Data Using FE Method

Authors: H. Ajabi Naeeni, M. Haghpanahi

Abstract:

Dynamic shear test on simulated phantom can be used to validate magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) measurements. Phantom gel has been usually utilized for the cell culture of cartilage and soft tissue and also been used for mechanical property characterization using imaging systems. The viscoelastic property of the phantom would be important for dynamic experiments and analyses. In this study, An axisymmetric FE model is presented for determining the dynamic shear behaviour of brain simulated phantom using ABAQUS. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of excitation frequencies and boundary conditions on shear modulus and shear viscosity in viscoelastic media.

Keywords: Viscoelastic, MR Elastography, Finite Element, Brain.

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141 Can EEG Test Helps in Identifying Brain Tumor?

Authors: M. Sharanreddy, P. K. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Brain tumor is inherently serious and life-threatening disease. Brain tumor builds the intracranial pressure in the brain, by shifting the brain or pushing against the skull, and also damaging nerves and healthy brain tissues. This intracranial pressure affects and interferes with normal brain functionality, which results in generation of abnormal electrical activities from brain. With recent development in the medical engineering and instruments, EEG instruments are able to record the brain electric activities with high accuracy, which establishes EEG as a primary tool for diagnosing the brain abnormalities. Research scholars and general physicians, often face difficulty in understanding EEG patterns. This paper presents the EEG patterns associated with brain tumor by combing medicine theory and neurologist experience. Paper also explains the pros-cons of the EEG based brain tumor identification.

Keywords: Brain tumor, Electroencephalogram (EEG).

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140 Vincristine-Dextran Complex Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery to the Brain

Authors: E. Aboutaleb, R. Dinarvand

Abstract:

The purpose of this work was to inspect the potential of vincristine-dextran complex loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for drug delivery to the brain. The nanoparticles were stained with a fluorescence dye and their plasma pharmacokinetic and brain concentrations were investigated following injection to rats. The result revealed a significant improvement in the plasma concentration profile of the SLN injected animals as well as a sharp increased concentration in the brains.

Keywords: Brain, Coumarin-6, Nanoparticles, SLN.

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139 Seismic Behavior of Self-Balancing Post-Tensioned Reinforced Concrete Spatial Structure

Authors: Mircea Pastrav, Horia Constantinescu

Abstract:

The construction industry is currently trying to develop sustainable reinforced concrete structures. In trying to aid in the effort, the research presented in this paper aims to prove the efficiency of modified special hybrid moment frames composed of discretely jointed precast and post-tensioned concrete members. This aim is due to the fact that current design standards do not cover the spatial design of moment frame structures assembled by post-tensioning with special hybrid joints. This lack of standardization is coupled with the fact that previous experimental programs, available in scientific literature, deal mainly with plane structures and offer little information regarding spatial behavior. A spatial model of a modified hybrid moment frame is experimentally analyzed. The experimental results of a natural scale model test of a corner column-beams sub-structure, cut from an actual multilevel building tested to seismic type loading are presented in order to highlight the behavior of this type of structure. The test is performed under alternative cycles of imposed lateral displacements, up to a storey drift ratio of 0.035. Seismic response of the spatial model is discussed considering the acceptance criteria for reinforced concrete frame structures designed based on experimental tests, as well as some of its major sustainability features. The results obtained show an overall excellent behavior of the system. The joint detailing allows for quick and cheap repairs after an accidental event and a self-balancing behavior of the system that ensures it can be used almost immediately after an accidental event it.

Keywords: Modified hybrid joint, seismic type loading response, self-balancing structure, acceptance criteria.

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138 Dynamic Load Balancing in PVM Using Intelligent Application

Authors: Kashif Bilal, Tassawar Iqbal, Asad Ali Safi, Nadeem Daudpota

Abstract:

This paper deals with dynamic load balancing using PVM. In distributed environment Load Balancing and Heterogeneity are very critical issues and needed to drill down in order to achieve the optimal results and efficiency. Various techniques are being used in order to distribute the load dynamically among different nodes and to deal with heterogeneity. These techniques are using different approaches where Process Migration is basic concept with different optimal flavors. But Process Migration is not an easy job, it impose lot of burden and processing effort in order to track each process in nodes. We will propose a dynamic load balancing technique in which application will intelligently balance the load among different nodes, resulting in efficient use of system and have no overheads of process migration. It would also provide a simple solution to problem of load balancing in heterogeneous environment.

Keywords: PVM, load balancing, task allocation, intelligent application.

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137 Dynamic Load Balancing Strategy for Grid Computing

Authors: Belabbas Yagoubi, Yahya Slimani

Abstract:

Workload and resource management are two essential functions provided at the service level of the grid software infrastructure. To improve the global throughput of these software environments, workloads have to be evenly scheduled among the available resources. To realize this goal several load balancing strategies and algorithms have been proposed. Most strategies were developed in mind, assuming homogeneous set of sites linked with homogeneous and fast networks. However for computational grids we must address main new issues, namely: heterogeneity, scalability and adaptability. In this paper, we propose a layered algorithm which achieve dynamic load balancing in grid computing. Based on a tree model, our algorithm presents the following main features: (i) it is layered; (ii) it supports heterogeneity and scalability; and, (iii) it is totally independent from any physical architecture of a grid.

Keywords: Grid computing, load balancing, workload, tree based model.

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136 Load Balancing in Genetic Zone Routing Protocol for MANETs

Authors: P. Sateesh Kumar , S. Ramachandram

Abstract:

Genetic Zone Routing Protocol (GZRP) is a new hybrid routing protocol for MANETs which is an extension of ZRP by using Genetic Algorithm (GA). GZRP uses GA on IERP and BRP parts of ZRP to provide a limited set of alternative routes to the destination in order to load balance the network and robustness during node/link failure during the route discovery process. GZRP is studied for its performance compared to ZRP in many folds like scalability for packet delivery and proved with improved results. This paper presents the results of the effect of load balancing on GZRP. The results show that GZRP outperforms ZRP while balancing the load.

Keywords: MANET, routing, ZRP, Genetic algorithm, GZRP, load balancing

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135 The Control of a Highly Nonlinear Two-wheels Balancing Robot: A Comparative Assessment between LQR and PID-PID Control Schemes

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, M. A. Ahmad, R. M. T. Raja Ismail

Abstract:

The research on two-wheels balancing robot has gained momentum due to their functionality and reliability when completing certain tasks. This paper presents investigations into the performance comparison of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and PID-PID controllers for a highly nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot. The mathematical model of 2-wheels balancing robot that is highly nonlinear is derived. The final model is then represented in statespace form and the system suffers from mismatched condition. Two system responses namely the robot position and robot angular position are obtained. The performances of the LQR and PID-PID controllers are examined in terms of input tracking and disturbances rejection capability. Simulation results of the responses of the nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot are presented in time domain. A comparative assessment of both control schemes to the system performance is presented and discussed.

Keywords: PID, LQR, Two-wheels balancing robot.

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134 An Approach to Adaptive Load Balancing for RFID Middlewares

Authors: Heung Seok Chae, Jaegeol Park

Abstract:

Recently, there have been an increasing interest in RFID system and RFID systems have been applied to various applications. Load balancing is a fundamental technique for providing scalability of systems by moving workload from overloaded nodes to under-loaded nodes. This paper presents an approach to adaptive load balancing for RFID middlewares. Workloads of RFID middlewares can have a considerable variation according to the location of the connected RFID readers and can abruptly change at a particular instance. The proposed approach considers those characteristics of RFID middle- wares to provide an efficient load balancing.

Keywords: RFID middleware, Adaptive load balancing.

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133 A New OvS Approach in an Assembly Line Balancing Problem

Authors: P. Azimi, B. Behtoiy

Abstract:

One of the most famous techniques which affect the efficiency of a production line is the assembly line balancing (ALB) technique. This paper examines the balancing effect of a whole production line of a real auto glass manufacturer in three steps. In the first step, processing time of each activity in the workstations is generated according to a practical approach. In the second step, the whole production process is simulated and the bottleneck stations have been identified, and finally in the third step, several improvement scenarios are generated to optimize the system throughput, and the best one is proposed. The main contribution of the current research is the proposed framework which combines two famous approaches including Assembly Line Balancing and Optimization via Simulation technique (OvS). The results show that the proposed framework could be applied in practical environments, easily.

Keywords: Assembly line balancing problem, optimization via simulation, production planning.

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132 A Practical Method for Load Balancing in the LV Distribution Networks Case Study: Tabriz Electrical Network

Authors: A. Raminfard, S. M. Shahrtash

Abstract:

In this paper, a new efficient method for load balancing in low voltage distribution systems is presented. The proposed method introduces an improved Leap-frog method for optimization. The proposed objective function includes the difference between three phase currents, as well as two other terms to provide the integer property of the variables; where the latter are the status of the connection of loads to different phases. Afterwards, a new algorithm is supplemented to undertake the integer values for the load connection status. Finally, the method is applied to different parts of Tabriz low voltage network, where the results have shown the good performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Load balancing, improved leap-frog method, optimization algorithm, low voltage distribution systems.

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131 Impact of Wind Energy on Cost and Balancing Reserves

Authors: A. Khanal, A. Osareh, G. Lebby

Abstract:

Wind energy offers a significant advantage such as no fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, wind energy sources are variable and non-dispatchable. The utility grid is able to accommodate the variability of wind in smaller proportion along with the daily load. However, at high penetration levels, the variability can severely impact the utility reserve requirements and the cost associated with it. In this paper the impact of wind energy is evaluated in detail in formulating the total utility cost. The objective is to minimize the overall cost of generation while ensuring the proper management of the load. Overall cost includes the curtailment cost, reserve cost and the reliability cost, as well as any other penalty imposed by the regulatory authority. Different levels of wind penetrations are explored and the cost impacts are evaluated. As the penetration level increases significantly, the reliability becomes a critical question to be answered. Here we increase the penetration from the wind yet keep the reliability factor within the acceptable limit provided by NERC. This paper uses an economic dispatch (ED) model to incorporate wind generation into the power grid. Power system costs are analyzed at various wind penetration levels using Linear Programming. The goal of this study is show how the increases in wind generation will affect power system economics.

Keywords: Balancing Reserves, Optimization, Wind Energy.

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130 Vibration and Operation Technical Consideration before Field Balance of Gas Turbine Utilities (In Iran Power Plants SIEMENS V94.2 Gas Turbines)

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

One of the most challenging times in operation of big industrial plant or utilities is the time that alert lamp of Bently Nevada connection in main board substation turn on and show the alert condition of machine. All of the maintenance groups usually make a lot of discussion with operation and together rather this alert signal is real or fake. This will be more challenging when condition monitoring vibrationdata shows 1X(X=current rotor frequency) in fast Fourier transform(FFT) and vibration phase trends show 90 degree shift between two non-contact probedirections with overall high radial amplitude amounts. In such situations, CM (condition monitoring) groups usually suspicious about unbalance in rotor. In this paper, four critical case histories related to SIEMENS V94.2 Gas Turbines in Iran power industry discussed in details. Furthermore, probe looseness and fake (unreal) trip in gas turbine power plants discussed. In addition, critical operation decision in alert condition in power plants discussed in details.

Keywords: Gas turbine, field balance, turbine compressors, balancing tools, balancing data collectors.

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129 Electroencephalography Based Brain-Computer Interface for Cerebellum Impaired Patients

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

In healthy humans, the cortical brain rhythm shows specific mu (~6-14 Hz) and beta (~18-24 Hz) band patterns in the cases of both real and imaginary motor movements. As cerebellar ataxia is associated with impairment of precise motor movement control as well as motor imagery, ataxia is an ideal model system in which to study the role of the cerebellocortical circuit in rhythm control. We hypothesize that the EEG characteristics of ataxic patients differ from those of controls during the performance of a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) task. Ataxia and control subjects showed a similar distribution of mu power during cued relaxation. During cued motor imagery, however, the ataxia group showed significant spatial distribution of the response, while the control group showed the expected decrease in mu-band power (localized to the motor cortex).

Keywords: Brain-computer interface, EEG, modulation, ataxia.

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128 Analysis of Brain Activities due to Differences in Running Shoe Properties

Authors: K. Okubo, Y. Kurihara, T. Kaburagi, K. Watanabe

Abstract:

Many of the ever-growing elderly population require exercise, such as running, for health management. One important element of a runner’s training is the choice of shoes for exercise; shoes are important because they provide the interface between the feet and road. When we purchase shoes, we may instinctively choose a pair after trying on many different pairs of shoes. Selecting the shoes instinctively may work, but it does not guarantee a suitable fit for running activities. Therefore, if we could select suitable shoes for each runner from the viewpoint of brain activities, it would be helpful for validating shoe selection. In this paper, we describe how brain activities show different characteristics during particular task, corresponding to different properties of shoes. Using five subjects, we performed a verification experiment, applying weight, softness, and flexibility as shoe properties. In order to affect the shoe property’s differences to the brain, subjects run for 10 min. Before and after running, subjects conducted a paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as the particular task; and the subjects’ brain activities during the PASAT are evaluated based on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin relative concentration changes, measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). When the brain works actively, oxihemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration drastically changes; therefore, we calculate the maximum values of concentration changes. In order to normalize relative concentration changes after running, the maximum value are divided by before running maximum value as evaluation parameters. The classification of the groups of shoes is expressed on a self-organizing map (SOM). As a result, deoxyhemoglobin can make clusters for two of the three types of shoes.

Keywords: Brain activities, NIRS, PASAT, running shoes.

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127 Development of a Brain Glutamate Microbiosensor

Authors: Kartika S. Hamdan, Zainiharyati M. Zain, Mohamed I. A. Halim, Jafri M. Abdullah, Robert D. O'Neill

Abstract:

This work attempts to improve the permselectivity of poly-ortho-phenylenediamine (PPD) coating for glutamate biosensor applications on Pt microelectrode, using constant potential amperometry and cyclic voltammetry. Percentage permeability of the modified PPD microelectrode was carried out towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid (AA) whereas permselectivity represents the percentage interference by AA in H2O2 detection. The 50-μm diameter Pt disk microelectrode showed a good permeability value toward H2O2 (95%) and selectivity against AA (0.01%) compared to other sizes of electrode studied here. The electrode was further modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) that was immobilized and cross linked with glutaraldehyde (GA, 0.125%), resulting in Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrode design. The maximum current density Jmax and apparent Michaelis constant, KM, obtained on Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrodes were 48 μA cm-2 and 50 μM, respectively. The linear region slope (LRS) was 0.96 μA cm-2 mM-1. The detection limit (LOD) for glutamate was 3.0 ± 0.6 μM. This study shows a promising glutamate microbiosensor for brain glutamate detection. 

Keywords: Brain, Glutamate, Microbiosensor.

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126 A Serial Hierarchical Support Vector Machine and 2D Feature Sets Act for Brain DTI Segmentation

Authors: Mohammad Javadi

Abstract:

Serial hierarchical support vector machine (SHSVM) is proposed to discriminate three brain tissues which are white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). SHSVM has novel classification approach by repeating the hierarchical classification on data set iteratively. It used Radial Basis Function (rbf) Kernel with different tuning to obtain accurate results. Also as the second approach, segmentation performed with DAGSVM method. In this article eight univariate features from the raw DTI data are extracted and all the possible 2D feature sets are examined within the segmentation process. SHSVM succeed to obtain DSI values higher than 0.95 accuracy for all the three tissues, which are higher than DAGSVM results.

Keywords: Brain segmentation, DTI, hierarchical, SVM.

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125 Increasing Replica Consistency Performances with Load Balancing Strategy in Data Grid Systems

Authors: Sarra Senhadji, Amar Kateb, Hafida Belbachir

Abstract:

Data replication in data grid systems is one of the important solutions that improve availability, scalability, and fault tolerance. However, this technique can also bring some involved issues such as maintaining replica consistency. Moreover, as grid environment are very dynamic some nodes can be more uploaded than the others to become eventually a bottleneck. The main idea of our work is to propose a complementary solution between replica consistency maintenance and dynamic load balancing strategy to improve access performances under a simulated grid environment.

Keywords: Consistency, replication, data grid, load balancing.

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124 Multi Objective Simultaneous Assembly Line Balancing and Buffer Sizing

Authors: Saif Ullah, Guan Zailin, Xu Xianhao, He Zongdong, Wang Baoxi

Abstract:

Assembly line balancing problem is aimed to divide the tasks among the stations in assembly lines and optimize some objectives. In assembly lines the workload on stations is different from each other due to different tasks times and the difference in workloads between stations can cause blockage or starvation in some stations in assembly lines. Buffers are used to store the semi-finished parts between the stations and can help to smooth the assembly production. The assembly line balancing and buffer sizing problem can affect the throughput of the assembly lines. Assembly line balancing and buffer sizing problems have been studied separately in literature and due to their collective contribution in throughput rate of assembly lines, balancing and buffer sizing problem are desired to study simultaneously and therefore they are considered concurrently in current research. Current research is aimed to maximize throughput, minimize total size of buffers in assembly line and minimize workload variations in assembly line simultaneously. A multi objective optimization objective is designed which can give better Pareto solutions from the Pareto front and a simple example problem is solved for assembly line balancing and buffer sizing simultaneously. Current research is significant for assembly line balancing research and it can be significant to introduce optimization approaches which can optimize current multi objective problem in future.

Keywords: Assembly line balancing, Buffer sizing, Pareto solutions.

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123 Balancing Strategies for Parallel Content-based Data Retrieval Algorithms in a k-tree Structured Database

Authors: Radu Dobrescu, Matei Dobrescu, Daniela Hossu

Abstract:

The paper proposes a unified model for multimedia data retrieval which includes data representatives, content representatives, index structure, and search algorithms. The multimedia data are defined as k-dimensional signals indexed in a multidimensional k-tree structure. The benefits of using the k-tree unified model were demonstrated by running the data retrieval application on a six networked nodes test bed cluster. The tests were performed with two retrieval algorithms, one that allows parallel searching using a single feature, the second that performs a weighted cascade search for multiple features querying. The experiments show a significant reduction of retrieval time while maintaining the quality of results.

Keywords: balancing strategies, multimedia databases, parallelprocessing, retrieval algorithms

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122 Towards a Load Balancing Framework for an SMS–Based Service Invocation Environment

Authors: Mandla T. Nene, Edgar.Jembere, Matthew O. Adigun, Themba Shezi, Siyabonga S. Cebekhulu

Abstract:

The drastic increase in the usage of SMS technology has led service providers to seek for a solution that enable users of mobile devices to access services through SMSs. This has resulted in the proposal of solutions towards SMS-based service invocation in service oriented environments. However, the dynamic nature of service-oriented environments coupled with sudden load peaks generated by service request, poses performance challenges to infrastructures for supporting SMS-based service invocation. To address this problem we adopt load balancing techniques. A load balancing model with adaptive load balancing and load monitoring mechanisms as its key constructs is proposed. The load balancing model then led to realization of Least Loaded Load Balancing Framework (LLLBF). Evaluation of LLLBF benchmarked with round robin (RR) scheme on the queuing approach showed LLLBF outperformed RR in terms of response time and throughput. However, LLLBF achieved better result in the cost of high processing power.

Keywords: SMS (Short Message Service), LLLBF (Least Loaded Load Balancing Framework), Service Oriented Computing (SOC).

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121 On the Analysis of Bandwidth Management for Hybrid Load Balancing Scheme in WLANs

Authors: Chutima Prommak, Airisa Jantaweetip

Abstract:

In wireless networks, bandwidth is scare resource and it is essential to utilize it effectively. This paper analyses effects of using different bandwidth management techniques on the network performances of the Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) that use hybrid load balancing scheme. In particular, we study three bandwidth management schemes, namely Complete Sharing (CS), Complete Partitioning (CP), and Partial Sharing (PS). Performances of these schemes are evaluated by simulation experiments in term of percentage of network association blocking. Our results show that the CS scheme can provide relatively low blocking percentage in various network traffic scenarios whereas the PS scheme can enhance quality of services of the multimedia traffic with rather small expenses on the blocking percentage of the best effort traffic.

Keywords: Bandwidth management, Load Balancing, WLANs.

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120 Clustering-Based Detection of Alzheimer's Disease Using Brain MR Images

Authors: Sofia Matoug, Amr Abdel-Dayem

Abstract:

This paper presents a comprehensive survey of recent research studies to segment and classify brain MR (magnetic resonance) images in order to detect significant changes to brain ventricles. The paper also presents a general framework for detecting regions that atrophy, which can help neurologists in detecting and staging Alzheimer. Furthermore, a prototype was implemented to segment brain MR images in order to extract the region of interest (ROI) and then, a classifier was employed to differentiate between normal and abnormal brain tissues. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can provide a reliable second opinion that neurologists can benefit from.

Keywords: Alzheimer, brain images, classification techniques, Magnetic Resonance Images, MRI.

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