**Authors:**
Alexander Buhr,
Klaus Ehrenfried

**Abstract:**

Trackside induced airflow velocities, also known as
slipstream velocities, are an important criterion for the design of
high-speed trains. The maximum permitted values are given by the
Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) and have to be
checked in the approval process. For train manufactures it is of great
interest to know in advance, how new train geometries would perform
in TSI tests. The Reynolds number in moving model experiments is
lower compared to full-scale. Especially the limited model length
leads to a thinner boundary layer at the rear end. The hypothesis is
that the boundary layer rolls up to characteristic flow structures in the
train wake, in which the maximum flow velocities can be observed.
The idea is to enlarge the boundary layer using roughness elements
at the train model head so that the ratio between the boundary
layer thickness and the car width at the rear end is comparable to a
full-scale train. This may lead to similar flow structures in the wake
and better prediction accuracy for TSI tests. In this case, the design
of the roughness elements is limited by the moving model rig. Small
rectangular roughness shapes are used to get a sufficient effect on the
boundary layer, while the elements are robust enough to withstand
the high accelerating and decelerating forces during the test runs. For
this investigation, High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV)
measurements on an ICE3 train model have been realized in the
moving model rig of the DLR in Göttingen, the so called tunnel
simulation facility Göttingen (TSG). The flow velocities within the
boundary layer are analysed in a plain parallel to the ground. The
height of the plane corresponds to a test position in the EN standard
(TSI). Three different shapes of roughness elements are tested. The
boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness as well as the
momentum thickness and the form factor are calculated along the
train model. Conditional sampling is used to analyse the size and
dynamics of the flow structures at the time of maximum velocity
in the train wake behind the train. As expected, larger roughness
elements increase the boundary layer thickness and lead to larger
flow velocities in the boundary layer and in the wake flow structures.
The boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum
thickness are increased by using larger roughness especially when
applied in the height close to the measuring plane. The roughness
elements also cause high fluctuations in the form factors of the
boundary layer. Behind the roughness elements, the form factors
rapidly are approaching toward constant values. This indicates that
the boundary layer, while growing slowly along the second half of
the train model, has reached a state of equilibrium.

**Keywords:**
Boundary layer,
high-speed PIV,
ICE3,
moving train
model,
roughness elements.

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