Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7834

Search results for: Analysis

64 A Comparative Analysis of Activity-Based Costing and Traditional Costing

Authors: Derya Eren Akyol, Gonca Tuncel, G. Mirac Bayhan

Abstract:

Activity-Based Costing (ABC) which has become an important aspect of manufacturing/service organizations can be defined as a methodology that measures the cost and performance of activities, resources and cost objects. It can be considered as an alternative paradigm to traditional cost-based accounting systems. The objective of this paper is to illustrate an application of ABC method and to compare the results of ABC with traditional costing methods. The results of the application highlight the weak points of traditional costing methods and an S-Curve obtained is used to identify the undercosted and overcosted products of the firm.

Keywords: activity-based costing, traditional costing, overheads, cost drivers

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63 A Reconfigurable Processing Element Implementation for Matrix Inversion Using Cholesky Decomposition

Authors: Aki Happonen, Adrian Burian, Erwin Hemming

Abstract:

Fixed-point simulation results are used for the performance measure of inverting matrices using a reconfigurable processing element. Matrices are inverted using the Cholesky decomposition algorithm. The reconfigurable processing element is capable of all required mathematical operations. The fixed-point word length analysis is based on simulations of different condition numbers and different matrix sizes.

Keywords: fixed-point, Cholesky Decomposition, Reconfigurable processing, Matrixinversion

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62 Analysis and Comparison of Image Encryption Algorithms

Authors: İsmet Öztürk, İbrahim Soğukpınar

Abstract:

With the fast progression of data exchange in electronic way, information security is becoming more important in data storage and transmission. Because of widely using images in industrial process, it is important to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, we analyzed current image encryption algorithms and compression is added for two of them (Mirror-like image encryption and Visual Cryptography). Implementations of these two algorithms have been realized for experimental purposes. The results of analysis are given in this paper.

Keywords: Security, Transmission, Image Encryption, image cryptosystem

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61 Computer-Assisted Piston-Driven Ventilator for Total Liquid Breathing

Authors: Miguel A. Gómez, Enrique Hilario, Francisco J. Alvarez, Elena Gastiasoro, Antonia Alvarez, Jose A. Casla, Jorge Arguinchona, Juan L. Larrabe

Abstract:

Total liquid ventilation can support gas exchange in animal models of lung injury. Clinical application awaits further technical improvements and performance verification. Our aim was to develop a liquid ventilator, able to deliver accurate tidal volumes, and a computerized system for measuring lung mechanics. The computer-assisted, piston-driven respirator controlled ventilatory parameters that were displayed and modified on a real-time basis. Pressure and temperature transducers along with a lineal displacement controller provided the necessary signals to calculate lung mechanics. Ten newborn lambs (<6 days old) with respiratory failure induced by lung lavage, were monitored using the system. Electromechanical, hydraulic and data acquisition/analysis components of the ventilator were developed and tested in animals with respiratory failure. All pulmonary signals were collected synchronized in time, displayed in real-time, and archived on digital media. The total mean error (due to transducers, A/D conversion, amplifiers, etc.) was less than 5% compared to calibrated signals. Improvements in gas exchange and lung mechanics were observed during liquid ventilation, without impairment of cardiovascular profiles. The total liquid ventilator maintained accurate control of tidal volumes and the sequencing of inspiration/expiration. The computerized system demonstrated its ability to monitor in vivo lung mechanics, providing valuable data for early decision-making.

Keywords: Immature lamb, perfluorocarbon, pressure-limited, total liquid ventilation, ventilator, volume-controlled

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60 Estimating Reaction Rate Constants with Neural Networks

Authors: Janos Toth, Benedek Kovacs

Abstract:

Solutions are proposed for the central problem of estimating the reaction rate coefficients in homogeneous kinetics. The first is based upon the fact that the right hand side of a kinetic differential equation is linear in the rate constants, whereas the second one uses the technique of neural networks. This second one is discussed deeply and its advantages, disadvantages and conditions of applicability are analyzed in the mirror of the first one. Numerical analysis carried out on practical models using simulated data, and our programs written in Mathematica.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Parameter Estimation, Linear Regression, kinetic models, reaction rate coefficients

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59 Developments for ''Virtual'' Monitoring and Process Simulation of the Cryogenic Pilot Plant

Authors: Carmen Maria Moraru, Iuliana Stefan, Ovidiu Balteanu, Ciprian Bucur, Liviu Stefan, Anisia Bornea, Ioan Stefanescu

Abstract:

The implementation of the new software and hardware-s technologies for tritium processing nuclear plants, and especially those with an experimental character or of new technology developments shows a coefficient of complexity due to issues raised by the implementation of the performing instrumentation and equipment into a unitary monitoring system of the nuclear technological process of tritium removal. Keeping the system-s flexibility is a demand of the nuclear experimental plants for which the change of configuration, process and parameters is something usual. The big amount of data that needs to be processed stored and accessed for real time simulation and optimization demands the achievement of the virtual technologic platform where the data acquiring, control and analysis systems of the technological process can be integrated with a developed technological monitoring system. Thus, integrated computing and monitoring systems needed for the supervising of the technological process will be executed, to be continued with the execution of optimization system, by choosing new and performed methods corresponding to the technological processes within the tritium removal processing nuclear plants. The developing software applications is executed with the support of the program packages dedicated to industrial processes and they will include acquisition and monitoring sub-modules, named “virtually" as well as the storage sub-module of the process data later required for the software of optimization and simulation of the technological process for tritium removal. The system plays and important role in the environment protection and durable development through new technologies, that is – the reduction of and fight against industrial accidents in the case of tritium processing nuclear plants. Research for monitoring optimisation of nuclear processes is also a major driving force for economic and social development.

Keywords: Monitoring System, Process Simulation

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58 Comparative Study of Evolutionary Model and Clustering Methods in Circuit Partitioning Pertaining to VLSI Design

Authors: Annamma Abraham, K. A. Sumitra Devi, N. P. Banashree

Abstract:

Partitioning is a critical area of VLSI CAD. In order to build complex digital logic circuits its often essential to sub-divide multi -million transistor design into manageable Pieces. This paper looks at the various partitioning techniques aspects of VLSI CAD, targeted at various applications. We proposed an evolutionary time-series model and a statistical glitch prediction system using a neural network with selection of global feature by making use of clustering method model, for partitioning a circuit. For evolutionary time-series model, we made use of genetic, memetic & neuro-memetic techniques. Our work focused in use of clustering methods - K-means & EM methodology. A comparative study is provided for all techniques to solve the problem of circuit partitioning pertaining to VLSI design. The performance of all approaches is compared using benchmark data provided by MCNC standard cell placement benchmark net lists. Analysis of the investigational results proved that the Neuro-memetic model achieves greater performance then other model in recognizing sub-circuits with minimum amount of interconnections between them.

Keywords: VLSI, Genetic Algorithm, memetic algorithm, circuit partitioning

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57 Comparison between Haar and Daubechies Wavelet Transformions on FPGA Technology

Authors: Mohamed I. Mahmoud, Moawad I. M. Dessouky, Salah Deyab, Fatma H. Elfouly

Abstract:

Recently, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology offers the potential of designing high performance systems at low cost. The discrete wavelet transform has gained the reputation of being a very effective signal analysis tool for many practical applications. However, due to its computation-intensive nature, current implementation of the transform falls short of meeting real-time processing requirements of most application. The objectives of this paper are implement the Haar and Daubechies wavelets using FPGA technology. In addition, the comparison between the Haar and Daubechies wavelets is investigated. The Bit Error Rat (BER) between the input audio signal and the reconstructed output signal for each wavelet is calculated. It is seen that the BER using Daubechies wavelet techniques is less than Haar wavelet. The design procedure has been explained and designed using the stat-of-art Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools for system design on FPGA. Simulation, synthesis and implementation on the FPGA target technology has been carried out.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, Xilinx FPGA, Haar Wavelet, Daubechies Wavelet

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56 BEM Formulations Based on Kirchhoffs Hypoyhesis to Perform Linear Bending Analysis of Plates Reinforced by Beams

Authors: Gabriela R. Fernandes, Renato F. Denadai, Guido J. Denipotti

Abstract:

In this work, are discussed two formulations of the boundary element method - BEM to perform linear bending analysis of plates reinforced by beams. Both formulations are based on the Kirchhoff's hypothesis and they are obtained from the reciprocity theorem applied to zoned plates, where each sub-region defines a beam or a slab. In the first model the problem values are defined along the interfaces and the external boundary. Then, in order to reduce the number of degrees of freedom kinematics hypothesis are assumed along the beam cross section, leading to a second formulation where the collocation points are defined along the beam skeleton, instead of being placed on interfaces. On these formulations no approximation of the generalized forces along the interface is required. Moreover, compatibility and equilibrium conditions along the interface are automatically imposed by the integral equation. Thus, these formulations require less approximation and the total number of the degree s of freedom is reduced. In the numerical examples are discussed the differences between these two BEM formulations, comparing as well the results to a well-known finite element code.

Keywords: Boundary Elements, Building floor structures, Platebending

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55 Analysis of the Coupled Stretching Bending Problem of Stiffened Plates by a BEM Formulation Based on Reissner's Hypothesis

Authors: Gabriela R. Fernandes, Danilo H. Konda, Luiz C. F. Sanches

Abstract:

In this work, the plate bending formulation of the boundary element method - BEM, based on the Reissner?s hypothesis, is extended to the analysis of plates reinforced by beams taking into account the membrane effects. The formulation is derived by assuming a zoned body where each sub-region defines a beam or a slab and all of them are represented by a chosen reference surface. Equilibrium and compatibility conditions are automatically imposed by the integral equations, which treat this composed structure as a single body. In order to reduce the number of degrees of freedom, the problem values defined on the interfaces are written in terms of their values on the beam axis. Initially are derived separated equations for the bending and stretching problems, but in the final system of equations the two problems are coupled and can not be treated separately. Finally are presented some numerical examples whose analytical results are known to show the accuracy of the proposed model.

Keywords: Boundary Elements, Building floor structures, Platebending

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54 An Anisotropic Model of Damage and Unilateral Effect for Brittle Materials

Authors: José Julio de C. Pituba

Abstract:

This work deals with the initial applications and formulation of an anisotropic plastic-damage constitutive model proposed for non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures submitted to a loading with change of the sign. The original constitutive model is based on the fundamental hypothesis of energy equivalence between real and continuous medium following the concepts of the Continuum Damage Mechanics. The concrete is assumed as an initial elastic isotropic medium presenting anisotropy, permanent strains and bimodularity (distinct elastic responses whether traction or compression stress states prevail) induced by damage evolution. In order to take into account the bimodularity, two damage tensors governing the rigidity in tension or compression regimes are introduced. Then, some conditions are introduced in the original version of the model in order to simulate the damage unilateral effect. The three-dimensional version of the proposed model is analyzed in order to validate its formulation when compared to micromechanical theory. The one-dimensional version of the model is applied in the analyses of a reinforced concrete beam submitted to a loading with change of the sign. Despite the parametric identification problems, the initial applications show the good performance of the model.

Keywords: damage model, plastic strain, unilateral effect

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53 Nonlinear Sensitive Control of Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: M. Bouguerra, F. Laaouad, A. Hafaifa, A. Iratni

Abstract:

In this work, we treat the problems related to chemical and petrochemical plants of a certain complex process taking the centrifugal compressor as an example, a system being very complex by its physical structure as well as its behaviour (surge phenomenon). We propose to study the application possibilities of the recent control approaches to the compressor behaviour, and consequently evaluate their contribution in the practical and theoretical fields. Facing the studied industrial process complexity, we choose to make recourse to fuzzy logic for analysis and treatment of its control problem owing to the fact that these techniques constitute the only framework in which the types of imperfect knowledge can jointly be treated (uncertainties, inaccuracies, etc..) offering suitable tools to characterise them. In the particular case of the centrifugal compressor, these imperfections are interpreted by modelling errors, the neglected dynamics, no modelisable dynamics and the parametric variations. The purpose of this paper is to produce a total robust nonlinear controller design method to stabilize the compression process at its optimum steady state by manipulating the gas rate flow. In order to cope with both the parameter uncertainty and the structured non linearity of the plant, the proposed method consists of a linear steady state regulation that ensures robust optimal control and of a nonlinear compensation that achieves the exact input/output linearization.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Stability Analysis, Compressor, nonlinear plant, Surge control, Bilinearcontroller

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52 Independent Component Analysis to Mass Spectra of Aluminium Sulphate

Authors: M. Heikkinen, A. Sarpola, H. Hellman, J. Rämö, Y. Hiltunen

Abstract:

Independent component analysis (ICA) is a computational method for finding underlying signals or components from multivariate statistical data. The ICA method has been successfully applied in many fields, e.g. in vision research, brain imaging, geological signals and telecommunications. In this paper, we apply the ICA method to an analysis of mass spectra of oligomeric species emerged from aluminium sulphate. Mass spectra are typically complex, because they are linear combinations of spectra from different types of oligomeric species. The results show that ICA can decomposite the spectral components for useful information. This information is essential in developing coagulation phases of water treatment processes.

Keywords: Water Treatment, independent component analysis, massspectroscopy, aluminium sulphate

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51 Simulation of Large Deformations of Rubbers by the RKPM Method

Authors: M. Foroutan, H. Dalayeli, M. Sadeghian

Abstract:

In this paper processes including large deformations of a rubber with hyperelastic material behavior are simulated by the RKPM method. Due to the loss of kronecker delta properties in the mesh less shape functions, the imposition of essential boundary conditions consumes significant CPU time in mesh free computations. In this work transformation method is used for imposition of essential boundary conditions. A RKPM material shape function is used in this analysis. The support of the material shape functions covers the same set of particles during material deformation and hence the transformation matrix is formed only once at the initial stages. A computer program in MATLAB is developed for simulations.

Keywords: Transformation, Large Deformations, RKPM, essentialboundary conditions

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50 Blow up in Polynomial Differential Equations

Authors: Rudolf Csikja, Janos Toth

Abstract:

Methods to detect and localize time singularities of polynomial and quasi-polynomial ordinary differential equations are systematically presented and developed. They are applied to examples taken form different fields of applications and they are also compared to better known methods such as those based on the existence of linear first integrals or Lyapunov functions.

Keywords: Singularity, global existence, painleve analysis, blow up, finite escape time, polynomial ODE, Lotka–Volterra equation, Ψ-series

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49 Relationship between Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Risk Factors: A Biomechanical Analysis

Authors: Dae Gon Woo, Han Sung Kim, Dohyung Lim, Dong Jin Seo, In Deok Kong, Chang Yong Ko

Abstract:

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) affect millions of people spread all age regardless of race and sex. Emotional stress and obesity have been associated with increased reporting of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, but the relationship between FGID and risk factors (emotional stress or obesity) is unclear. Our aim was to assess the changes of the mechanical characteristics on the gastrointestinal tracts of the mentally fatigued obese and normal rat models. Finally, using the physical characteristics with micro-indentation test, we made a close investigation into the relation between FGID and risk factors quantitatively.

Keywords: Risk Factors, Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, mechanical characteristics, gastrointestinal tract

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48 Applications of Cascade Correlation Neural Networks for Cipher System Identification

Authors: B. Chandra, P. Paul Varghese

Abstract:

Crypto System Identification is one of the challenging tasks in Crypt analysis. The paper discusses the possibility of employing Neural Networks for identification of Cipher Systems from cipher texts. Cascade Correlation Neural Network and Back Propagation Network have been employed for identification of Cipher Systems. Very large collection of cipher texts were generated using a Block Cipher (Enhanced RC6) and a Stream Cipher (SEAL). Promising results were obtained in terms of accuracy using both the Neural Network models but it was observed that the Cascade Correlation Neural Network Model performed better compared to Back Propagation Network.

Keywords: block cipher, Back Propagation Neural Networks, CascadeCorrelation Neural Network, Crypto systems, StreamCipher

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47 Bangla Vowel Characterization Based on Analysis by Synthesis

Authors: Syed Akhter Hossain, M. Lutfar Rahman, Farruk Ahmed

Abstract:

Bangla Vowel characterization determines the spectral properties of Bangla vowels for efficient synthesis as well as recognition of Bangla vowels. In this paper, Bangla vowels in isolated word have been analyzed based on speech production model within the framework of Analysis-by-Synthesis. This has led to the extraction of spectral parameters for the production model in order to produce different Bangla vowel sounds. The real and synthetic spectra are compared and a weighted square error has been computed along with the error in the formant bandwidths for efficient representation of Bangla vowels. The extracted features produced good representation of targeted Bangla vowel. Such a representation also plays essential role in low bit rate speech coding and vocoders.

Keywords: Synthesis, Speech, spectrum, LPC, vowel, formant

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46 Asymptotic Analysis of Instant Messaging Service with Relay Nodes

Authors: Muhammad T. Alam, Zheng Da Wu

Abstract:

In this paper, we provide complete end-to-end delay analyses including the relay nodes for instant messages. Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP) is used to provide congestion control for large messages in the Instant Messaging (IM) service. Large messages are broken into several chunks. These chunks may traverse through a maximum number of two relay nodes before reaching destination according to the IETF specification of the MSRP relay extensions. We discuss the current solutions of sending large instant messages and introduce a proposal to reduce message flows in the IM service. We consider virtual traffic parameter i.e., the relay nodes are stateless non-blocking for scalability purpose. This type of relay node is also assumed to have input rate at constant bit rate. We provide a new scheduling policy that schedules chunks according to their previous node?s delivery time stamp tags. Validation and analysis is shown for such scheduling policy. The performance analysis with the model introduced in this paper is simple and straight forward, which lead to reduced message flows in the IM service.

Keywords: instant messaging, stateless, chunking, MSRP

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45 Encryption Efficiency Analysis and Security Evaluation of RC6 Block Cipher for Digital Images

Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah

Abstract:

This paper investigates the encryption efficiency of RC6 block cipher application to digital images, providing a new mathematical measure for encryption efficiency, which we will call the encryption quality instead of visual inspection, The encryption quality of RC6 block cipher is investigated among its several design parameters such as word size, number of rounds, and secret key length and the optimal choices for the best values of such design parameters are given. Also, the security analysis of RC6 block cipher for digital images is investigated from strict cryptographic viewpoint. The security estimations of RC6 block cipher for digital images against brute-force, statistical, and differential attacks are explored. Experiments are made to test the security of RC6 block cipher for digital images against all aforementioned types of attacks. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC6 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC6 block cipher algorithm. So, RC6 block cipher can be considered to be a real-time secure symmetric encryption for digital images.

Keywords: Image Encryption, block cipher, encryption quality, and Security analysis

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44 Mathematical Analysis of EEG of Patients with Non-fatal Nonspecific Diffuse Encephalitis

Authors: Mukesh Doble, Sunil K Narayan

Abstract:

Diffuse viral encephalitis may lack fever and other cardinal signs of infection and hence its distinction from other acute encephalopathic illnesses is challenging. Often, the EEG changes seen routinely are nonspecific and reflect diffuse encephalopathic changes only. The aim of this study was to use nonlinear dynamic mathematical techniques for analyzing the EEG data in order to look for any characteristic diagnostic patterns in diffuse forms of encephalitis.It was diagnosed on clinical, imaging and cerebrospinal fluid criteria in three young male patients. Metabolic and toxic encephalopathies were ruled out through appropriate investigations. Digital EEGs were done on the 3rd to 5th day of onset. The digital EEGs of 5 male and 5 female age and sex matched healthy volunteers served as controls.Two sample t-test indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the average values in amplitude between the two groups. However, the standard deviation (or variance) of the EEG signals at FP1-F7 and FP2-F8 are significantly higher for the patients than the normal subjects. The regularisation dimension is significantly less for the patients (average between 1.24-1.43) when compared to the normal persons (average between 1.41-1.63) for the EEG signals from all locations except for the Fz-Cz signal. Similarly the wavelet dimension is significantly less (P = 0.05*) for the patients (1.122) when compared to the normal person (1.458). EEGs are subdued in the case of the patients with presence of uniform patterns, manifested in the values of regularisation and wavelet dimensions, when compared to the normal person, indicating a decrease in chaotic nature.

Keywords: Chaos, electroencephalogram, fractal dimension, Diffuse encephalitis, Fourier spectrum

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43 Compromise Ratio Method for Decision Making under Fuzzy Environment using Fuzzy Distance Measure

Authors: Debjani Chakraborty, Debashree Guha

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to adopt a compromise ratio (CR) methodology for fuzzy multi-attribute single-expert decision making proble. In this paper, the rating of each alternative has been described by linguistic terms, which can be expressed as triangular fuzzy numbers. The compromise ratio method for fuzzy multi-attribute single expert decision making has been considered here by taking the ranking index based on the concept that the chosen alternative should be as close as possible to the ideal solution and as far away as possible from the negative-ideal solution simultaneously. From logical point of view, the distance between two triangular fuzzy numbers also is a fuzzy number, not a crisp value. Therefore a fuzzy distance measure, which is itself a fuzzy number, has been used here to calculate the difference between two triangular fuzzy numbers. Now in this paper, with the help of this fuzzy distance measure, it has been shown that the compromise ratio is a fuzzy number and this eases the problem of the decision maker to take the decision. The computation principle and the procedure of the compromise ratio method have been described in detail in this paper. A comparative analysis of the compromise ratio method previously proposed [1] and the newly adopted method have been illustrated with two numerical examples.

Keywords: Linguistic Variable, fuzzy number, Compromise ratio method, Fuzzy multi-attributesingle-expert decision making

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42 Scene Adaptive Shadow Detection Algorithm

Authors: Mohammed Ibrahim M, Anupama R.

Abstract:

Robustness is one of the primary performance criteria for an Intelligent Video Surveillance (IVS) system. One of the key factors in enhancing the robustness of dynamic video analysis is,providing accurate and reliable means for shadow detection. If left undetected, shadow pixels may result in incorrect object tracking and classification, as it tends to distort localization and measurement information. Most of the algorithms proposed in literature are computationally expensive; some to the extent of equalling computational requirement of motion detection. In this paper, the homogeneity property of shadows is explored in a novel way for shadow detection. An adaptive division image (which highlights homogeneity property of shadows) analysis followed by a relatively simpler projection histogram analysis for penumbra suppression is the key novelty in our approach.

Keywords: Homogeneity, penumbra, projection histogram, shadow correction

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41 Recursive Wiener-Khintchine Theorem

Authors: Khalid M. Aamir, Mohammad A. Maud

Abstract:

Power Spectral Density (PSD) computed by taking the Fourier transform of auto-correlation functions (Wiener-Khintchine Theorem) gives better result, in case of noisy data, as compared to the Periodogram approach. However, the computational complexity of Wiener-Khintchine approach is more than that of the Periodogram approach. For the computation of short time Fourier transform (STFT), this problem becomes even more prominent where computation of PSD is required after every shift in the window under analysis. In this paper, recursive version of the Wiener-Khintchine theorem has been derived by using the sliding DFT approach meant for computation of STFT. The computational complexity of the proposed recursive Wiener-Khintchine algorithm, for a window size of N, is O(N).

Keywords: periodogram, power spectral density (PSD), Wiener-KhintchineTheorem, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), TheSliding DFT

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40 On the Use of Image Processing Techniques for the Estimation of the Porosity of Textile Fabrics

Authors: Maria Rangoussi, Savvas Vassiliadis, Ahmet Çay, Işık Tarakçıoğlu

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach to assessing textile porosity by the application of the image analysis techniques. The images of different types of sample fabrics, taken through a microscope when the fabric is placed over a constant light source,transfer the problem into the image analysis domain. Indeed, porosity can thus be expressed in terms of a brightness percentage index calculated on the digital microscope image. Furthermore, it is meaningful to compare the brightness percentage index with the air permeability and the tightness indices of each fabric type. We have experimentally shown that there exists an approximately linear relation between brightness percentage and air permeability indices.

Keywords: Image Analysis, Textile Fabrics, porosity, air permeability, light transmission

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39 Efficient Spectral Analysis of Quasi Stationary Time Series

Authors: Khalid M. Aamir, Mohammad A. Maud

Abstract:

Power Spectral Density (PSD) of quasi-stationary processes can be efficiently estimated using the short time Fourier series (STFT). In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed that computes the PSD of quasi-stationary process efficiently using offline autoregressive model order estimation algorithm, recursive parameter estimation technique and modified sliding window discrete Fourier Transform algorithm. The main difference in this algorithm and STFT is that the sliding window (SW) and window for spectral estimation (WSA) are separately defined. WSA is updated and its PSD is computed only when change in statistics is detected in the SW. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is found to be lesser than that for standard STFT technique.

Keywords: power spectral density (PSD), Short Time Fourier Transform, quasi-stationarytime series, Sliding window DFT

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38 A proposed High-Resolution Time-Frequency Distribution for the Analysis of Multicomponent and Speech Signals

Authors: D. Boutana, B. Barkat, F. Marir

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel time-frequency distribution (TFD) for the analysis of multi-component signals. In particular, we use synthetic as well as real-life speech signals to prove the superiority of the proposed TFD in comparison to some existing ones. In the comparison, we consider the cross-terms suppression and the high energy concentration of the signal around its instantaneous frequency (IF).

Keywords: speech signal, Cohen's Class, Multicomponent signal, SeparableKernel, Time- frequency resolution

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37 Teager-Huang Analysis Applied to Sonar Target Recognition

Authors: J.-C. Cexus, A.O. Boudraa

Abstract:

In this paper, a new approach for target recognition based on the Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm of Huang etal. [11] and the energy tracking operator of Teager [13]-[14] is introduced. The conjunction of these two methods is called Teager-Huang analysis. This approach is well suited for nonstationary signals analysis. The impulse response (IR) of target is first band pass filtered into subsignals (components) called Intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with well defined Instantaneous frequency (IF) and Instantaneous amplitude (IA). Each IMF is a zero-mean AM-FM component. In second step, the energy of each IMF is tracked using the Teager energy operator (TEO). IF and IA, useful to describe the time-varying characteristics of the signal, are estimated using the Energy separation algorithm (ESA) algorithm of Maragos et al .[16]-[17]. In third step, a set of features such as skewness and kurtosis are extracted from the IF, IA and IMF energy functions. The Teager-Huang analysis is tested on set of synthetic IRs of Sonar targets with different physical characteristics (density, velocity, shape,? ). PCA is first applied to features to discriminate between manufactured and natural targets. The manufactured patterns are classified into spheres and cylinders. One hundred percent of correct recognition is achieved with twenty three echoes where sixteen IRs, used for training, are free noise and seven IRs, used for testing phase, are corrupted with white Gaussian noise.

Keywords: Target Recognition, features extraction, empirical mode decomposition, Teager-Kaiser energy operator

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36 A New Current-mode Multifunction Filter with High Impedance Outputs Using Minimum Number of Passive Elements

Authors: Kemal Fidanboylu, Mehmet Sagbas, Mehmet C. Bayram

Abstract:

A new current-mode multifunction filter using minimum number of passive elements is proposed. The proposed filter has single-input and four high-impedance outputs. It uses four passive elements (two capacitors and two resistors) and four dual output second generation current conveyors. Each output provides a different filter response, namely, low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-reject. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out on both ideal and non-ideal filter configurations. The validity of the proposed filter is verified through PSPICE simulations.

Keywords: universal filter, Active filter, Currentconveyors

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35 Acoustic Detection of the Red Date Palm Weevil

Authors: Mohammed A. Al-Manie, Mohammed I. Alkanhal

Abstract:

In this paper, acoustic techniques are used to detect hidden insect infestations of date palm tress (Phoenix dactylifera L.). In particular, we use an acoustic instrument for early discovery of the presence of a destructive insect pest commonly known as the Red Date Palm Weevil (RDPW) and scientifically as Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier). This type of insect attacks date palm tress and causes irreversible damages at late stages. As a result, the infected trees must be destroyed. Therefore, early presence detection is a major part in controlling the spread and economic damage caused by this type of infestation. Furthermore monitoring and early detection of the disease can asses in taking appropriate measures such as isolating or treating the infected trees. The acoustic system is evaluated in terms of its ability for early discovery of hidden bests inside the tested tree. When signal acquisitions is completed for a number of date palms, a signal processing technique known as time-frequency analysis is evaluated in terms of providing an estimate that can be visually used to recognize the acoustic signature of the RDPW. The testing instrument was tested in the laboratory first then; it was used on suspected or infested tress in the field. The final results indicate that the acoustic monitoring approach along with signal processing techniques are very promising for the early detection of presence of the larva as well as the adult pest in the date palms.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Acoustic Sensors, acoustic emissions, nondestructivetests, Red Date Palm Weevil

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