Commenced in January 2007
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Fast Object/Face Detection Using Neural Networks and Fast Fourier Transform

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Qiangfu Zhao

Abstract:

Recently, fast neural networks for object/face detection were presented in [1-3]. The speed up factor of these networks relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input image and the weights of the hidden layer. But, these equations given in [1-3] for conventional and fast neural networks are not valid for many reasons presented here. In this paper, correct equations for cross correlation in the spatial and frequency domains are presented. Furthermore, correct formulas for the number of computation steps required by conventional and fast neural networks given in [1-3] are introduced. A new formula for the speed up ratio is established. Also, corrections for the equations of fast multi scale object/face detection are given. Moreover, commutative cross correlation is achieved. Simulation results show that sub-image detection based on cross correlation in the frequency domain is faster than classical neural networks.

Keywords: Conventional Neural Networks, Fast Neural Networks, Cross Correlation in the Frequency Domain.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1330219

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References:


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[11] H. M. El-bakry, "Human Iris Detection for Information Security Using Fast Neural Nets," Proc. of the 5th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, 22-25 July, 2001, Orlando, Florida, USA.
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[14] H. M. El-Bakry, "Fast Iris Detection for Personal Verification Using Modular Neural Networks," Proc. of the International Conference on Computational Intelligence, 1-3 Oct., 2001, Dortmund, Germany, pp.- 269-283.
[15] H. M. El-bakry, "Fast Cooperative Modular Neural Nets for Human Face Detection," Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 7-10 Oct., 2001, Thessaloniki, Greece.
[16] H. M. El-Bakry, "Fast Face Detection Using Neural Networks and Image Decomposition," Proc. of the 6th International Computer Science Conference, Active Media Technology, Dec. 18-20, 2001, Hong Kong - China, pp. 205-215, 2001.
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[18] H. M. El-Bakry, "Face Detection Using Fast Neural Networks and Image Decomposition," Proc. of INNS-IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 14-19 May, 2002, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
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[20] H. M. El-Bakry, "Human Iris Detection Using Fast Cooperative Modular Neural Networks and Image Decomposition," Machine Graphics & Vision Journal (MG&V), vol. 11, no. 4, 2002, pp. 498-512.
[21] H. M. El-Bakry, "Comments on Using MLP and FFT for Fast Object/Face Detection," Proc. of IEEE IJCNN-03, Portland, Oregon, pp. 1284-1288, July, 20-24, 2003.
[22] H. M. El-Bakry, and H. Stoyan, "Fast Neural Networks for Object/Face Detection," Proc. of the 30th Anniversary SOFSEM Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, 24-30 January, 2004, Hotel VZ MERIN, Czech Republic.
[23] H. M. El-Bakry, and H. Stoyan, "Fast Neural Networks for Sub-Matrix (Object/Face) Detection," Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vancouver, Canada, 23-26 May, 2004.
[24] H. M. El-Bakry, "Fast Sub-Image Detection Using Neural Networks and Cross Correlation in Frequency Domain," Proc. of IS 2004: 14th Annual Canadian Conference on Intelligent Systems, Ottawa, Ontario, 6-8 June, 2004.
[25] H. M. El-Bakry, and H. Stoyan, "Fast Neural Networks for Code Detection in a Stream of Sequential Data," Proc. of CIC 2004 International Conference on Communications in Computing, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 21-24 June, 2004.
[26] H. M. El-Bakry, "Fast Neural Networks for Object/Face Detection," Proc. of 5th International Symposium on Soft Computing for Industry with Applications of Financial Engineering, June 28 - July 4, 2004, Sevilla, Andalucia, Spain.
[27] H. M. El-Bakry, and H. Stoyan, "A Fast Searching Algorithm for Sub- Image (Object/Face) Detection Using Neural Networks," Proc. of the 8th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, 18-21 July, 2004, Orlando, USA.
[28] H. M. El-Bakry, and H. Stoyan, "Fast Neural Networks for Code Detection in Sequential Data Using Neural Networks for Communication Applications," Proc. of the First International Conference on Cybernetics and Information Technologies, Systems and Applications: CITSA 2004, 21-25 July, 2004. Orlando, Florida, USA, Vol. IV, pp. 150-153.
[29] H. M. El-Bakry, and Q. Zhao, "A New Symmetric Form for Fast Sub- Matrix (Object/Face) Detection Using Neural Networks and FFT," accepted and under publication in the International Journal of Signal Processing.
[30] H. M. El-Bakry, and Q. Zhao, "Fast Pattern Detection Using Normalized Neural Networks and Cross Correlation in the Frequency Domain," accepted and under publication in the EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing.