Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3199

Search results for: Abnormal conditions

3199 Emergency Condition Discrimination for Single People Using a CO2 Sensor and Body Detectors

Authors: Taiyo Matsumura, Kota Funabashi, Nobumichi Sakai, Takashi Ono

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to construct a watching system that monitors human activity in a room and detects abnormalities at an early stage to prevent unattended deaths of people living alone. In this article, we propose a method whereby highly urgent abnormal conditions of a person are determined by changes in the concentration of CO2 generated from activity and respiration in a room. We also discussed the effects the amount of activity has on the determination. The results showed that this discrimination method is not dependent on the amount of activity and is effective in judging highly urgent abnormal conditions.

Keywords: Abnormal conditions, multiple sensors, people living alone, respiratory arrest, unattended death, watching system.

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3198 Computer Modeling and Plant-Wide Dynamic Simulation for Industrial Flare Minimization

Authors: Sujing Wang, Song Wang, Jian Zhang, Qiang Xu

Abstract:

Flaring emissions during abnormal operating conditions such as plant start-ups, shut-downs, and upsets in chemical process industries (CPI) are usually significant. Flare minimization can help to save raw material and energy for CPI plants, and to improve local environmental sustainability. In this paper, a systematic methodology based on plant-wide dynamic simulation is presented for CPI plant flare minimizations under abnormal operating conditions. Since off-specification emission sources are inevitable during abnormal operating conditions, to significantly reduce flaring emission in a CPI plant, they must be either recycled to the upstream process for online reuse, or stored somewhere temporarily for future reprocessing, when the CPI plant manufacturing returns to stable operation. Thus, the off-spec products could be reused instead of being flared. This can be achieved through the identification of viable design and operational strategies during normal and abnormal operations through plant-wide dynamic scheduling, simulation, and optimization. The proposed study includes three stages of simulation works: (i) developing and validating a steady-state model of a CPI plant; (ii) transiting the obtained steady-state plant model to the dynamic modeling environment; and refining and validating the plant dynamic model; and (iii) developing flare minimization strategies for abnormal operating conditions of a CPI plant via a validated plant-wide dynamic model. This cost-effective methodology has two main merits: (i) employing large-scale dynamic modeling and simulations for industrial flare minimization, which involves various unit models for modeling hundreds of CPI plant facilities; (ii) dealing with critical abnormal operating conditions of CPI plants such as plant start-up and shut-down. Two virtual case studies on flare minimizations for start-up operation (over 50% of emission savings) and shut-down operation (over 70% of emission savings) of an ethylene plant have been employed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed study.

Keywords: Flare minimization, large-scale modeling and simulation, plant shut-down, plant start-up.

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3197 Abnormal IP Packets on 3G Mobile Data Networks

Authors: Joo-Hyung Oh, Dongwan Kang, JunHyung Cho, Chaetae Im

Abstract:

As the mobile Internet has become widespread in recent years, communication based on mobile networks is increasing. As a result, security threats have been posed with regard to the abnormal traffic of mobile networks, but mobile security has been handled with focus on threats posed by mobile malicious codes, and researches on security threats to the mobile network itself have not attracted much attention. In mobile networks, the IP address of the data packet is a very important factor for billing purposes. If one mobile terminal use an incorrect IP address that either does not exist or could be assigned to another mobile terminal, billing policy will cause problems. We monitor and analyze 3G mobile data networks traffics for a period of time and finds some abnormal IP packets. In this paper, we analyze the reason for abnormal IP packets on 3G Mobile Data Networks. And we also propose an algorithm based on IP address table that contains addresses currently in use within the mobile data network to detect abnormal IP packets.

Keywords: WCDMA, 3G, Abnormal IP address, Mobile Data Network Attack

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3196 Abnormality Detection of Persons Living Alone Using Daily Life Patterns Obtained from Sensors

Authors: Ippei Kamihira, Takashi Nakajima, Taiyo Matsumura, Hikaru Miura, Takashi Ono

Abstract:

In this research, the goal was construction of a system by which multiple sensors were used to observe the daily life behavior of persons living alone (while respecting their privacy), using this information to judge such conditions as bad physical condition or falling in the home, etc., so that these abnormal conditions can be made known to relatives and third parties. The daily life patterns of persons living alone are expressed by the number of responses of sensors each time that a set time period has elapsed. By comparing data for the prior two weeks, it was possible to judge a situation as “normal” when the person was in good physical condition or as “abnormal” when the person was in bad physical condition.

Keywords: Sensors, Elderly living alone, Abnormality detection, Lifestyle habit.

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3195 ADABeV: Automatic Detection of Abnormal Behavior in Video-surveillance

Authors: Nour Charara, Iman Jarkass, Maria Sokhn, Elena Mugellini, Omar Abou Khaled

Abstract:

Intelligent Video-Surveillance (IVS) systems are being more and more popular in security applications. The analysis and recognition of abnormal behaviours in a video sequence has gradually drawn the attention in the field of IVS, since it allows filtering out a large number of useless information, which guarantees the high efficiency in the security protection, and save a lot of human and material resources. We present in this paper ADABeV, an intelligent video-surveillance framework for event recognition in crowded scene to detect the abnormal human behaviour. This framework is attended to be able to achieve real-time alarming, reducing the lags in traditional monitoring systems. This architecture proposal addresses four main challenges: behaviour understanding in crowded scenes, hard lighting conditions, multiple input kinds of sensors and contextual-based adaptability to recognize the active context of the scene.

Keywords: Behavior recognition, Crowded scene, Data fusion, Pattern recognition, Video-surveillance

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3194 Information content of Islamic Private Debt Announcement: Evidence from Malaysia

Authors: Sahar Modirzadehbami, Gholamreza Mansourfar

Abstract:

Different types of Islamic debts have been increasingly utilized as preferred means of debt funding by Malaysian private firms in recent years. This study examines the impact of Islamic debts announcement on private firms- stock returns. Our sample includes forty five listed companies on Bursa Malaysia involved in issuing of Islamic debts during 2005 to 2008. The abnormal returns and cumulative average abnormal returns are calculated and tested using standard event study methodology. The results show that a significant, negative abnormal return occurs one day before announcement date. This negative abnormal return is representing market participant-s adverse attitude toward Islamic private debt announcement during the research period.

Keywords: Announcement effect, Event study, Islamic debts, Malaysia, Sukuk

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3193 A Novel Framework for Abnormal Behaviour Identification and Detection for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Muhammad R. Ahmed, Xu Huang, Dharmendra Sharma

Abstract:

Despite extensive study on wireless sensor network security, defending internal attacks and finding abnormal behaviour of the sensor are still difficult and unsolved task. The conventional cryptographic technique does not give the robust security or detection process to save the network from internal attacker that cause by abnormal behavior. The insider attacker or abnormally behaved sensor identificationand location detection framework using false massage detection and Time difference of Arrival (TDoA) is presented in this paper. It has been shown that the new framework can efficiently identify and detect the insider attacker location so that the attacker can be reprogrammed or subside from the network to save from internal attack.

Keywords: Insider Attaker identification, Abnormal Behaviour, Location detection, Time difference of Arrival (TDoA), Wireless sensor network

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3192 Energy Interaction among HVAC and Supermarket Environment

Authors: D. Woradechjumroen, H. Li, Y. Yu

Abstract:

Supermarkets are the most electricity-intensive type of commercial buildings. The unsuitable indoor environment of a supermarket provided by abnormal HVAC operations incurs waste energy consumption in refrigeration systems. This current study briefly describes significantly solid backgrounds and proposes easyto- use analysis terminology for investigating the impact of HVAC operations on refrigeration power consumption using the field-test data obtained from building automation system (BAS). With solid backgrounds and prior knowledge, expected energy interactions between HVAC and refrigeration systems are proposed through Pearson’s correlation analysis (R value) by considering correlations between equipment power consumption and dominantly independent variables (driving force conditions).The R value can be conveniently utilized to evaluate how strong relations between equipment operations and driving force parameters are. The calculated R values obtained from field data are compared to expected ranges of R values computed by energy interaction methodology. The comparisons can separate the operational conditions of equipment into faulty and normal conditions. This analysis can simply investigate the condition of equipment operations or building sensors because equipment could be abnormal conditions due to routine operations or faulty commissioning processes in field tests. With systematically solid and easy-to-use backgrounds of interactions provided in the present article, the procedures can be utilized as a tool to evaluate the proper commissioning and routine operations of HVAC and refrigeration systems to detect simple faults (e.g. sensors and driving force environment of refrigeration systems and equipment set-point) and optimize power consumption in supermarket buildings. Moreover, the analysis will be used to further study the FDD research for supermarkets in future.

Keywords: Energy interaction, HVAC, R-value, Supermarket buildings.

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3191 Numerical Simulation of Thermoreversible Polymer Gel Filtration

Authors: Said F. Urmancheev, Victor N. Kireev, Svetlana F. Khizbullina

Abstract:

This paper presents results of numerical simulation of filtration of abnormal thermoviscous fluid on an example of thermo reversible polymer gel.

Keywords: Abnormal thermoviscous fluid, filtration, numerical simulation.

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3190 Influence of Textured Clusters on the Goss Grains Growth in Silicon Steels Consideration of Energy and Mobility

Authors: H. Afer, N. Rouag, R. Penelle

Abstract:

In the Fe-3%Si sheets, grade Hi-B, with AlN and MnS as inhibitors, the Goss grains which abnormally grow do not have a size greater than the average size of the primary matrix. In this heterogeneous microstructure, the size factor is not a required condition for the secondary recrystallization. The onset of the small Goss grain abnormal growth appears to be related to a particular behavior of their grain boundaries, to the local texture and to the distribution of the inhibitors. The presence and the evolution of oriented clusters ensure to the small Goss grains a favorable neighborhood to grow. The modified Monte-Carlo approach, which is applied, considers the local environment of each grain. The grain growth is dependent of its real spatial position; the matrix heterogeneity is then taken into account. The grain growth conditions are considered in the global matrix and in different matrixes corresponding to A component clusters. The grain growth behaviour is considered with introduction of energy only, energy and mobility, energy and mobility and precipitates.

Keywords: Abnormal grain growth, grain boundary energy andmobility, neighbourhood, oriented clusters.

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3189 Wavelet Based Qualitative Assessment of Femur Bone Strength Using Radiographic Imaging

Authors: Sundararajan Sangeetha, Joseph Jesu Christopher, Swaminathan Ramakrishnan

Abstract:

In this work, the primary compressive strength components of human femur trabecular bone are qualitatively assessed using image processing and wavelet analysis. The Primary Compressive (PC) component in planar radiographic femur trabecular images (N=50) is delineated by semi-automatic image processing procedure. Auto threshold binarization algorithm is employed to recognize the presence of mineralization in the digitized images. The qualitative parameters such as apparent mineralization and total area associated with the PC region are derived for normal and abnormal images.The two-dimensional discrete wavelet transforms are utilized to obtain appropriate features that quantify texture changes in medical images .The normal and abnormal samples of the human femur are comprehensively analyzed using Harr wavelet.The six statistical parameters such as mean, median, mode, standard deviation, mean absolute deviation and median absolute deviation are derived at level 4 decomposition for both approximation and horizontal wavelet coefficients. The correlation coefficient of various wavelet derived parameters with normal and abnormal for both approximated and horizontal coefficients are estimated. It is seen that in almost all cases the abnormal show higher degree of correlation than normals. Further the parameters derived from approximation coefficient show more correlation than those derived from the horizontal coefficients. The parameters mean and median computed at the output of level 4 Harr wavelet channel was found to be a useful predictor to delineate the normal and the abnormal groups.

Keywords: Image processing, planar radiographs, trabecular bone and wavelet analysis.

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3188 Landslide and Debris Flow Characteristics during Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

Authors: C. Y. Chen

Abstract:

As the global climate changes, the threat from landslides and debris flows increases. Learning how a watershed initiates landslides under abnormal rainfall conditions and predicting landslide magnitude and frequency distribution is thus important. Landslides show a power-law distribution in the frequency-area distribution. The distribution curve shows an exponent gradient 1.0 in the Sandpile model test. Will the landslide frequency-area statistics show a distribution similar to the Sandpile model under extreme rainfall conditions? The purpose of the study is to identify the extreme rainfall-induced landslide frequency-area distribution in the Laonong River Basin in southern Taiwan. Results of the analysis show that a lower gradient of landslide frequency-area distribution could be attributed to the transportation and deposition of debris flow areas that are included in the landslide area.

Keywords: Landslide, power-law distribution, GIS.

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3187 Coherence Analysis for Epilepsy Patients: An MEG Study

Authors: S. Ge, T. Wu, HY. Tang, X. Xiao, K. Iramina, W. Wu

Abstract:

It is crucial to quantitatively evaluate the treatment of epilepsy patients. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that compared to the healthy control subjects, the epilepsy patients have abnormal resting-state connectivity. In this study, we used the imaginary part of coherency to measure the resting-state connectivity. The analysis results shown that compared to the healthy control subjects, epilepsy patients tend to have abnormal rhythm brain connectivity over their epileptic focus.

Keywords: Coherence, connectivity, resting-state, epilepsy

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3186 Bond Strength between Concrete and AR-Glass Roving with Variables of Development Length

Authors: Jongho Park, Taekyun Kim, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently, the climate change is the one of the main problems. This abnormal phenomenon is consisted of the scorching heat, heavy rain and snowfall, and cold wave that will be enlarged abnormal climate change repeatedly. Accordingly, the width of temperature change is increased more and more by abnormal climate, and it is the main factor of cracking in the reinforced concrete. The crack of the reinforced concrete will affect corrosion of steel re-bar which can decrease durability of the structure easily. Hence, the elimination of the durability weakening factor (steel re-bar) is needed. Textile which weaves the carbon, AR-glass and aramid fiber has been studied actively for exchanging the steel re-bar in the Europe for about 15 years because of its good durability. To apply textile as the concrete reinforcement, the bond strength between concrete and textile will be investigated closely. Therefore, in this paper, pull-out test was performed with change of development length of textile. Significant load and stress was increasing at D80. But, bond stress decreased by increasing development length.

Keywords: Bond strength, climate change, pull-out test, replacement of reinforcement material, textile.

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3185 Hydropriming and Osmopriming Effects on Cumin(Cuminum Cyminum L.) Seeds Germination

Authors: E. Neamatollahi, M. Bannayan, A. Souhani Darban, A. Ghanbari

Abstract:

In production of medicinal plants, seed germination is very important problem. The treated seeds (control, hydro priming and ZnSO4) of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) were evaluated at germination and seedling growth for tolerance to salt (NaCl and Na2SO4) conditions at the same water potentials of 0.0, -0.3, -0.6, - 0.9 and -1.2MPa. Electrical conductivity (EC) values of the NaCl solutions were 0.0, 6.5, 12.7, 18.4 and 23.5 dSm-1, respectively. The objective of the study was to determine factors responsible for germination and early seedling growth due to salt toxicity or osmotic effect and to optimize the best priming treatment for these stress conditions. Results revealed that germination delayed in both solutions, having variable germination with different priming treatments. Germination, shoot and weight, root and shoot length were higher but mean germination time and abnormal germination percentage were lower in NaCl than Na2SO4 at the same water potential. The root / shoot weight and R/S length increased with increase in osmotic potential in both NaCl and Na2SO4 solutions. NaCl had less inhibitor effect on seedling growth than the germination. It was concluded that inhibition of germination at the same water potential of NaCl and Na2SO4 resulted from salt toxicity rather than osmotic effect. Hydro priming increased germination and seedling growth under salt stress. This protocol has practical importance and could be recommended to farmers to achieve higher germination and uniform emergence under field conditions.

Keywords: Priming, Germination, Nacl, ZnSo4, Na2So4.

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3184 Analyzing the Effects of Resource Relatedness on Strategic Alliances Performance

Authors: G. Chung, B. Choi

Abstract:

Very few studies have examined performance implications of strategic alliance announcements in the information technologies industry from a resource-based view. Furthermore, none of these studies have investigated resource congruence and alliance motive as potential sources of abnormal firm performance. This paper extends upon current resource-based literature to discover and explore linkages between these concepts and the practical performance of strategic alliances. This study finds that strategic alliance announcements have provided overall abnormal positive returns, and that marketing alliances with marketing resource incongruence have also contributed to significant firm performance.

Keywords: Event study methodology, resource-based theory, resource relatedness, strategic alliance.

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3183 Non-reflection Boundary Conditions for Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Flow

Authors: A. Abdalla, A. Kaltayev

Abstract:

This article presents the boundary conditions for the problem of turbulent supersonic gas flow in a plane channel with a perpendicular injection jets. The non-reflection boundary conditions for direct modeling of compressible viscous gases are studied. A formulation using the NSCBC (Navier- Stocks characteristic boundary conditions) through boundaries is derived for the subsonic inflow and subsonic non-reflection outflow situations. Verification of the constructed algorithm of boundary conditions is carried out by solving a test problem of perpendicular sound of jets injection into a supersonic gas flow in a plane channel.

Keywords: WENO scheme, non-reflection boundary conditions, NSCBC, supersonic flow.

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3182 Automated Process Quality Monitoring with Prediction of Fault Condition Using Measurement Data

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho

Abstract:

Detection of incipient abnormal events is important to improve safety and reliability of machine operations and reduce losses caused by failures. Improper set-ups or aligning of parts often leads to severe problems in many machines. The construction of prediction models for predicting faulty conditions is quite essential in making decisions on when to perform machine maintenance. This paper presents a multivariate calibration monitoring approach based on the statistical analysis of machine measurement data. The calibration model is used to predict two faulty conditions from historical reference data. This approach utilizes genetic algorithms (GA) based variable selection, and we evaluate the predictive performance of several prediction methods using real data. The results shows that the calibration model based on supervised probabilistic principal component analysis (SPPCA) yielded best performance in this work. By adopting a proper variable selection scheme in calibration models, the prediction performance can be improved by excluding non-informative variables from their model building steps.

Keywords: Prediction, operation monitoring, on-line data, nonlinear statistical methods, empirical model.

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3181 Modeling of Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy Implant for Fractured Distal Femur

Authors: Abhishek Soni, Bhagat Singh

Abstract:

Distal femur fractures are the cause of abnormal gloomy. Several types of surgical treatments have been adopted by the practitioners to restore the fractured region of distal femur. Still within this domain of study, unstable fixation remains a challenge for orthopedists. In the present study, a fixation implant is designed and analyzed under physiological loading conditions for cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (Co-Cr-Mo). It has been found that the stresses and deformation developed are quite low. It means that customized fixation plates will provide stable fixation resulting in improved fracture union.

Keywords: Biomechanical evaluations, customized implant, Co-Cr-Mo alloy, reverse engineering.

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3180 Modeling the Moment of Resistance Generated by an Ore-Grinding Mill

Authors: Marinka Baghdasaryan, Tigran Mnoyan

Abstract:

The pertinence of modeling the moment of resistance generated by the ore-grinding mill is substantiated. Based on the ranking of technological indices obtained in the result of the survey among the specialists of several beneficiating plants, the factors determining the level of the moment of resistance generated by the mill are revealed. A priori diagram of the ranks is obtained in which the factors are arranged in the descending order of the impact degree on the level of the moment. The obtained model of the moment of resistance shows the technological character of the operation modes of the ore-grinding mill and can be used for improving the operation modes of the system motor-mill and preventing the abnormal mode of the drive synchronous motor.

Keywords: Model, abnormal mode, mill, correlation, moment of resistance, rotational speed.

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3179 Finite Element Investigation of Transmission Conditions for Non-Monotonic Temperature Interphases

Authors: Hamid Mozafari, Andreas Öchsner, Amran Alias

Abstract:

Imperfect transmission conditions modeling a thin reactive 2D interphases layer between two dissimilar bonded strips have been extracted. In this paper, the soundness of these transmission conditions for heat conduction problems are examined by the finite element method for a strong temperature-dependent source or sink and non-monotonic temperature distributions around the faces..

Keywords: Imperfect interface, Transmission conditions, Finiteelement analysis, Interphase

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3178 Kernel’s Parameter Selection for Support Vector Domain Description

Authors: Mohamed EL Boujnouni, Mohamed Jedra, Noureddine Zahid

Abstract:

Support Vector Domain Description (SVDD) is one of the best-known one-class support vector learning methods, in which one tries the strategy of using balls defined on the feature space in order to distinguish a set of normal data from all other possible abnormal objects. As all kernel-based learning algorithms its performance depends heavily on the proper choice of the kernel parameter. This paper proposes a new approach to select kernel's parameter based on maximizing the distance between both gravity centers of normal and abnormal classes, and at the same time minimizing the variance within each class. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on several benchmarks. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the presented method.

Keywords: Gravity centers, Kernel’s parameter, Support Vector Domain Description, Variance.

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3177 A Study on Abnormal Behavior Detection in BYOD Environment

Authors: Dongwan Kang, Joohyung Oh, Chaetae Im

Abstract:

Advancement of communication technologies and smart devices in the recent times is leading to changes into the integrated wired and wireless communication environments. Since early days, businesses had started introducing environments for mobile device application to their operations in order to improve productivity (efficiency) and the closed corporate environment gradually shifted to an open structure. Recently, individual user's interest in working environment using mobile devices has increased and a new corporate working environment under the concept of BYOD is drawing attention. BYOD (bring your own device) is a concept where individuals bring in and use their own devices in business activities. Through BYOD, businesses can anticipate improved productivity (efficiency) and also a reduction in the cost of purchasing devices. However, as a result of security threats caused by frequent loss and theft of personal devices and corporate data leaks due to low security, companies are reluctant about adopting BYOD system. In addition, without considerations to diverse devices and connection environments, there are limitations in detecting abnormal behaviors, such as information leaks, using the existing network-based security equipment. This study suggests a method to detect abnormal behaviors according to individual behavioral patterns, rather than the existing signature-based malicious behavior detection, and discusses applications of this method in BYOD environment.

Keywords: BYOD, Security, Anomaly Behavior Detection.

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3176 On Problem of Parameters Identification of Dynamic Object

Authors: Kamil Aida-zade, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this paper, some problem formulations of dynamic object parameters recovery described by non-autonomous system of ordinary differential equations with multipoint unshared edge conditions are investigated. Depending on the number of additional conditions the problem is reduced to an algebraic equations system or to a problem of quadratic programming. With this purpose the paper offers a new scheme of the edge conditions transfer method called by conditions shift. The method permits to get rid from differential links and multipoint unshared initially-edge conditions. The advantage of the proposed approach is concluded by capabilities of reduction of a parametric identification problem to essential simple problems of the solution of an algebraic system or quadratic programming.

Keywords: dynamic objects, ordinary differential equations, multipoint unshared edge conditions, quadratic programming, conditions shift

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3175 The Radial Pulse Wave and Blood Viscosity

Authors: Hyunhee Ryu, Young Ju Jeon, Jaeuk U. Kim, Hae Jung Lee, Yu Jung Lee, Jong Yeol Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood viscosity on the radial pulse wave. For this, we obtained the radial pulse wave of 15 males with abnormal high hematocrit level and 47 males with normal hematocrit level at the age of thirties and forties. Various variables of the radial pulse wave between two groups were analyzed and compared by Student's T test. There are significant differences in several variables about height, time and area of the pulse wave. The first peak of the radial pulse wave was higher in abnormal high hematocrit group, but the third peak was higher and longer in normal hematocrit group. Our results suggest that the radial pulse wave can be used for diagnosis of high blood viscosity and more clinical application.

Keywords: Radial pulse wave, Blood viscosity, Hematocrit.

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3174 A Robust and Efficient Segmentation Method Applied for Cardiac Left Ventricle with Abnormal Shapes

Authors: Peifei Zhu, Zisheng Li, Yasuki Kakishita, Mayumi Suzuki, Tomoaki Chono

Abstract:

Segmentation of left ventricle (LV) from cardiac ultrasound images provides a quantitative functional analysis of the heart to diagnose disease. Active Shape Model (ASM) is widely used for LV segmentation, but it suffers from the drawback that initialization of the shape model is not sufficiently close to the target, especially when dealing with abnormal shapes in disease. In this work, a two-step framework is improved to achieve a fast and efficient LV segmentation. First, a robust and efficient detection based on Hough forest localizes cardiac feature points. Such feature points are used to predict the initial fitting of the LV shape model. Second, ASM is applied to further fit the LV shape model to the cardiac ultrasound image. With the robust initialization, ASM is able to achieve more accurate segmentation. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a dataset of 810 cardiac ultrasound images that are mostly abnormal shapes. This proposed method is compared with several combinations of ASM and existing initialization methods. Our experiment results demonstrate that accuracy of the proposed method for feature point detection for initialization was 40% higher than the existing methods. Moreover, the proposed method significantly reduces the number of necessary ASM fitting loops and thus speeds up the whole segmentation process. Therefore, the proposed method is able to achieve more accurate and efficient segmentation results and is applicable to unusual shapes of heart with cardiac diseases, such as left atrial enlargement.

Keywords: Hough forest, active shape model, segmentation, cardiac left ventricle.

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3173 Analysis of Electrocardiograph (ECG) Signal for the Detection of Abnormalities Using MATLAB

Authors: Durgesh Kumar Ojha, Monica Subashini

Abstract:

The proposed method is to study and analyze Electrocardiograph (ECG) waveform to detect abnormalities present with reference to P, Q, R and S peaks. The first phase includes the acquisition of real time ECG data. In the next phase, generation of signals followed by pre-processing. Thirdly, the procured ECG signal is subjected to feature extraction. The extracted features detect abnormal peaks present in the waveform Thus the normal and abnormal ECG signal could be differentiated based on the features extracted. The work is implemented in the most familiar multipurpose tool, MATLAB. This software efficiently uses algorithms and techniques for detection of any abnormalities present in the ECG signal. Proper utilization of MATLAB functions (both built-in and user defined) can lead us to work with ECG signals for processing and analysis in real time applications. The simulation would help in improving the accuracy and the hardware could be built conveniently.

Keywords: ECG Waveform, Peak Detection, Arrhythmia, Matlab.

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3172 Analysis of Driving Conditions and Preferred Media on Diversion

Authors: Yoon-Hyuk Choi

Abstract:

Studies on the distribution of traffic demands have been proceeding by providing traffic information for reducing greenhouse gases and reinforcing the road's competitiveness in the transport section, however, since it is preferentially required the extensive studies on the driver's behavior changing routes and its influence factors, this study has been developed a discriminant model for changing routes considering driving conditions including traffic conditions of roads and driver's preferences for information media. It is divided into three groups depending on driving conditions in group classification with the CART analysis, which is statistically meaningful. And the extent that driving conditions and preferred media affect a route change is examined through a discriminant analysis, and it is developed a discriminant model equation to predict a route change. As a result of building the discriminant model equation, it is shown that driving conditions affect a route change much more, the entire discriminant hit ratio is derived as 64.2%, and this discriminant equation shows high discriminant ability more than a certain degree.

Keywords: CART analysis, Diversion, Discriminant model, Driving conditions, and preferred media

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3171 Numerical Simulation of Diesel Sprays under Hot Bomb Conditions

Authors: Ishtiaq A. Chaudhry, Zia R Tahir, F. A. Siddiqui, F. Noor, M. J. Rashid

Abstract:

It has experimentally been proved that the performance of compression ignition (C.I.) engine is spray characteristics related. In modern diesel engine the spray formation and the eventual combustion process are the vital processes that offer more challenges towards enhancing the engine performance. In the present work the numerical simulation has been carried out for evaporating diesel sprays using Fluent software. For computational fluid dynamics simulation “Meshing” is done using Gambit software before transmitting it into Fluent. The simulation is carried out using hot bomb conditions under varying chamber conditions such as gas pressure, nozzle diameter and fuel injection pressure. For comparison purpose, the numerical simulations the chamber conditions were kept the same as that of the experimental data. At varying chamber conditions the spray penetration rates are compared with the existing experimental results.

Keywords: Evaporating diesel sprays, Penetration rates, Hot bomb conditions.

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3170 Human Intraocular Thermal Field in Action with Different Boundary Conditions Considering Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor Fluid Flow

Authors: Dara Singh, Keikhosrow Firouzbakhsh, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian

Abstract:

In this study, a validated 3D finite volume model of human eye is developed to study the fluid flow and heat transfer in the human eye at steady state conditions. For this purpose, discretized bio-heat transfer equation coupled with Boussinesq equation is analyzed with different anatomical, environmental, and physiological conditions. It is demonstrated that the fluid circulation is formed as a result of thermal gradients in various regions of eye. It is also shown that posterior region of the human eye is less affected by the ambient conditions compared to the anterior segment which is sensitive to the ambient conditions and also to the way the gravitational field is defined compared to the geometry of the eye making the circulations and the thermal field complicated in transient states. The effect of variation in material and boundary conditions guides us to the conclusion that thermal field of a healthy and non-healthy eye can be distinguished via computer simulations.

Keywords: Bio-heat, Boussinesq, conduction, convection, eye.

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