Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 324

Search results for: core noise

324 Power Transformer Noise, Noise Tests, and Example Test Results

Authors: E. Doğan, B. Kekezoğlu

Abstract:

Voltage level must be raised in order to deliver the produced energy to the consumption zones with less loss and less cost. Power transformers used to raise or lower voltage are important parts of the energy transmission system. Power transformers used in switchgear and power generation plants stay in human's intensive habitat zones as a result of expanding cities. Accordingly, noise levels produced by power transformers have begun more and more important and they have established itself as one of the research field. In this research, the noise cause on transformers has been investigated, it's causes has been examined and noise measurement techniques have been introduced. Examples of transformer noise test results are submitted and precautions to be taken were discussed for the purpose of decreasing of the noise which will occurred by transformers.

Keywords: Power transformer, noise measurement, core noise, load noise, fan-pump noise.

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323 The Improvement of Environmental Protection through Motor Vehicle Noise Abatement

Authors: Z. Jovanovic, Z. Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology for noise reduction of motor vehicles in use is presented. The methodology relies on synergic model of noise generation as a function of time. The arbitrary number of motor vehicle noise sources act in concert yielding the generation of the overall noise level of motor vehicle thereafter. The number of noise sources participating in the overall noise level of motor vehicle is subjected to the constraint of the calculation of the acoustic potential of each noise source under consideration. It is the prerequisite condition for the calculation of the acoustic potential of the whole vehicle. The recast form of pertinent set of equations describing the synergic model is laid down and solved by dint of Gauss method. The bunch of results emerged and some of them i.e. those ensuing from model application to MDD FAP Priboj motor vehicle in use are particularly elucidated.

Keywords: Noise abatement, MV noise sources, noise source identification, muffler.

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322 The Use of Real Measurements and GPS Data for Noise Mapping of Riyadh City

Authors: M. A. Foda, K. A. Alsaif, M. M. ElMadany, A.S. Aguib

Abstract:

In this paper, the noise maps for the area encircled by the Second Ring Road in Riyadh city are developed based on real measured data. Sound level meters, GPS receivers to determine measurement position, a database program to manage the measured data, and a program to develop the maps are used. A baseline noise level has been established at each short-term site so subsequent monitoring may be conducted to describe changes in Riyadh-s noise environment. Short-term sites are used to show typical daytime and nighttime noise levels at specific locations by short duration grab sampling.

Keywords: Noise mapping, Noise measurements, GPS, noise level.

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321 Design of Low Noise Amplifiers for 10 GHz Application

Authors: Makesh Iyer, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

This work deals with the designing of an efficient low noise amplifier for 10.00 GHz applications. The amplifier is designed using Gallium Arsenide High Electron Mobility Transistor (GaAs HEMT) ATF – 36077 with inductive source degeneration technique which is one of the techniques to improve the stability of the potentially unstable device and make it unconditionally stable. Also, different substrates are used for designing the LNA to identify the suitable substrate that gives optimum results. It is observed that the noise immunity is more in Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) designed using RT Duroid 5880 substrate. This design resulted in noise figure of 0.859 dB and power gain of 15.530 dB. The comparative analysis of the LNA design is discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Low noise amplifier, substrate, distributed components, gain, noise figure.

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320 High Performance Computing Using Out-of- Core Sparse Direct Solvers

Authors: Mandhapati P. Raju, Siddhartha Khaitan

Abstract:

In-core memory requirement is a bottleneck in solving large three dimensional Navier-Stokes finite element problem formulations using sparse direct solvers. Out-of-core solution strategy is a viable alternative to reduce the in-core memory requirements while solving large scale problems. This study evaluates the performance of various out-of-core sequential solvers based on multifrontal or supernodal techniques in the context of finite element formulations for three dimensional problems on a Windows platform. Here three different solvers, HSL_MA78, MUMPS and PARDISO are compared. The performance of these solvers is evaluated on a 64-bit machine with 16GB RAM for finite element formulation of flow through a rectangular channel. It is observed that using out-of-core PARDISO solver, relatively large problems can be solved. The implementation of Newton and modified Newton's iteration is also discussed.

Keywords: Out-of-core, PARDISO, MUMPS, Newton.

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319 A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior

Authors: Himanshu Dehra

Abstract:

This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.

Keywords: Human brain, noise behavior, noise characterization, noise filters, physiological responses, psychoacoustics.

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318 Identification of Transformer Core Vibrations and the Effect of Third Harmonic in the Electricity Grid

Authors: Setareh Gorji Ghalamestani, Lieven Vandevelde, Jan Melkebeek

Abstract:

In this work, an experimental technique is applied for the measurements of the vibrations and deformation of a test transformer core. Since the grid voltage contains some higher harmonics, in addition to a purely sinusoidal magnetisation of the core the presence of third harmonic is also studied. The vibrations of the transformer core for points as well as the surface scan of the leg show more deformation in the corners of the leg than the middle of the leg. The influence of the higher harmonic of the magnetisation on the core deformation is also more significant in the corners of the leg. The core deformation shape under a sinusoidal magnetisation with a higher harmonic is more wavy and fluctuating than that under a purely sinusoidal magnetisation.

Keywords: Vibrations and noise, transformer, vibration measurements, laser vibrometer, higher harmonic.

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317 Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Noise-Reduction Transformer

Authors: Toshiaki Yanada, Kazumi Ishikawa

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the analysis and development of noise-reduction transformer that has a filter function for conductive noise transmission. Two types of prototype noise-reduction transformers with two different output voltages are proposed. To determine an optimum design for the noise-reduction transformer, noise attenuation characteristics are discussed based on the experiments and the equivalent circuit analysis. The analysis gives a relation between the circuit parameters and the noise attenuation. High performance step-down noise-reduction transformer for direct power supply to electronics equipment is developed. The input voltage of the transformer is 100 V and the output voltage is 5 V. Frequency characteristics of noise attenuation are discussed, and prevention of pulse noise transmission is demonstrated. Normal mode noise attenuation of this transformer is –80 dB, and common mode exceeds –90 dB. The step-down noise-reduction transformer eliminates pulse noise efficiently.

Keywords: conductive noise, EMC, EMI, noise attenuation, transformer.

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316 Local Buckling of Web-Core and Foam-Core Sandwich Panels

Authors: Ali N. Suri, Ahmad A. Al-Makhlufi

Abstract:

Sandwich construction is widely accepted as a method of construction especially in the aircraft industry. It is a type of stressed skin construction formed by bonding two thin faces to a thick core, the faces resist all of the applied edge loads and provide all or nearly all of the required rigidities, the core spaces the faces to increase cross section moment of inertia about common neutral axis and transmit shear between them provides a perfect bond between core and faces is made.

Material for face sheets can be of metal or reinforced plastics laminates, core material can be metallic cores of thin sheets forming corrugation or honeycomb, or non metallic core of Balsa wood, plastic foams, or honeycomb made of reinforced plastics.

For in plane axial loading web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels can fail by local buckling of plates forming the cross section with buckling wave length of the order of length of spacing between webs.

In this study local buckling of web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels is carried out for given materials of facing and core, and given panel overall dimension for different combinations of cross section geometries.

The Finite Strip Method is used for the analysis, and Fortran based computer program is developed and used.

Keywords: Local Buckling, Finite Strip, Sandwich panels, Web and foam core.

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315 Accelerating Sparse Matrix Vector Multiplication on Many-Core GPUs

Authors: Weizhi Xu, Zhiyong Liu, Dongrui Fan, Shuai Jiao, Xiaochun Ye, Fenglong Song, Chenggang Yan

Abstract:

Many-core GPUs provide high computing ability and substantial bandwidth; however, optimizing irregular applications like SpMV on GPUs becomes a difficult but meaningful task. In this paper, we propose a novel method to improve the performance of SpMV on GPUs. A new storage format called HYB-R is proposed to exploit GPU architecture more efficiently. The COO portion of the matrix is partitioned recursively into a ELL portion and a COO portion in the process of creating HYB-R format to ensure that there are as many non-zeros as possible in ELL format. The method of partitioning the matrix is an important problem for HYB-R kernel, so we also try to tune the parameters to partition the matrix for higher performance. Experimental results show that our method can get better performance than the fastest kernel (HYB) in NVIDIA-s SpMV library with as high as 17% speedup.

Keywords: GPU, HYB-R, Many-core, Performance Tuning, SpMV

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314 A New Computational Tool for Noise Prediction of Rotating Surfaces (FACT)

Authors: Ana Vieira, Fernando Lau, João Pedro Mortágua, Luís Cruz, Rui Santos

Abstract:

The air transport impact on environment is more than ever a limitative obstacle to the aeronautical industry continuous growth. Over the last decades, considerable effort has been carried out in order to obtain quieter aircraft solutions, whether by changing the original design or investigating more silent maneuvers. The noise propagated by rotating surfaces is one of the most important sources of annoyance, being present in most aerial vehicles. Bearing this is mind, CEIIA developed a new computational chain for noise prediction with in-house software tools to obtain solutions in relatively short time without using excessive computer resources. This work is based on the new acoustic tool, which aims to predict the rotor noise generated during steady and maneuvering flight, making use of the flexibility of the C language and the advantages of GPU programming in terms of velocity. The acoustic tool is based in the Formulation 1A of Farassat, capable of predicting two important types of noise: the loading and thickness noise. The present work describes the most important features of the acoustic tool, presenting its most relevant results and framework analyses for helicopters and UAV quadrotors.

Keywords: Rotor noise, acoustic tool, GPU Programming, UAV noise.

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313 Study on Clarification of the Core Technology in a Monozukuri Company

Authors: Nishiyama Toshiaki, Tadayuki Kyountani, Nguyen Huu Phuc, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Oke Oktavianty

Abstract:

It is important to clarify the company’s core technology in product development process to strengthen their power in providing technology that meets the customer requirement. QFD method is adopted to clarify the core technology through identifying the high element technologies that are related to the voice of customer, and offer the most delightful features for customer. AHP is used to determine the importance of evaluating factors. A case study was conducted by using this approach in Japan’s Monozukuri Company (so called manufacturing company) to clarify their core technology based on customer requirements.

Keywords: QFD, product development process, core technology, AHP.

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312 Assessment of Noise Pollution in the City of Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Tallal Abdel Karim Bouzir, Nourdinne Zemmouri, Djihed Berkouk

Abstract:

In this research, a quantitative assessment of the urban sound environment of the city of Biskra, Algeria, was conducted. To determine the quality of the soundscape based on in-situ measurement, using a Landtek SL5868P sound level meter in 47 points, which have been identified to represent the whole city. The result shows that the urban noise level varies from 55.3 dB to 75.8 dB during the weekdays and from 51.7 dB to 74.3 dB during the weekend. On the other hand, we can also note that 70.20% of the results of the weekday measurements and 55.30% of the results of the weekend measurements have levels of sound intensity that exceed the levels allowed by Algerian law and the recommendations of the World Health Organization. These very high urban noise levels affect the quality of life, the acoustic comfort and may even pose multiple risks to people's health.

Keywords: Noise pollution, road traffic, sound intensity, public health, noise monitoring.

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311 Traffic Noise under Stop and Go Conditions in Intersections – A Case Study

Authors: Nima Jahandar, Amin Hosseinpour, Mohammad Ali Sahraei

Abstract:

Whit the increasing of traffic, noise emanated from motor vehicles increases as well, which subsequently causes adding to the stress of modern city. Thus, it is needed to look for most critical areas in terms of environmental and social impact of noise. There are several critical situations for noise emanated from motor vehicles such as stop and go situation which usually occurs near junctions or at-grade intersections. This study was conducted in two locations, most common types of intersections, crossroads and Tjunctions. The highest average noise levels are recorded during Go phase for T-junction, 64.4 dB, and Drive phase for crossroad, 64 dB. It implies that the existence of intersection caused the noise level to increase. The vehicles starting to move produce more sound than when they travel at a constant speed along the intersection. It is suggested that special considerations and priority of allocating funds should be given to these critical spots.

Keywords: Crossroad, T-junction, Traffic Noise, Stop and Go, Urban noise

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310 Importance of the Green Belts to Reduce Noise Pollution and Determination of Roadside Noise Reduction Effectiveness of Bushes in Konya, Turkey

Authors: S. Onder, Z. Kocbeker

Abstract:

The impact of noise upon live quality has become an important aspect to make both urban and environmental policythroughout Europe and in Turkey. Concern over the quality of urban environments, including noise levels and declining quality of green space, is over the past decade with increasing emphasis on designing livable and sustainable communities. According to the World Health Organization, noise pollution is the third most hazardous environmental type of pollution which proceeded by only air (gas emission) and water pollution. The research carried out in two phases, the first stage of the research noise and plant types providing the suction of noise was evaluated through literature study and at the second stage, definite types (Juniperus horizontalis L., Spirea vanhouetti Briot., Cotoneaster dammerii C.K., Berberis thunbergii D.C., Pyracantha coccinea M. etc.) were selected for the city of Konya. Trials were conducted on the highway of Konya. The biggest value of noise reduction was 6.3 dB(A), 4.9 dB(A), 6.2 dB(A) value with compared to the control which includes the group that formed by the bushes at the distance of 7m, 11m, 20m from the source and 5m, 9m, 20m of plant width, respectively. In this paper, definitions regarding to noise and its sources were made and the precautions were taken against to noise that mentioned earlier with the adverse effects of noise. Plantation design approaches and suggestions concerning to the diversity to be used, which are peculiar to roadside, were developed to discuss the role and the function of plant material to reduce the noise of the traffic.

Keywords: Bushes, noise, road, Konya

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309 Automotive 3-Microphone Noise Canceller in a Frequently Moving Noise Source Environment

Authors: Z. Qi, T. J. Moir

Abstract:

A combined three-microphone voice activity detector (VAD) and noise-canceling system is studied to enhance speech recognition in an automobile environment. A previous experiment clearly shows the ability of the composite system to cancel a single noise source outside of a defined zone. This paper investigates the performance of the composite system when there are frequently moving noise sources (noise sources are coming from different locations but are not always presented at the same time) e.g. there is other passenger speech or speech from a radio when a desired speech is presented. To work in a frequently moving noise sources environment, whilst a three-microphone voice activity detector (VAD) detects voice from a “VAD valid zone", the 3-microphone noise canceller uses a “noise canceller valid zone" defined in freespace around the users head. Therefore, a desired voice should be in the intersection of the noise canceller valid zone and VAD valid zone. Thus all noise is suppressed outside this intersection of area. Experiments are shown for a real environment e.g. all results were recorded in a car by omni-directional electret condenser microphones.

Keywords: Signal processing, voice activity detection, noise canceller, microphone array beam forming.

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308 Dynamic Variation in Nano-Scale CMOS SRAM Cells Due to LF/RTS Noise and Threshold Voltage

Authors: M. Fadlallah, G. Ghibaudo, C. G. Theodorou

Abstract:

The dynamic variation in memory devices such as the Static Random Access Memory can give errors in read or write operations. In this paper, the effect of low-frequency and random telegraph noise on the dynamic variation of one SRAM cell is detailed. The effect on circuit noise, speed, and length of time of processing is examined, using the Supply Read Retention Voltage and the Read Static Noise Margin. New test run methods are also developed. The obtained results simulation shows the importance of noise caused by dynamic variation, and the impact of Random Telegraph noise on SRAM variability is examined by evaluating the statistical distributions of Random Telegraph noise amplitude in the pull-up, pull-down. The threshold voltage mismatch between neighboring cell transistors due to intrinsic fluctuations typically contributes to larger reductions in static noise margin. Also the contribution of each of the SRAM transistor to total dynamic variation has been identified.

Keywords: Low-frequency noise, Random Telegraph Noise, Dynamic Variation, SRRV.

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307 Design and Simulation of Low Noise Amplifier Circuit for 5 GHz to 6 GHz

Authors: Hossein Sahoolizadeh, Alishir Moradi Kordalivand, Zargham Heidari

Abstract:

In first stage of each microwave receiver there is Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) circuit, and this stage has important rule in quality factor of the receiver. The design of a LNA in Radio Frequency (RF) circuit requires the trade-off many importance characteristics such as gain, Noise Figure (NF), stability, power consumption and complexity. This situation Forces desingners to make choices in the desing of RF circuits. In this paper the aim is to design and simulate a single stage LNA circuit with high gain and low noise using MESFET for frequency range of 5 GHz to 6 GHz. The desing simulation process is down using Advance Design System (ADS). A single stage LNA has successfully designed with 15.83 dB forward gain and 1.26 dB noise figure in frequency of 5.3 GHz. Also the designed LNA should be working stably In a frequency range of 5 GHz to 6 GHz.

Keywords: Advance Design System, Low Noise Amplifier, Radio Frequency, Noise Figure.

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306 Phase Noise Impact on BER in Space Communication

Authors: Ondrej Baran, Miroslav Kasal, Petr Vagner, Tomas Urbanec

Abstract:

This paper deals with the modeling and the evaluation of a multiplicative phase noise influence on the bit error ratio in a general space communication system. Our research is focused on systems with multi-state phase shift keying modulation techniques and it turns out, that the phase noise significantly affects the bit error rate, especially for higher signal to noise ratios. These results come from a system model created in Matlab environment and are shown in a form of constellation diagrams and bit error rate dependencies. The change of a user data bit rate is also considered and included into simulation results. Obtained outcomes confirm theoretical presumptions.

Keywords: Additive thermal noise, AWGN, BER, bit error rate, multiplicative phase noise, phase shift keying.

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305 Structural and Optical Characterization of [email protected] Core–Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: A. Pourahmad, Sh. Gharipour

Abstract:

The present work describes the preparation and characterization of nanosized SiO2@PbS core-shell particles by using a simple wet chemical route. This method utilizes silica spheres formation followed by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method assisted lead sulphide shell layer formation. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis spectroscopic, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. The morphological studies revealed the uniformity in size distribution with core size of 250 nm and shell thickness of 18 nm. The electron microscopic images also indicate the irregular morphology of lead sulphide shell layer. The structural studies indicate the face-centered cubic system of PbS shell with no other trace for impurities in the crystal structure.

Keywords: Core-shell, nanostructure, semiconductor, optical property, XRD.

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304 Effect of Core Stability Ex ercises on Trunk Muscle Balance in Healthy Adult Individuals

Authors: Amira A. A. Abdallah, Amir A. Beltagi

Abstract:

Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for improving muscle balance and optimizing performance in healthy and unhealthy individuals. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of beginner’s core stability exercises on trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio and trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques. Methods: Thirty five healthy individuals participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups; experimental “group I, n=20” and control “group II, n=15”. Their mean age, weight and height were 20.7±2.4 vs. 20.3±0.61 years, 66.5±12.1 vs. 68.57±12.2 kg and 166.7±7.8 vs. 164.28 ±7.59 cm. for group I vs. group II. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which group I performed a core stability training program. Results: The 2x2 Mixed Design ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences (p>0.025) in the trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio between the pre-test and post-test conditions for either group. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p>0.025) in the trunk flexion/extension ratios between both groups at either condition. However, the 2x2 Mixed Design MANOVA revealed significant increases (p<0.025) in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the post-test condition compared with the pre-test in group I with no significant differences (p>0.025) in group II. Moreover, there was a significant increase (p<0.025) in the trunk flexors’ peak torque only in group I compared with group II in the post-test condition with no significant differences in the other conditions. Interpretation/Conclusion: The improvement in muscle performance indicated by the increase in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve muscle performance.

Keywords: Core Stability, Isokinetic, Trunk Muscles.

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303 Noise Performance of Millimeter-wave Silicon Based Mixed Tunneling Avalanche Transit Time(MITATT) Diode

Authors: Aritra Acharyya, Moumita Mukherjee, J. P. Banerjee

Abstract:

A generalized method for small-signal simulation of avalanche noise in Mixed Tunneling Avalanche Transit Time (MITATT) device is presented in this paper where the effect of series resistance is taken into account. The method is applied to a millimeter-wave Double Drift Region (DDR) MITATT device based on Silicon to obtain noise spectral density and noise measure as a function of frequency for different values of series resistance. It is found that noise measure of the device at the operating frequency (122 GHz) with input power density of 1010 Watt/m2 is about 35 dB for hypothetical parasitic series resistance of zero ohm (estimated junction temperature = 500 K). Results show that the noise measure increases as the value of parasitic resistance increases.

Keywords: Noise Analysis, Silicon MITATT, Admittancecharacteristics, Noise spectral density.

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302 Estimation of Individual Power of Noise Sources Operating Simultaneously

Authors: Pankaj Chandna, Surinder Deswal, Arunesh Chandra, SK Sharma

Abstract:

Noise has adverse effect on human health and comfort. Noise not only cause hearing impairment, but it also acts as a causal factor for stress and raising systolic pressure. Additionally it can be a causal factor in work accidents, both by marking hazards and warning signals and by impeding concentration. Industry workers also suffer psychological and physical stress as well as hearing loss due to industrial noise. This paper proposes an approach to enable engineers to point out quantitatively the noisiest source for modification, while multiple machines are operating simultaneously. The model with the point source and spherical radiation in a free field was adopted to formulate the problem. The procedure works very well in ideal cases (point source and free field). However, most of the industrial noise problems are complicated by the fact that the noise is confined in a room. Reflections from the walls, floor, ceiling, and equipment in a room create a reverberant sound field that alters the sound wave characteristics from those for the free field. So the model was validated for relatively low absorption room at NIT Kurukshetra Central Workshop. The results of validation pointed out that the estimated sound power of noise sources under simultaneous conditions were on lower side, within the error limits 3.56 - 6.35 %. Thus suggesting the use of this methodology for practical implementation in industry. To demonstrate the application of the above analytical procedure for estimating the sound power of noise sources under simultaneous operating conditions, a manufacturing facility (Railway Workshop at Yamunanagar, India) having five sound sources (machines) on its workshop floor is considered in this study. The findings of the case study had identified the two most effective candidates (noise sources) for noise control in the Railway Workshop Yamunanagar, India. The study suggests that the modification in the design and/or replacement of these two identified noisiest sources (machine) would be necessary so as to achieve an effective reduction in noise levels. Further, the estimated data allows engineers to better understand the noise situations of the workplace and to revise the map when changes occur in noise level due to a workplace re-layout.

Keywords: Industrial noise, sound power level, multiple noise sources, sources contribution.

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301 A Novel Fuzzy Technique for Image Noise Reduction

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hameed Reza Pourreza, Hasan Ebrahimi

Abstract:

A new fuzzy filter is presented for noise reduction of images corrupted with additive noise. The filter consists of two stages. In the first stage, all the pixels of image are processed for determining noisy pixels. For this, a fuzzy rule based system associates a degree to each pixel. The degree of a pixel is a real number in the range [0,1], which denotes a probability that the pixel is not considered as a noisy pixel. In the second stage, another fuzzy rule based system is employed. It uses the output of the previous fuzzy system to perform fuzzy smoothing by weighting the contributions of neighboring pixel values. Experimental results are obtained to show the feasibility of the proposed filter. These results are also compared to other filters by numerical measure and visual inspection.

Keywords: Additive noise, Fuzzy logic, Image processing, Noise reduction.

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300 Noise Estimation for Speech Enhancement in Non-Stationary Environments-A New Method

Authors: Ch.V.Rama Rao, Gowthami., Harsha., Rajkumar., M.B.Rama Murthy, K.Srinivasa Rao, K.AnithaSheela

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for estimating the nonstationary noise power spectral density given a noisy signal. The method is based on averaging the noisy speech power spectrum using time and frequency dependent smoothing factors. These factors are adjusted based on signal-presence probability in individual frequency bins. Signal presence is determined by computing the ratio of the noisy speech power spectrum to its local minimum, which is updated continuously by averaging past values of the noisy speech power spectra with a look-ahead factor. This method adapts very quickly to highly non-stationary noise environments. The proposed method achieves significant improvements over a system that uses voice activity detector (VAD) in noise estimation.

Keywords: Noise estimation, Non-stationary noise, Speechenhancement.

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299 Predicting Automotive Interior Noise Including Wind Noise by Statistical Energy Analysis

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa

Abstract:

The applications of soundproof materials for reduction of high frequency automobile interior noise have been researched. This paper presents a sound pressure prediction technique including wind noise by Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis (HSEA) in order to reduce weight of acoustic insulations. HSEA uses both analytical SEA and experimental SEA. As a result of chassis dynamo test and road test, the validity of SEA modeling was shown, and utility of the method was confirmed.

Keywords: Vibration, noise, car, statistical energy analysis.

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298 Natural Emergence of a Core Structure in Networks via Clique Percolation

Authors: A. Melka, N. Slater, A. Mualem, Y. Louzoun

Abstract:

Networks are often presented as containing a “core” and a “periphery.” The existence of a core suggests that some vertices are central and form the skeleton of the network, to which all other vertices are connected. An alternative view of graphs is through communities. Multiple measures have been proposed for dense communities in graphs, the most classical being k-cliques, k-cores, and k-plexes, all presenting groups of tightly connected vertices. We here show that the edge number thresholds for such communities to emerge and for their percolation into a single dense connectivity component are very close, in all networks studied. These percolating cliques produce a natural core and periphery structure. This result is generic and is tested in configuration models and in real-world networks. This is also true for k-cores and k-plexes. Thus, the emergence of this connectedness among communities leading to a core is not dependent on some specific mechanism but a direct result of the natural percolation of dense communities.

Keywords: Networks, cliques, percolation, core structure, phase transition.

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297 The Core and Shapley Function for Games on Augmenting Systems with a Coalition Structure

Authors: Fan-Yong Meng

Abstract:

In this paper, we first introduce the model of games on augmenting systems with a coalition structure, which can be seen as an extension of games on augmenting systems. The core of games on augmenting systems with a coalition structure is defined, and an equivalent form is discussed. Meantime, the Shapley function for this type of games is given, and two axiomatic systems of the given Shapley function are researched. When the given games are quasi convex, the relationship between the core and the Shapley function is discussed, which does coincide as in classical case. Finally, a numerical example is given.

Keywords: Cooperative game, augmenting system, Shapley function, core.

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296 Strategic Development for a Diverse Population in the Urban Core

Authors: Andreas L. Savvides

Abstract:

These This paper looks into frameworks which aim at furthering the discussion of the role of regenerative design practices in a city-s historic core and the tool of urban design to achieve urban revitalization on the island of Cyprus. It also examines the region-s demographic mix, the effectiveness of its governmental coordination and the strategies of adaptive reuse and strategic investments in older areas with existing infrastructure. The two main prongs of investigation will consider the effect of the existing and proposed changes in the physical infrastructure and fabric of the city, as well as the catalytic effect of sustainable urban design practices. Through this process, the work hopes to integrate the contained potential within the existing historic core and the contributions and participation of the migrant and immigrant populations to the local economy. It also examines ways in which this coupling of factors can bring to the front the positive effects of this combined effort on an otherwise sluggish local redevelopment effort. The data for this study is being collected and organized as part of ongoing urban design and development student workshop efforts in urban planning and design education. The work is presented in graphic form and includes data collected from interviews with study area organizations and the community at large. Planning work is also based on best practices initiated by the staff of the Nicosia Master Plan task force, which coordinates holistic planning efforts for the historic center of the city of Nicosia.

Keywords: Urban Design, Urban Development, Urban Regeneration, Historic Core, Cultural Planning.

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295 Core Competence Development while Carrying out Organizational Changes

Authors: Olga A. Shvetsova

Abstract:

The paper contains the different issues of competence management in industrial companies. The theoretical bases of human resources management and practical issues of innovative enterprises’ competitiveness are considered. The research is focused on the modern industrial enterprise changes management problems; it focuses on the effective personnel management of industrial enterprises on the basis of competence approach. The influence of organizational changes on the competence development is discussed. The need for development of the new technologies is mentioned, proposal is based on competence-based approach in personnel management including in the conditions of carrying out organizational changes; methods of acquisition and development of missing key professional competences are discussed; importance of key competencies in forming competitive advantage of the organization is mentioned.

Keywords: Competence model, development of industrial company, organizational changes, competitiveness, core competencies.

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