Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 98

Search results for: basis function

98 Comparing the Efficiency of Simpson’s 1/3 and 3/8 Rules for the Numerical Solution of First Order Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: N. M. Kamoh, D. G. Gyemang, M. C. Soomiyol

Abstract:

This paper compared the efficiency of Simpson’s 1/3 and 3/8 rules for the numerical solution of first order Volterra integro-differential equations. In developing the solution, collocation approximation method was adopted using the shifted Legendre polynomial as basis function. A block method approach is preferred to the predictor corrector method for being self-starting. Experimental results confirmed that the Simpson’s 3/8 rule is more efficient than the Simpson’s 1/3 rule.

Keywords: Collocation shifted Legendre polynomials, Simpson’s rule and Volterra integro-differential equations.

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97 On the Efficiency of Five Step Approximation Method for the Solution of General Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: N. M. Kamoh, M. C. Soomiyol

Abstract:

In this work, a five step continuous method for the solution of third order ordinary differential equations was developed in block form using collocation and interpolation techniques of the shifted Legendre polynomial basis function. The method was found to be zero-stable, consistent and convergent. The application of the method in solving third order initial value problem of ordinary differential equations revealed that the method compared favorably with existing methods.

Keywords: Shifted Legendre polynomials, third order block method, discrete method, convergent.

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96 Multi-Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Network Models for Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Using Video-Oculography Signals

Authors: Ceren Kaya, Okan Erkaymaz, Orhan Ayar, Mahmut Özer

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, discrete wavelet transform, multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function, video-oculography.

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95 Basket Option Pricing under Jump Diffusion Models

Authors: Ali Safdari-Vaighani

Abstract:

Pricing financial contracts on several underlying assets received more and more interest as a demand for complex derivatives. The option pricing under asset price involving jump diffusion processes leads to the partial integral differential equation (PIDEs), which is an extension of the Black-Scholes PDE with a new integral term. The aim of this paper is to show how basket option prices in the jump diffusion models, mainly on the Merton model, can be computed using RBF based approximation methods. For a test problem, the RBF-PU method is applied for numerical solution of partial integral differential equation arising from the two-asset European vanilla put options. The numerical result shows the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

Keywords: Radial basis function, basket option, jump diffusion, RBF-PUM.

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94 Enhanced Multi-Intensity Analysis in Multi-Scenery Classification-Based Macro and Micro Elements

Authors: R. Bremananth

Abstract:

Several computationally challenging issues are encountered while classifying complex natural scenes. In this paper, we address the problems that are encountered in rotation invariance with multi-intensity analysis for multi-scene overlapping. In the present literature, various algorithms proposed techniques for multi-intensity analysis, but there are several restrictions in these algorithms while deploying them in multi-scene overlapping classifications. In order to resolve the problem of multi-scenery overlapping classifications, we present a framework that is based on macro and micro basis functions. This algorithm conquers the minimum classification false alarm while pigeonholing multi-scene overlapping. Furthermore, a quadrangle multi-intensity decay is invoked. Several parameters are utilized to analyze invariance for multi-scenery classifications such as rotation, classification, correlation, contrast, homogeneity, and energy. Benchmark datasets were collected for complex natural scenes and experimented for the framework. The results depict that the framework achieves a significant improvement on gray-level matrix of co-occurrence features for overlapping in diverse degree of orientations while pigeonholing multi-scene overlapping.

Keywords: Automatic classification, contrast, homogeneity, invariant analysis, multi-scene analysis, overlapping.

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93 Comparative Analysis of Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks Approach for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ashish Payal, C. S. Rai, B. V. R. Reddy

Abstract:

With the increasing use and application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), need has arisen to explore them in more effective and efficient manner. An important area which can bring efficiency to WSNs is the localization process, which refers to the estimation of the position of wireless sensor nodes in an ad hoc network setting, in reference to a coordinate system that may be internal or external to the network. In this paper, we have done comparison and analysed Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks (SFFANNs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks for developing localization framework in WSNs. The presented work utilizes the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), measured by static node on 100 x 100 m2 grid from three anchor nodes. The comprehensive evaluation of these approaches is done using MATLAB software. The simulation results effectively demonstrate that FFANNs based sensor motes will show better localization accuracy as compared to RBF.

Keywords: Localization, wireless sensor networks, artificial neural network, radial basis function, multi-layer perceptron, backpropagation, RSSI.

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92 Evaluation of Ensemble Classifiers for Intrusion Detection

Authors: M. Govindarajan

Abstract:

One of the major developments in machine learning in the past decade is the ensemble method, which finds highly accurate classifier by combining many moderately accurate component classifiers. In this research work, new ensemble classification methods are proposed with homogeneous ensemble classifier using bagging and heterogeneous ensemble classifier using arcing and their performances are analyzed in terms of accuracy. A Classifier ensemble is designed using Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as base classifiers. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of standard datasets of intrusion detection. The main originality of the proposed approach is based on three main parts: preprocessing phase, classification phase, and combining phase. A wide range of comparative experiments is conducted for standard datasets of intrusion detection. The performance of the proposed homogeneous and heterogeneous ensemble classifiers are compared to the performance of other standard homogeneous and heterogeneous ensemble methods. The standard homogeneous ensemble methods include Error correcting output codes, Dagging and heterogeneous ensemble methods include majority voting, stacking. The proposed ensemble methods provide significant improvement of accuracy compared to individual classifiers and the proposed bagged RBF and SVM performs significantly better than ECOC and Dagging and the proposed hybrid RBF-SVM performs significantly better than voting and stacking. Also heterogeneous models exhibit better results than homogeneous models for standard datasets of intrusion detection. 

Keywords: Data mining, ensemble, radial basis function, support vector machine, accuracy.

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91 A Prediction Model for Dynamic Responses of Building from Earthquake Based on Evolutionary Learning

Authors: Kyu Jin Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park

Abstract:

The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to prevent seismic damage. Structural seismic damage of building is caused by the instantaneous stress concentration which is related with dynamic characteristic of earthquake. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the dynamic responses of building demands significantly high computational cost. To prevent the failure of structural members from the characteristic of the earthquake and the significantly high computational cost for seismic response analysis, this paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction model for dynamic responses of building considering specific time length. Through the measured dynamic responses, input and output node of the ANN are formed by the length of specific time, and adopted for the training. In the model, evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN), that radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with evolutionary optimization algorithm to find variables in RBF, is implemented. The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified through an analytical study applying responses from dynamic analysis for multi-degree of freedom system to training data in ERBFNN.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, dynamic response, artificial neural network, radial basis function network, genetic algorithm.

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90 Radial Basis Surrogate Model Integrated to Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Computation Intensive Black-Box Problems

Authors: Abdulbaset Saad, Adel Younis, Zuomin Dong

Abstract:

For design optimization with high-dimensional expensive problems, an effective and efficient optimization methodology is desired. This work proposes a series of modification to the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm for solving computation Intensive Black-Box Problems. The proposed methodology is called Radial Basis Meta-Model Algorithm Assisted Differential Evolutionary (RBF-DE), which is a global optimization algorithm based on the meta-modeling techniques. A meta-modeling assisted DE is proposed to solve computationally expensive optimization problems. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) model is used as a surrogate model to approximate the expensive objective function, while DE employs a mechanism to dynamically select the best performing combination of parameters such as differential rate, cross over probability, and population size. The proposed algorithm is tested on benchmark functions and real life practical applications and problems. The test results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is promising and performs well compared to other optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm is capable of converging to acceptable and good solutions in terms of accuracy, number of evaluations, and time needed to converge.

Keywords: Differential evolution, engineering design, expensive computations, meta-modeling, radial basis function, optimization.

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89 Dynamic Fault Diagnosis for Semi-Batch Reactor under Closed-Loop Control via Independent Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: Abdelkarim M. Ertiame, D. W. Yu, D. L. Yu, J. B. Gomm

Abstract:

In this paper, a robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme is developed to monitor a multivariable nonlinear chemical process called the Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor, when it is under the cascade PI control. The scheme employs a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) in an independent mode to model the process dynamics, and using the weighted sum-squared prediction error as the residual. The Recursive Orthogonal Least Squares algorithm (ROLS) is employed to train the model to overcome the training difficulty of the independent mode of the network. Then, another RBFNN is used as a fault classifier to isolate faults from different features involved in the residual vector. Several actuator and sensor faults are simulated in a nonlinear simulation of the reactor in Simulink. The scheme is used to detect and isolate the faults on-line. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the scheme even the process is subjected to disturbances and uncertainties including significant changes in the monomer feed rate, fouling factor, impurity factor, ambient temperature, and measurement noise. The simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Robust fault detection, cascade control, independent RBF model, RBF neural networks, Chylla-Haase reactor, FDI under closed-loop control.

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88 Performance of Neural Networks vs. Radial Basis Functions When Forming a Metamodel for Residential Buildings

Authors: Philip Symonds, Jon Taylor, Zaid Chalabi, Michael Davies

Abstract:

Average temperatures worldwide are expected to continue to rise. At the same time, major cities in developing countries are becoming increasingly populated and polluted. Governments are tasked with the problem of overheating and air quality in residential buildings. This paper presents the development of a model, which is able to estimate the occupant exposure to extreme temperatures and high air pollution within domestic buildings. Building physics simulations were performed using the EnergyPlus building physics software. An accurate metamodel is then formed by randomly sampling building input parameters and training on the outputs of EnergyPlus simulations. Metamodels are used to vastly reduce the amount of computation time required when performing optimisation and sensitivity analyses. Neural Networks (NNs) have been compared to a Radial Basis Function (RBF) algorithm when forming a metamodel. These techniques were implemented using the PyBrain and scikit-learn python libraries, respectively. NNs are shown to perform around 15% better than RBFs when estimating overheating and air pollution metrics modelled by EnergyPlus.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Radial Basis Functions, Metamodelling, Python machine learning libraries.

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87 Comparison of Polynomial and Radial Basis Kernel Functions based SVR and MLR in Modeling Mass Transfer by Vertical and Inclined Multiple Plunging Jets

Authors: S. Deswal, M. Pal

Abstract:

Presently various computational techniques are used in modeling and analyzing environmental engineering data. In the present study, an intra-comparison of polynomial and radial basis kernel functions based on Support Vector Regression and, in turn, an inter-comparison with Multi Linear Regression has been attempted in modeling mass transfer capacity of vertical (θ = 90O) and inclined (θ multiple plunging jets (varying from 1 to 16 numbers). The data set used in this study consists of four input parameters with a total of eighty eight cases, forty four each for vertical and inclined multiple plunging jets. For testing, tenfold cross validation was used. Correlation coefficient values of 0.971 and 0.981 along with corresponding root mean square error values of 0.0025 and 0.0020 were achieved by using polynomial and radial basis kernel functions based Support Vector Regression respectively. An intra-comparison suggests improved performance by radial basis function in comparison to polynomial kernel based Support Vector Regression. Further, an inter-comparison with Multi Linear Regression (correlation coefficient = 0.973 and root mean square error = 0.0024) reveals that radial basis kernel functions based Support Vector Regression performs better in modeling and estimating mass transfer by multiple plunging jets.

Keywords: Mass transfer, multiple plunging jets, polynomial and radial basis kernel functions, Support Vector Regression.

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86 Evaluation of a Surrogate Based Method for Global Optimization

Authors: David Lindström

Abstract:

We evaluate the performance of a numerical method for global optimization of expensive functions. The method is using a response surface to guide the search for the global optimum. This metamodel could be based on radial basis functions, kriging, or a combination of different models. We discuss how to set the cyclic parameters of the optimization method to get a balance between local and global search. We also discuss the eventual problem with Runge oscillations in the response surface.

Keywords: Expensive function, infill sampling criterion, kriging, global optimization, response surface, Runge phenomenon.

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85 Performance and Emission Prediction in a Biodiesel Engine Fuelled with Honge Methyl Ester Using RBF Neural Networks

Authors: Shivakumar, G. S. Vijay, P. Srinivas Pai, B. R. Shrinivasa Rao

Abstract:

In the present study, RBF neural networks were used for predicting the performance and emission parameters of a biodiesel engine. Engine experiments were carried out in a 4 stroke diesel engine using blends of diesel and Honge methyl ester as the fuel. Performance parameters like BTE, BSEC, Tex and emissions from the engine were measured. These experimental results were used for ANN modeling. RBF center initialization was done by random selection and by using Clustered techniques. Network was trained by using fixed and varying widths for the RBF units. It was observed that RBF results were having a good agreement with the experimental results. Networks trained by using clustering technique gave better results than using random selection of centers in terms of reduced MRE and increased prediction accuracy. The average MRE for the performance parameters was 3.25% with the prediction accuracy of 98% and for emissions it was 10.4% with a prediction accuracy of 80%.

Keywords: Radial Basis Function networks, emissions, Performance parameters, Fuzzy c means.

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84 A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm of Neural Network for Medical Diseases Problems

Authors: Sultan Noman Qasem

Abstract:

This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm for solving multi-objective optimization problems-based artificial neural network (ANN). The multi-objective evolutionary algorithm used in this study is genetic algorithm while ANN used is radial basis function network (RBFN). The proposed algorithm named memetic elitist Pareto non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-based RBFN (MEPGAN). The proposed algorithm is implemented on medical diseases problems. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is viable, and provides an effective means to design multi-objective RBFNs with good generalization capability and compact network structure. This study shows that MEPGAN generates RBFNs coming with an appropriate balance between accuracy and simplicity, comparing to the other algorithms found in literature.

Keywords: Radial basis function network, Hybrid learning, Multi-objective optimization, Genetic algorithm.

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83 Comparative Study Using Weka for Red Blood Cells Classification

Authors: Jameela Ali Alkrimi, Hamid A. Jalab, Loay E. George, Abdul Rahim Ahmad, Azizah Suliman, Karim Al-Jashamy

Abstract:

Red blood cells (RBC) are the most common types of blood cells and are the most intensively studied in cell biology. The lack of RBCs is a condition in which the amount of hemoglobin level is lower than normal and is referred to as “anemia”. Abnormalities in RBCs will affect the exchange of oxygen. This paper presents a comparative study for various techniques for classifying the RBCs as normal or abnormal (anemic) using WEKA. WEKA is an open source consists of different machine learning algorithms for data mining applications. The algorithms tested are Radial Basis Function neural network, Support vector machine, and K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm. Two sets of combined features were utilized for classification of blood cells images. The first set, exclusively consist of geometrical features, was used to identify whether the tested blood cell has a spherical shape or non-spherical cells. While the second set, consist mainly of textural features was used to recognize the types of the spherical cells. We have provided an evaluation based on applying these classification methods to our RBCs image dataset which were obtained from Serdang Hospital - Malaysia, and measuring the accuracy of test results. The best achieved classification rates are 97%, 98%, and 79% for Support vector machines, Radial Basis Function neural network, and K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm respectively.

Keywords: K-Nearest Neighbors, Neural Network, Radial Basis Function, Red blood cells, Support vector machine.

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82 Handwriting Velocity Modeling by Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Mohamed Aymen Slim, Afef Abdelkrim, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract:

The handwriting is a physical demonstration of a complex cognitive process learnt by man since his childhood. People with disabilities or suffering from various neurological diseases are facing so many difficulties resulting from problems located at the muscle stimuli (EMG) or signals from the brain (EEG) and which arise at the stage of writing. The handwriting velocity of the same writer or different writers varies according to different criteria: age, attitude, mood, writing surface, etc. Therefore, it is interesting to reconstruct an experimental basis records taking, as primary reference, the writing speed for different writers which would allow studying the global system during handwriting process. This paper deals with a new approach of the handwriting system modeling based on the velocity criterion through the concepts of artificial neural networks, precisely the Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks. The obtained simulation results show a satisfactory agreement between responses of the developed neural model and the experimental data for various letters and forms then the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

Keywords: ElectroMyoGraphic (EMG) signals, Experimental approach, Handwriting process, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks, Velocity Modeling.

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81 Intelligent Earthquake Prediction System Based On Neural Network

Authors: Emad Amar, Tawfik Khattab, Fatma Zada

Abstract:

Predicting earthquakes is an important issue in the study of geography. Accurate prediction of earthquakes can help people to take effective measures to minimize the loss of personal and economic damage, such as large casualties, destruction of buildings and broken of traffic, occurred within a few seconds. United States Geological Survey (USGS) science organization provides reliable scientific information about Earthquake Existed throughout history & the Preliminary database from the National Center Earthquake Information (NEIC) show some useful factors to predict an earthquake in a seismic area like Aleutian Arc in the U.S. state of Alaska. The main advantage of this prediction method that it does not require any assumption, it makes prediction according to the future evolution of the object's time series. The article compares between simulation data result from trained BP and RBF neural network versus actual output result from the system calculations. Therefore, this article focuses on analysis of data relating to real earthquakes. Evaluation results show better accuracy and higher speed by using radial basis functions (RBF) neural network.

Keywords: BP neural network, Prediction, RBF neural network.

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80 Evaluation of Short-Term Load Forecasting Techniques Applied for Smart Micro Grids

Authors: Xiaolei Hu, Enrico Ferrera, Riccardo Tomasi, Claudio Pastrone

Abstract:

Load Forecasting plays a key role in making today's and future's Smart Energy Grids sustainable and reliable. Accurate power consumption prediction allows utilities to organize in advance their resources or to execute Demand Response strategies more effectively, which enables several features such as higher sustainability, better quality of service, and affordable electricity tariffs. It is easy yet effective to apply Load Forecasting at larger geographic scale, i.e. Smart Micro Grids, wherein the lower available grid flexibility makes accurate prediction more critical in Demand Response applications. This paper analyses the application of short-term load forecasting in a concrete scenario, proposed within the EU-funded GreenCom project, which collect load data from single loads and households belonging to a Smart Micro Grid. Three short-term load forecasting techniques, i.e. linear regression, artificial neural networks, and radial basis function network, are considered, compared, and evaluated through absolute forecast errors and training time. The influence of weather conditions in Load Forecasting is also evaluated. A new definition of Gain is introduced in this paper, which innovatively serves as an indicator of short-term prediction capabilities of time spam consistency. Two models, 24- and 1-hour-ahead forecasting, are built to comprehensively compare these three techniques.

Keywords: Short-term load forecasting, smart micro grid, linear regression, artificial neural networks, radial basis function network, Gain.

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79 Designing Intelligent Adaptive Controller for Nonlinear Pendulum Dynamical System

Authors: R. Ghasemi, M. R. Rahimi Khoygani

Abstract:

This paper proposes the designing direct adaptive neural controller to apply for a class of a nonlinear pendulum dynamic system. The radial basis function (RBF) neural adaptive controller is robust in presence of external and internal uncertainties. Both the effectiveness of the controller and robustness against disturbances are importance of this paper. The simulation results show the promising performance of the proposed controller.

Keywords: Adaptive Neural Controller, Nonlinear Dynamical, Neural Network, RBF, Driven Pendulum, Position Control.

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78 Identification of Nonlinear Systems Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: C. Pislaru, A. Shebani

Abstract:

This paper uses the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) for system identification of nonlinear systems. Five nonlinear systems are used to examine the activity of RBFNN in system modeling of nonlinear systems; the five nonlinear systems are dual tank system, single tank system, DC motor system, and two academic models. The feed forward method is considered in this work for modelling the non-linear dynamic models, where the KMeans clustering algorithm used in this paper to select the centers of radial basis function network, because it is reliable, offers fast convergence and can handle large data sets. The least mean square method is used to adjust the weights to the output layer, and Euclidean distance method used to measure the width of the Gaussian function.

Keywords: System identification, Nonlinear system, Neural networks, RBF neural network.

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77 Function Approximation with Radial Basis Function Neural Networks via FIR Filter

Authors: Kyu Chul Lee, Sung Hyun Yoo, Choon Ki Ahn, Myo Taeg Lim

Abstract:

Recent experimental evidences have shown that because of a fast convergence and a nice accuracy, neural networks training via extended kalman filter (EKF) method is widely applied. However, as to an uncertainty of the system dynamics or modeling error, the performance of the method is unreliable. In order to overcome this problem in this paper, a new finite impulse response (FIR) filter based learning algorithm is proposed to train radial basis function neural networks (RBFN) for nonlinear function approximation. Compared to the EKF training method, the proposed FIR filter training method is more robust to those environmental conditions. Furthermore , the number of centers will be considered since it affects the performance of approximation.

Keywords: Extended kalmin filter (EKF), classification problem, radial basis function networks (RBFN), finite impulse response (FIR)filter.

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76 Nonlinear Adaptive PID Control for a Semi-Batch Reactor Based On an RBF Network

Authors: Magdi M. Nabi, Ding-Li Yu

Abstract:

Control of a semi-batch polymerization reactor using an adaptive radial basis function (RBF) neural network method is investigated in this paper. A neural network inverse model is used to estimate the valve position of the reactor; this method can identify the controlled system with the RBF neural network identifier. The weights of the adaptive PID controller are timely adjusted based on the identification of the plant and self-learning capability of RBFNN. A PID controller is used in the feedback control to regulate the actual temperature by compensating the neural network inverse model output. Simulation results show that the proposed control has strong adaptability, robustness and satisfactory control performance and the nonlinear system is achieved.

Keywords: Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor, RBF neural networks, feed-forward and feedback control.

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75 An Inverse Optimal Control Approach for the Nonlinear System Design Using ANN

Authors: M. P. Nanda Kumar, K. Dheeraj

Abstract:

The design of a feedback controller, so as to minimize a given performance criterion, for a general non-linear dynamical system is difficult; if not impossible. But for a large class of non-linear dynamical systems, the open loop control that minimizes a performance criterion can be obtained using calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In this paper, the open loop optimal trajectories, that minimizes a given performance measure, is used to train the neural network whose inputs are state variables of non-linear dynamical systems and the open loop optimal control as the desired output. This trained neural network is used as the feedback controller. In other words, attempts are made here to solve the “inverse optimal control problem” by using the state and control trajectories that are optimal in an open loop sense.

Keywords: Inverse Optimal Control, Radial basis function neural network, Controller Design.

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74 Energy-Level Structure of a Confined Electron-Positron Pair in Nanostructure

Authors: Tokuei Sako, Paul-Antoine Hervieux

Abstract:

The energy-level structure of a pair of electron and positron confined in a quasi-one-dimensional nano-scale potential well has been investigated focusing on its trend in the small limit of confinement strength ω, namely, the Wigner molecular regime. An anisotropic Gaussian-type basis functions supplemented by high angular momentum functions as large as l = 19 has been used to obtain reliable full configuration interaction (FCI) wave functions. The resultant energy spectrum shows a band structure characterized by ω for the large ω regime whereas for the small ω regime it shows an energy-level pattern dominated by excitation into the in-phase motion of the two particles. The observed trend has been rationalized on the basis of the nodal patterns of the FCI wave functions. 

Keywords: Confined systems, positron, wave function, Wigner molecule, quantum dots.

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73 Software Effort Estimation Models Using Radial Basis Function Network

Authors: E. Praynlin, P. Latha

Abstract:

Software Effort Estimation is the process of estimating the effort required to develop software. By estimating the effort, the cost and schedule required to estimate the software can be determined. Accurate Estimate helps the developer to allocate the resource accordingly in order to avoid cost overrun and schedule overrun. Several methods are available in order to estimate the effort among which soft computing based method plays a prominent role. Software cost estimation deals with lot of uncertainty among all soft computing methods neural network is good in handling uncertainty. In this paper Radial Basis Function Network is compared with the back propagation network and the results are validated using six data sets and it is found that RBFN is best suitable to estimate the effort. The Results are validated using two tests the error test and the statistical test.

Keywords: Software cost estimation, Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN), Back propagation function network, Mean Magnitude of Relative Error (MMRE).

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72 Modeling Aeration of Sharp Crested Weirs by Using Support Vector Machines

Authors: Arun Goel

Abstract:

The present paper attempts to investigate the prediction of air entrainment rate and aeration efficiency of a free overfall jets issuing from a triangular sharp crested weir by using regression based modelling. The empirical equations, Support vector machine (polynomial and radial basis function) models and the linear regression techniques were applied on the triangular sharp crested weirs relating the air entrainment rate and the aeration efficiency to the input parameters namely drop height, discharge, and vertex angle. It was observed that there exists a good agreement between the measured values and the values obtained using empirical equations, Support vector machine (Polynomial and rbf) models and the linear regression techniques. The test results demonstrated that the SVM based (Poly & rbf) model also provided acceptable prediction of the measured values with reasonable accuracy along with empirical equations and linear regression techniques in modelling the air entrainment rate and the aeration efficiency of a free overfall jets issuing from triangular sharp crested weir. Further sensitivity analysis has also been performed to study the impact of input parameter on the output in terms of air entrainment rate and aeration efficiency.

Keywords: Air entrainment rate, dissolved oxygen, regression, SVM, weir.

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71 A Hybrid Mesh Free Local RBF- Cartesian FD Scheme for Incompressible Flow around Solid Bodies

Authors: A. Javed, K. Djidjeli, J. T. Xing, S. J. Cox

Abstract:

A method for simulating flow around the solid bodies has been presented using hybrid meshfree and mesh-based schemes. The presented scheme optimizes the computational efficiency by combining the advantages of both meshfree and mesh-based methods. In this approach, a cloud of meshfree nodes has been used in the domain around the solid body. These meshfree nodes have the ability to efficiently adapt to complex geometrical shapes. In the rest of the domain, conventional Cartesian grid has been used beyond the meshfree cloud. Complex geometrical shapes can therefore be dealt efficiently by using meshfree nodal cloud and computational efficiency is maintained through the use of conventional mesh-based scheme on Cartesian grid in the larger part of the domain. Spatial discretization of meshfree nodes has been achieved through local radial basis functions in finite difference mode (RBF-FD). Conventional finite difference scheme has been used in the Cartesian ‘meshed’ domain. Accuracy tests of the hybrid scheme have been conducted to establish the order of accuracy. Numerical tests have been performed by simulating two dimensional steady and unsteady incompressible flows around cylindrical object. Steady flow cases have been run at Reynolds numbers of 10, 20 and 40 and unsteady flow problems have been studied at Reynolds numbers of 100 and 200. Flow Parameters including lift, drag, vortex shedding, and vorticity contours are calculated. Numerical results have been found to be in good agreement with computational and experimental results available in the literature.

Keywords: CFD, Meshfree particle methods, Hybrid grid, Incompressible Navier Strokes equations, RBF-FD.

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70 Adaptive Shape Parameter (ASP) Technique for Local Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) and Their Application for Solution of Navier Strokes Equations

Authors: A. Javed, K. Djidjeli, J. T. Xing

Abstract:

The concept of adaptive shape parameters (ASP) has been presented for solution of incompressible Navier Strokes equations using mesh-free local Radial Basis Functions (RBF). The aim is to avoid ill-conditioning of coefficient matrices of RBF weights and inaccuracies in RBF interpolation resulting from non-optimized shape of basis functions for the cases where data points (or nodes) are not distributed uniformly throughout the domain. Unlike conventional approaches which assume globally similar values of RBF shape parameters, the presented ASP technique suggests that shape parameter be calculated exclusively for each data point (or node) based on the distribution of data points within its own influence domain. This will ensure interpolation accuracy while still maintaining well conditioned system of equations for RBF weights. Performance and accuracy of ASP technique has been tested by evaluating derivatives and laplacian of a known function using RBF in Finite difference mode (RBFFD), with and without the use of adaptivity in shape parameters. Application of adaptive shape parameters (ASP) for solution of incompressible Navier Strokes equations has been presented by solving lid driven cavity flow problem on mesh-free domain using RBF-FD. The results have been compared for fixed and adaptive shape parameters. Improved accuracy has been achieved with the use of ASP in RBF-FD especially at regions where larger gradients of field variables exist.

Keywords: CFD, Meshless Particle Method, Radial Basis Functions, Shape Parameters

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69 A Serial Hierarchical Support Vector Machine and 2D Feature Sets Act for Brain DTI Segmentation

Authors: Mohammad Javadi

Abstract:

Serial hierarchical support vector machine (SHSVM) is proposed to discriminate three brain tissues which are white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). SHSVM has novel classification approach by repeating the hierarchical classification on data set iteratively. It used Radial Basis Function (rbf) Kernel with different tuning to obtain accurate results. Also as the second approach, segmentation performed with DAGSVM method. In this article eight univariate features from the raw DTI data are extracted and all the possible 2D feature sets are examined within the segmentation process. SHSVM succeed to obtain DSI values higher than 0.95 accuracy for all the three tissues, which are higher than DAGSVM results.

Keywords: Brain segmentation, DTI, hierarchical, SVM.

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