Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1460

Search results for: Drinking water quality

1460 Multivariate Analytical Insights into Spatial and Temporal Variation in Water Quality of a Major Drinking Water Reservoir

Authors: Azadeh Golshan, Craig Evans, Phillip Geary, Abigail Morrow, Zoe Rogers, Marcel Maeder

Abstract:

22 physicochemical variables have been determined in water samples collected weekly from January to December in 2013 from three sampling stations located within a major drinking water reservoir. Classical Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis was used to investigate the environmental factors associated with the physico-chemical variability of the water samples at each of the sampling stations. Matrix augmentation MCR-ALS (MA-MCR-ALS) was also applied, and the two sets of results were compared for interpretative clarity. Links between these factors, reservoir inflows and catchment land-uses were investigated and interpreted in relation to chemical composition of the water and their resolved geographical distribution profiles. The results suggested that the major factors affecting reservoir water quality were those associated with agricultural runoff, with evidence of influence on algal photosynthesis within the water column. Water quality variability within the reservoir was also found to be strongly linked to physical parameters such as water temperature and the occurrence of thermal stratification. The two methods applied (MCR-ALS and MA-MCR-ALS) led to similar conclusions; however, MA-MCR-ALS appeared to provide results more amenable to interpretation of temporal and geological variation than those obtained through classical MCR-ALS.

Keywords: Catchment management, drinking water reservoir, multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares, thermal stratification, water quality.

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1459 Surface and Drinking Water Quality Monitoring of Thomas Reservoir, Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: G. A. Adamu, M. S. Sallau, S. O. Idris, E. B. Agbaji

Abstract:

Drinking water is supplied to Danbatta, Makoda and some parts of Minjibir local government areas of Kano State from the surface water of Thomas Reservoir. The present land use in the catchment area of the reservoir indicates high agricultural activities, fishing, as well as domestic and small scale industrial activities. To study and monitor the quality of surface and drinking water of the area, water samples were collected from the reservoir, treated water at the treatment plant and potable water at the consumer end in three seasons November - February (cold season), March - June (dry season) and July - September (rainy season). The samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, suspended solids, total solids, colour, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chloride ion (Cl-) nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphate (PO43-). The higher values obtained in some parameters with respect to the acceptable standard set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS) indicate the pollution of both the surface and drinking water. These pollutants were observed to have a negative impact on water quality in terms of eutrophication, largely due to anthropogenic activities in the watershed.

Keywords: Surface water, drinking water, water quality, pollution, Thomas reservoir, Kano.

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1458 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural Purposes Using Self-Organizing Maps

Authors: L. Belkhiri, L. Mouni, A. Tiri, T.S. Narany

Abstract:

In the present study, the self-organizing map (SOM) clustering technique was applied to identify homogeneous clusters of hydrochemical parameters in El Milia plain, Algeria, to assess the quality of groundwater for potable and agricultural purposes. The visualization of SOM-analysis indicated that 35 groundwater samples collected in the study area were classified into three clusters, which showed progressive increase in electrical conductivity from cluster one to cluster three. Samples belonging to cluster one are mostly located in the recharge zone showing hard fresh water type, however, water type gradually changed to hard-brackish type in the discharge zone, including clusters two and three. Ionic ratio studies indicated the role of carbonate rock dissolution in increases on groundwater hardness, especially in cluster one. However, evaporation and evapotranspiration are the main processes increasing salinity in cluster two and three.

Keywords: Drinking water, groundwater quality, irrigation water, self-organizing maps.

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1457 Incidence of Trihalogenmethanes in Drinking Water

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Lenka Jesonkova, Jiri Dvorak

Abstract:

Trihalogenmethanes are the most significant byproducts of the reaction of disinfection agent with organic precursors naturally present in ground and surface waters.Their incidence negatively affects the quality of drinking water in relation to their nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and genotoxic effects on human health. Taking into consideration the considerable volatility of monitored contaminants it could be assumed that their incidence in drinking water would depend on the distance of sampling from the area of disinfection. Based on the concentration of trihalogenmethanes determined with the help of gas chromatography with mass detector and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) such dependence has been proved as statistically significant. The acquired outcomes will be used for assessing the non-carcinogenic and genotoxic risks to consumers.

Keywords: disinfection byproducts, drinking water, trihalogenmethanes

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1456 Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems with DBPs Objectives

Authors: Mingyu Xie, Mietek Brdys

Abstract:

The paper develops a Non-Linear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) of water quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDS) based on the advanced non-linear quality dynamics model including disinfections by-products (DBPs). A special attention is paid to the analysis of an impact of the flow trajectories prescribed by an upper control level of the recently developed two-time scale architecture of an integrated quality and quantity control in DWDS. The new quality controller is to operate within this architecture in the fast time scale as the lower level quality controller. The controller performance is validated by a comprehensive simulation study based on an example case study DWDS.

Keywords: Model predictive control, hierarchical control structure, genetic algorithm, water quality with DBPs objectives.

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1455 Assessment of Cadmium Level in Water from Watershed of the Kowsar Dam

Authors: Fardin Boustani

Abstract:

The Kowsar dam supply water for different usages such as drinking, industrial, agricultural and aquaculture farms usages and located next to the city of Dehdashat in Kohgiluye and Boyerahmad province in southern Iran. There are some towns and villages on the Kowsar dam watersheds, which Dehdasht and Choram are the most important and populated cities in this area. The study was undertaken to assess the status of water quality in the urban areas of the Kowsar dam. A total of 28 water samples were collected from 6 stations on surface water and 1 station from groundwater on the watershed of the Kowsar dam. All the samples were analyzed for Cd concentration using standard procedures. The results were compared with other national and international standards. Among the analyzed samples, as the maximum value of cadmium (1.131 μg/L) was observed on the station 2 at the winter 2009, all the samples analyzed were within the maximum admissible limits by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, EU, WHO, New Zealand , Australian, Iranian, and the Indian standards. In general results of the present study have shown that Cd mean values of stations No. 4, 1 and 2 with 0.5135, 0.0.4733 and 0.4573 μg/L respectively are higher than the other stations . Although Cd level of all samples and stations have had normal values but this is an indication of pollution potential and hazards because of human activity and waste water of towns in the areas, which can effect on human health implications in future. This research, therefore, recommends the government and other responsible authorities to take suitable improving measures in the Kowsar dam watershed-s.

Keywords: Kowsar dam, Drinking water quality, Cadmium, Maximum admissible limit, World health organization,

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1454 Health Risk Assessment of Trihalogenmethanes in Drinking Water

Authors: Lenka Jesonkova, Frantisek Bozek

Abstract:

Trihalogenmethanes (THMs) are disinfection byproducts with non-carcinogenic and genotoxic effects. The contamination of 6 sites close to the water treatment plant has been monitored in second largest city of the Czech Republic. Health risk assessment including both non-carcinogenic and genotoxic risk for long term exposition was realized using the critical concentrations. Concentrations of trihalogenmethanes met national standards in all samples. Risk assessment proved that health risks from trihalogenmethanes are acceptable on each site.

Keywords: Drinking water, health risk assessment, trihalogenmethanes, water pollution.

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1453 Assessment of Nickel Concentration in Surface and Ground Water of the Kowsar Dam Basin

Authors: Fardin Boustani, M Hojati , S Ebrahimzadeh

Abstract:

The Kowsar dam supply water for different usages such as drinking, industrial, agricultural and aquaculture farms usages and located next to the city of Dehdashat in Kohgiluye and Boyerahmad province in southern Iran. There are some towns and villages on the Kowsar dam watersheds, which Dehdasht and Choram are the most important and populated cities in this area. The study was undertaken to assess the status of water quality in the urban areas of the Kowsar dam. A total of 28 water samples were collected from 6 stations on surface water and 1 station from groundwater on the watershed of the Kowsar dam. All the samples were analyzed for Ni concentration using standard procedures. The results were compared with other national and international standards. Among the analyzed samples, as the maximum value of Nickel (0.01 mg/L) was observed on the station 2 at the autumn 2010, all the samples analyzed were within the maximum admissible limits by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, EU, WHO and the Iranian. In general results of the present study have shown that a Ni mean value of station No. 2 with 0.006 mg/L is higher than the other stations. Ni level of all samples and stations have had normal values and this is an indication of pollution potential and hazards because of human activity and waste water of towns in the areas, which can effect on human health implications in future. This research, therefore, recommends the government and other responsible authorities to take suitable improving measures in the Kowsar dam watersheds.

Keywords: Kowsar dam, Drinking water quality, Nickel, Maximum admissible limit, World health organization

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1452 Fault Detection of Drinking Water Treatment Process Using PCA and Hotelling's T2 Chart

Authors: Joval P George, Dr. Zheng Chen, Philip Shaw

Abstract:

This paper deals with the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Hotelling-s T2 Chart, using data collected from a drinking water treatment process. PCA is applied primarily for the dimensional reduction of the collected data. The Hotelling-s T2 control chart was used for the fault detection of the process. The data was taken from a United Utilities Multistage Water Treatment Works downloaded from an Integrated Program Management (IPM) dashboard system. The analysis of the results show that Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC) techniques such as PCA, and control charts such as Hotelling-s T2, can be effectively applied for the early fault detection of continuous multivariable processes such as Drinking Water Treatment. The software package SIMCA-P was used to develop the MSPC models and Hotelling-s T2 Chart from the collected data.

Keywords: Principal component analysis, hotelling's t2 chart, multivariate statistical process control, drinking water treatment.

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1451 Assessment of Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plants as Removal Systems of Virulent Microsporidia

Authors: M. A. Gad, A. Z. Al-Herrawy

Abstract:

Microsporidia comprises various pathogenic species can infect humans by means of water. Moreover, chlorine disinfection of drinking-water has limitations against this protozoan pathogen. A total of 48 water samples were collected from two drinking water treatment plants having two different filtration systems (slow sand filter and rapid sand filter) during one year period. Samples were collected from inlet and outlet of each plant. Samples were separately filtrated through nitrocellulose membrane (142 mm, 0.45 µm), then eluted and centrifuged. The obtained pellet from each sample was subjected to DNA extraction, then, amplification using genus-specific primer for microsporidia. Each microsporidia-PCR positive sample was performed by two species specific primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. The results of the present study showed that the percentage of removal for microsporidia through different treatment processes reached its highest rate in the station using slow sand filters (100%), while the removal by rapid sand filter system was 81.8%. Statistically, the two different drinking water treatment plants (slow and rapid) had significant effect for removal of microsporidia. Molecular identification of microsporidia-PCR positive samples using two different primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis showed the presence of the two pervious species in the inlet water of the two stations, while Encephalitozoon intestinalis was detected in the outlet water only. In conclusion, the appearance of virulent microsporidia in treated drinking water may cause potential health threat.

Keywords: Removal, efficacy, microsporidia, drinking water treatment plants, PCR.

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1450 Evaluation of Fluoride Contents of Kirkuk City's Drinking Water and Its Source: Lesser Zab River and Its Effect on Human Health

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Safa H. Abdulrahman

Abstract:

In this study, forty samples had been collected from water of Lesser Zab River and drinking water to determine fluoride concentration and show the impact of fluoride on general health of society of Kirkuk city. Estimation of fluoride concentration and determination of its proportion in water samples were performed attentively using a fluoride ion selective electrode. The fluoride concentrations in the Lesser Zab River samples were between 0.0265 ppm and 0.0863 ppm with an average of 0.0451 ppm, whereas the average fluoride concentration in drinking water samples was 0.102 ppm and ranged from 0.010 to 0.289 ppm. A comparison between results obtained with World Health Organization (WHO) show a low concentration of fluoride in the samples of the study. Thus, for health concerns we should increase the concentration of this ion in water of Kirkuk city at least to about (1.0 ppm) and this will take place after fluorination process.

Keywords: Fluoride concentration, Lesser Zab River, drinking water, health society, Kirkuk city.

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1449 Effects of Polluted Water on the Metallic Water Pipelines

Authors: Abdul-Khaliq M. Hussain, Bashir A. Tantosh, El-Sadeg A. Abdalla

Abstract:

Corrosion of metallic water pipelines buried below ground surface is a function of the nature of the surrounding soil and groundwater. This gives the importance of knowing the physical and chemical characteristics of the pipe-s surrounding environment. The corrosion of externally – unprotected metallic water pipelines, specially ductile iron pipes, in localities with aggressive soil conditions is becoming a significant problem. Anticorrosive protection for metallic water pipelines, their fittings and accessories is very important, because they may be attached by corrosion with time. The tendency of a metallic substrate to corrode is a function of the surface characteristics of the metal and of the metal/protective film interface, the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of the film, and the nature of the environment in which the pipelines system is placed. In this work the authors have looked at corrosion problems of water pipelines and their control. The corrosive properties of groundwater and soil environments are reviewed, and parameters affecting corrosion are discussed. The purpose of this work is to provide guidelines for materials selection in water and soil environments, and how the water pipelines can be protected against metallic corrosion.

Keywords: Corrosion, Drinking Water, Metallic WaterPipelines, Polluted Water.

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1448 Assessing Water Quality Using GIS: The Case of Northern Lebanon Miocene Aquifer

Authors: M. Saba, A. Iaaly, E. Carlier, N. Georges

Abstract:

This research focuses on assessing the ground water quality of Northern Lebanon affected by saline water intrusion. The chemical, physical and microbiological parameters were collected in various seasons spanning over the period of two years. Results were assessed using Geographic Information System (GIS) due to its visual capabilities in presenting the pollution extent in the studied region. Future projections of the excessive pumping were also simulated using GIS in order to assess the extent of the problem of saline intrusion in the near future.

Keywords: GIS, saline water, quality control, drinkable water quality standards, pumping.

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1447 The Removal of As(V) from Drinking Waters by Coagulation Process using Iron Salts

Authors: M. Donmez, F. Akbal

Abstract:

In this study arsenate [As(V)] removal from drinking water by coagulation process was investigated. Ferric chloride (FeCl3.6H2O) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O) were used as coagulant. The effects of major operating variables such as coagulant dose (1–30 mg/L) and pH (5.5–9.5) were investigated. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate were found as effective and reliable coagulant due to required dose, residual arsenate and coagulant concentration. Optimum pH values for maximum arsenate removal for ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride were found as 8 and 7.5. The arsenate removal efficiency decreased at neutral and acidic pH values for Fe(II) and at the high acidic and high alkaline pH for Fe(III). It was found that the increase of coagulant dose caused a substantial increase in the arsenate removal. But above a certain ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dosage, the increase in arsenate removal was not significant. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dose above 8 mg/L slightly increased arsenate removal.

Keywords: Arsenic removal, coagulation, ıron salts, drinking water.

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1446 Surface Water Quality in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sisuwan Kaseamsawat, Sivapan Choo-In

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluated the surface water quality for agriculture and consumption in the Amphawa District. The surface water quality parameters in this study included water temperature, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, BOD, nitrate, suspended solids, phosphorus, total dissolved solids (TDS), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The water samples were collected from small excavation, Lychee, Pomelo and Coconut orchards for 3 seasons from January to December 2011.

The surface water quality from small excavation, Lychee, pomelo and coconut orchards were met the type III of surface water quality standard. The concentration of heavy metal and did not differ significantly at 0.05 level, except dissolved oxygen.

The surface water was suitable for consumption by the usual sterile and generally improving water quality through the process before and was suitable for agriculture.

Keywords: Water Quality, Surface Water Quality.

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1445 Study on Practice of Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers by Diverting Clean Water

Authors: Manjie Li, Xiangju Cheng, Yongcan Chen

Abstract:

With rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, water environmental deterioration is widespread in majority of urban rivers, which seriously affects city image and life satisfaction of residents. As an emergency measure to improve water quality, clean water diversion is introduced for water environmental management. Lubao River and Southwest River, two urban rivers in typical plain tidal river network, are identified as technically and economically feasible for the application of clean water diversion. One-dimensional hydrodynamic-water quality model is developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of water level and water quality, with satisfactory accuracy. The mathematical model after calibration is applied to investigate hydrodynamic and water quality variations in rivers as well as determine the optimum operation scheme of water diversion. Assessment system is developed for evaluation of positive and negative effects of water diversion, demonstrating the effectiveness of clean water diversion and the necessity of pollution reduction.

Keywords: Assessment system, clean water diversion, hydrodynamic-water quality model, tidal river network, urban rivers, water environment improvement.

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1444 Impact of Disposed Drinking Water Sachets in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: Meeta Ratawa Tiwary

Abstract:

Damaturu is the capital of Yobe State in northeastern Nigeria where civic amenities and facilities are not adequate even after 24 years of its existence. The volatile security and political situations are most significant causes for the same. The basic facility for the citizens in terms of drinking water and electricity are not available. For the drinking water, they have to rely on personal boreholes or the filtered borehole waters available in packaged sachets in market. The present study is concerned with environmental impact of indiscriminate disposal of drinking synthetic polythene water sachets in Damaturu. The sachet water is popularly called as “pure water”, but its purity is questionable. Increased production and consumption of sachet water has led to indiscriminate dumping and disposal of empty sachets leading to serious environmental threat. The evidence of this is seen for sachets littering the streets and the drainages blocked by ‘blocks’ of water sachet waste. Sachet water gained much popularity in Nigeria because the product is convenient for use, affordable and economically viable. The present study aims to find out the solution to this environmental problem. The fieldbased study has found some significant factors that cause environmental and socio economic effect due to this. Some recommendations have been made based on research findings regarding sustainable waste management, recycling and re-use of the non-biodegradable products in society.

Keywords: Civic amenities, non-biodegradable, pure water, sustainable environment, waste disposal.

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1443 Evaluation of Water Quality for the Kurtbogazi Dam Outlet and the Streams Feeding the Dam in Ankara, Turkey

Authors: G. Tozsin, F. Bakir, C. Acar, E. Koç

Abstract:

Kurtbogazi Dam has gained special meaning for Ankara, Turkey for the last decade due to the rapid depletion of nearby resources of drinking water. In this study, the results of the analyses of Kurtbogazi Dam outlet water and the rivers flowing into the Kurtbogazi Dam were discussed for the period of last five years between 2008 and 2012. Some physical and chemical properties (pH, temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrate, phosphate and chlorine) of these water resources were evaluated. They were classified according to the Council Directive (75/440/EEC). Moreover, the properties of these surface waters were assessed to determine the quality of water for drinking and irrigation purposes using Piper, US Salinity Laboratory and Wilcox diagrams. The results showed that all the water resources are acceptable level as surface water except for Pazar Stream in terms of ortho-phosphate and BOD5 concentration for 2008.

Keywords: Kurtbogazi dam, water quality assessment, Ankara water, water supply.

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1442 Sources of Water Supply and Water Quality for Local Consumption: The Case Study of Eco-Tourism Village, Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality, Ampawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Paiboon Jeamponk, Tasanee Ponglaa, Patchapon Srisanguan

Abstract:

The aim of this research paper was based on an examination of sources of water supply and water quality for local consumption, conducted at eco- tourism villages of Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province. The study incorporated both questionnaire and field work of water testing as the research tool and method. The sample size of 288 households was based on the population of the district, whereas the selected sample water sources were from 60 households: 30 samples were ground water and another 30 were surface water. Degree of heavy metal contamination in the water including copper, iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium and lead was investigated utilizing the Atomic Absorption- Direct Aspiration method. The findings unveiled that 96.0 percent of household water consumption was based on water supply, while the rest on canal, river and rain water. The household behavior of consumption revealed that 47.2 percent of people routinely consumed water without boiling or filtering prior to consumption. The investigation of water supply quality found that the degree of heavy metal contamination including metal, lead, iron, copper, manganese and cadmium met the standards of the Department of Health.

Keywords: Sources of water supply, water quality, water supply.

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1441 Variations in Water Supply and Quality in Selected Groundwater Sources in a Part of Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Olajide Babawale, O. O. Ogunkoya

Abstract:

The study mapped selected wells in Inisa town, Osun state, in the guinea savanna region of southwest Nigeria, and determined the water quality considering certain elements. It also assessed the variation in the elevation of the water table surface to depth of the wells in the months of August and November. This is with a view to determine the level of contamination of the water with respect to land use and anthropogenic activities, and also to determine the variation that occurs in the quantity of well water in the rainy season and the start of the dry season. Results show a random pattern of the distribution of the mapped wells and shows that there is a shallow water table in the study area. The temporal changes in the elevation show that there are no significant variations in the depth of the water table surface over the period of study implying that there is a sufficient amount of water available to the town all year round. It also shows a high concentration of sodium in the water sample analyzed compared to other elements that were considered, which include iron, copper, calcium, and lead. This is attributed majorly to anthropogenic activities through the disposal of waste in landfill sites. There is a low concentration of lead which is a good indication of a reduced level of pollution.

Keywords: Water quality, temporal changes, elevation, water table surface, land use, anthropogenic activities.

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1440 An Investigation into the Effect of Water Quality on Flotation Performance

Authors: Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

A study was carried out to determine the effect of water quality on flotation performance. The experimental test work comprised of batch flotation tests using Denver lab cell for a period of 10 minutes. Nine different test runs were carried out in triplicates to ensure reproducibility using different water types from different thickener overflows, return and sewage effluent water (process water) and portable water. The water sources differed in pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and conductivity. Process water was found to reduce the concentrate recovery and mass pull, while portable water increased the concentrate recovery and mass pull. Portable water reduced the concentrate grade while process water increased the concentrate grade. It is proposed that a combination of process water and portable water supply be used in flotation circuits to balance the different effects that the different water types have on the flotation efficiency.

Keywords: Flotation, mass pull, process water, thickeneroverflows, water quality.

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1439 Investigation of Advanced Oxidation Process for the Removal of Residual Carbaryl from Drinking Water Resources

Authors: Ali Reza Rahmani, Mohamad Taghi Samadi, Maryam Khodadadi

Abstract:

A laboratory set-up was designed to survey the effectiveness of UV/O3 advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the removal of Carbaryl from polluted water in batch reactor. The study was carried out by UV/O3 process for water samples containing 1 to 20 mg/L of Carbaryl in distilled water. Also the range of drinking water resources adjusted in synthetic water and effects of contact time, pH and Carbaryl concentration were studied. The residual pesticide concentration was determined by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that increasing of retention time and pH, enhances pesticide removal efficiency. The removal efficiency has been affected by pesticide initial concentration. Samples with low pesticide concentration showed a remarkable removal efficiency compared to the samples with high pesticide concentration. AOP method showed the removal efficiencies of 80% to 100%. Although process showed high performance for removal of pesticide from water samples, this process has different disadvantages including complication, intolerability, difficulty of maintenance and equipmental and structural requirements.

Keywords: AOP, Carbaryl, Pesticides, Water treatment.

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1438 Inorganic Anion Removal from Water Using Natural Adsorbents

Authors: A. Ortuzar, I. Escondrillas, F. Mijangos

Abstract:

There is a need for new systems that can be attached to drinking water treatment plants and have the required treatment capacity as well as the selectivity regarding components derived from anthropogenic activities. In a context of high volumes of water and low concentration of contaminants, adsorption/interchange processes are appealing since they meet the required features. Iron oxides such as siderite and molysite, which are respectively based on FeCO3 and FeCl3, can be found in nature. In this work, their observed performance, raw or roasted at different temperatures, as adsorbents of some inorganic anions is discussed. Roasted 1:1 FeCO3: FeCl3 mixture was very selective for arsenic and allowed a 100% removal of As from a 10 mg L-1 As solution. Besides, the 1:1 FeCO3 and FeCl3 mixture roasted at 500 ºC showed good selectivity for, in order of preference, arsenate, bromate, phosphate, fluoride and nitrate anions with distribution coefficients of, respectively, 4200, 2800, 2500 0.4 and 0.03 L g-1.

Keywords: Drinking water, natural adsorbent materials, removal, selectivity.

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1437 Adverse Impacts of Poor Wastewater Management Practices on Water Quality in Gebeng Industrial Area, Pahang, Malaysia

Authors: I. M. Sujaul, M. A. Sobahan, A. A. Edriyana, F. M. Yahaya, R. M. Yunus

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the adverse effect of industrial wastewater on surface water quality in Gebeng industrial estate, Pahang, Malaysia. Surface water was collected from six sampling stations. Physicochemical parameters were characterized based on in-situ and ex-situ analysis according to standard methods by American Public Health Association (APHA). Selected heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS). The results revealed that the concentration of heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr and Hg were high in samples. The results also showed that the value of Pb and Hg were higher in the wet season in comparison to dry season. According to Malaysia National Water Quality Standard (NWQS) and Water Quality Index (WQI) all the sampling station were categorized as class IV (highly polluted). The present study revealed that the adverse effects of careless disposal of wastes and directly discharge of effluents affected on surface water quality. Therefore, the authorities should implement the laws to ensure the proper practices of wastewater management for environmental sustainability around the study area.

Keywords: Gebeng, heavy metals, waste water, water quality index.

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1436 Hydrochemical Assessment and Quality Classification of Water in Torogh and Kardeh Dam Reservoirs, North-East Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad

Abstract:

Khorasan Razavi is the second most important province in north-east of Iran, which faces a water shortage crisis due to recent droughts and huge water consummation. Kardeh and Torogh dam reservoirs in this province provide a notable part of Mashhad metropolitan (with more than 4.5 million inhabitants) potable water needs. Hydrochemical analyses on these dam reservoirs samples demonstrate that MgHCO3 in Kardeh and CaHCO3 and to lower extent MgHCO3 water types in Torogh dam reservoir are dominant. On the other hand, Gibbs binary diagram demonstrates that rock weathering is the main factor controlling water quality in dam reservoirs. Plotting dam reservoir samples on Mg2+/Na+ and HCO3-/Na+ vs. Ca2+/ Na+ diagrams demonstrate evaporative and carbonate mineral dissolution is the dominant rock weathering ion sources in these dam reservoirs. Cluster Analyses (CA) also demonstrate intense role of rock weathering mainly (carbonate and evaporative minerals dissolution) in water quality of these dam reservoirs. Studying water quality by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) WQI index NSF-WQI, Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and Canadian Water Quality Index DWQI index show moderate and good quality.

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, water quality classification, water quality indexes, Torogh and Kardeh Dam Reservoirs.

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1435 Hydrodynamic Modeling of a Surface Water Treatment Pilot Plant

Authors: C.-M. Militaru, A. Pǎcalǎ, I. Vlaicu, K. Bodor, G.-A. Dumitrel, T. Todinca

Abstract:

A mathematical model for the hydrodynamics of a surface water treatment pilot plant was developed and validated by the determination of the residence time distribution (RTD) for the main equipments of the unit. The well known models of ideal/real mixing, ideal displacement (plug flow) and (one-dimensional axial) dispersion model were combined in order to identify the structure that gives the best fitting of the experimental data for each equipment of the pilot plant. RTD experimental results have shown that pilot plant hydrodynamics can be quite well approximated by a combination of simple mathematical models, structure which is suitable for engineering applications. Validated hydrodynamic models will be further used in the evaluation and selection of the most suitable coagulation-flocculation reagents, optimum operating conditions (injection point, reaction times, etc.), in order to improve the quality of the drinking water.

Keywords: drinking water, hydrodynamic modeling, pilot plant, residence time distribution, surface water.

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1434 Assessment of Health Risks to Ground Water Resources for the Emergency Supply of Population in Relation to the Content of Nitrates and Nitrites

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Lenka Jesonkova, Jiri Dvorak, Milos Bozek, Eduard Bakos

Abstract:

The contents of nitrates and nitrites were monitored in 15 ground water resources of a selected region earmarked for the emergency supply of population. The resources have been selected on the basis of previous assessment of natural conditions and the exploitation of territory in the infiltration area as well as the surroundings of water resources. The health risk analysis carried out in relation to nitrates and nitrites, which were found to be the most serious water contaminants, proved, that 14 resources met the health standards in relation to the assessed criterion and could be included in crisis plans. Water quality of ground resources may be assessed in the same way with regard to other contaminants.

Keywords: Drinking water, health risks, methemoglobinemia, nitrates, nitrites, water pollution.

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1433 Long Term Changes of Water Quality in Latvia

Authors: Maris Klavins, Valery Rodinov

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze long term changes of surface water quality in Latvia, spatial variability of water chemical composition, possible impacts of different pollution sources as well as to analyze the measures to protect national water resources - river basin management. Within this study, the concentrations of major water ingredients and microelements in major rivers and lakes of Latvia have been determined. Metal concentrations in river and lake waters were compared with water chemical composition. The mean concentrations of trace metals in inland waters of Latvia are appreciably lower than the estimated world averages for river waters and close to or lower than background values, unless regional impacts determined by local geochemistry. This may be explained by a comparatively lower level of anthropogenic load. In the same time in several places, direct anthropogenic impacts are evident, regarding influences of point sources both transboundary transport impacts. Also, different processes related to pollution of surface waters in Latvia have been analyzed. At first the analysis of changes and composition of pollutant emissions in Latvia has been realized, and the obtained results were compared with actual composition of atmospheric precipitation and their changes in time.

Keywords: Water quality, trend analysis, pollution, human impact.

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1432 Using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks to Calibrate Water Quality Model

Authors: Lihui Ma, Kunlun Xin, Suiqing Liu

Abstract:

Modern managements of water distribution system (WDS) need water quality models that are able to accurately predict the dynamics of water quality variations within the distribution system environment. Before water quality models can be applied to solve system problems, they should be calibrated. Although former researchers use GA solver to calibrate relative parameters, it is difficult to apply on the large-scale or medium-scale real system for long computational time. In this paper a new method is designed which combines both macro and detailed model to optimize the water quality parameters. This new combinational algorithm uses radial basis function (RBF) metamodeling as a surrogate to be optimized for the purpose of decreasing the times of time-consuming water quality simulation and can realize rapidly the calibration of pipe wall reaction coefficients of chlorine model of large-scaled WDS. After two cases study this method is testified to be more efficient and promising, and deserve to generalize in the future.

Keywords: Metamodeling, model calibration, radial basisfunction, water distribution system, water quality model.

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1431 Correlations between Cleaning Frequency of Reservoir and Water Tower and Parameters of Water Quality

Authors: Chen Bi-Hsiang, Yang Hung-Wen, Lou Jie-Chung, Han Jia-Yun

Abstract:

This study was investigated on sampling and analyzing water quality in water reservoir & water tower installed in two kind of residential buildings and school facilities. Data of water quality was collected for correlation analysis with frequency of sanitization of water reservoir through questioning managers of building about the inspection charts recorded on equipment for water reservoir. Statistical software packages (SPSS) were applied to the data of two groups (cleaning frequency and water quality) for regression analysis to determine the optimal cleaning frequency of sanitization. The correlation coefficient (R) in this paper represented the degree of correlation, with values of R ranging from +1 to -1.After investigating three categories of drinking water users; this study found that the frequency of sanitization of water reservoir significantly influenced the water quality of drinking water. A higher frequency of sanitization (more than four times per 1 year) implied a higher quality of drinking water. Results indicated that sanitizing water reservoir & water tower should at least twice annually for achieving the aim of safety of drinking water.

Keywords: cleaning frequency of sanitization, parameters ofwater quality, regression analysis, water reservoir & water tower

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