Affordability and Expenditure Patterns towards Sustainable Consumption in Malaysia
Safe drinking water is needed for survival. Households have to pay the water bill monthly. However, lower income households are sometimes unable to afford the cost. This study examines water access and affordability among households in Malaysia and the determinants of water affordability using cross-sectional data and multiple regression. The paper expects that the bill for basic water consumption is inversely related to average income. This means that policy makers need to redesign the water tariff to improve the quality of life of lower income households.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1314512Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 969
 OECD (2003). Social Issues in the Provision and Pricing of Water Services, Paris.
 Chappells, H., and Medd, W. (2008). What is fair? Tensions Between Sustainable and Equitable Domestic Water Consumption in England and Wales. Local Environment, 13(8), 725-741.
 Lee, C. (2011). Privatization, water access and affordability: evidence From Malaysian household expenditure data. Economic Modelling, 28 (5), 2121-2128.
 Smets H. (2009). Access to drinking water at an affordable price inn developing countries. In: El Moujabber M. (ed.), Mandi L. (ed.), Trisorio-LiuzziG. (ed.), Martín I. (ed.), Rabi A. (ed.), Rodríguez R.(ed.). Technological perspectives for rational use of water resources in the Mediterranean region. Bari: CIHEAM, 2009. p. 57-68 (Options Méditerranéennes: Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens; n. 88).
 Malaysia-Households Income Expenditure (2010).
 Garcia Valiñas et al., 2010; García-Valiñas, M., Martínez-Espiñeira, R.; González-Gómez, F. (2010). Affordability of Residential Water Tariffs: Alternative Measurement and Explanatory Factors in Southern Spain. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(12), 2696-706.
 Reynaud, 2010 Reynaud, A. (2010). Private Sector Participation, Regulation and Social Policies in Water Supply in France. Oxford Development Studies, 38(2), 219-239.
 Fitch, M., and H. Price (2002), Water Poverty in England and Wales, Report of the Centre for Utility Consumer Law and Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, n.p.
 Sawkins, J. W. and V. A. Dickie (2001), Affordability of Scottish Water and Sewerage Charges, Quarterly Economic Commentary 26(3): 39-47.
 Fankhauser, S.; Tepic, S. (2007), Can Poor Consumers Pay for Energy and Water? An affordability Analysis for Transition Countries. Energy Policy, 35(2), 1038-1049.
 Smets H. (2009). Access to Drinking Water at an Affordable Price in Developing Countries. In: El Mou Jabber, M., Man di, L., Trisorio-Liuzzi, G., Martín, I., Rabi, A., Rodríguez, R. (eds.). Technological perspectives for rational use of water resources in the Mediterranean region. Bari:
 Martins, R.; Cruz, L.; Barata, E. (2013b), Water Price Regulation: A Review of Portuguese Tariff Recommendations, Public Organization Review, 13 (2), 197-205.
 WHO (2011) Technical Notes on Drinking-Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Emergencies. 9.
 ILO 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Statistics Department of Statistics, International Labour Organization (ILO); LABORSTA Internet: Geneva, Switzerland; 2010.
 The UK Government set 3% as a burden threshold for the lowest income decile (see http://www.sustainable-development.gov.uk/sustainable/quality04/maind/04j06.htm and http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/environment/sfps.pdf).
 The US Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov).
 Department of Statistics 2010 Household Expenditure Trends 1993 to 2010. Department of Statistics Malaysia; 2010.
 Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009, Household Expenditure Survey, Australia
 Department of Statistics Singapore 2008 Report on the Household Expenditure Survey, 2007/08.
 Ebru Caglayan (2012). A Microeconometric Analysis of Household Consumption Expenditure Determinants for Both Rural snd Urban Areas in Turkey. Februari. No. 2:8.
 Binh T. Nguyen, James W. Albrecht, Susan B. Vroman & M. Daniel Westbrook (2006). A Quantile Regression Decomposition of Urban-Rural Inequality In Vietnam. 31.
 Massimo Bagarani, Maria Forleo and Simona Zampino. (2009). Households Food Expenditures Behaviours and Socioeconomic Welfare in Italy: A Microeconometric Analysis. 1-16.
 Consumption Expenditure Surveys, Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT).
 Arnaud Reynaud (2006). Assessing the Impact of Public Regulation and Private Participation on Water Affordability for Poor Households: An empirical Investigation of the French Case.
 T. Munzir, Umar Burhan, Ghozali Maskie, Ahmad Erani Yustika (2015). Microeconomics and Macroeconomics, 3(3): 47-57 DOI: 10.5923/j.m2economics.20150303.01
 Luís Cruz, Eduardo Barata, Rita Martins (2015). Assessing Water Services Affordability: Macro and Micro Approaches, International Conference on Economic Modeling Boston, United States, July 15 -17, 2015.
 Maria A. García -Valiñas, Roberto Martínez - Espiñeira and Francisco González - Gómez (2010). Affordability of Residential Water Tariffs: Alternative Measurement and Explanatory Factors in Southern Spain, Journal of Environmental Management Volume 91, Issue 12, 2696-2706.