Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30077
Assessment of Health Risks to Ground Water Resources for the Emergency Supply of Population in Relation to the Content of Nitrates and Nitrites

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Lenka Jesonkova, Jiri Dvorak, Milos Bozek, Eduard Bakos

Abstract:

The contents of nitrates and nitrites were monitored in 15 ground water resources of a selected region earmarked for the emergency supply of population. The resources have been selected on the basis of previous assessment of natural conditions and the exploitation of territory in the infiltration area as well as the surroundings of water resources. The health risk analysis carried out in relation to nitrates and nitrites, which were found to be the most serious water contaminants, proved, that 14 resources met the health standards in relation to the assessed criterion and could be included in crisis plans. Water quality of ground resources may be assessed in the same way with regard to other contaminants.

Keywords: Drinking water, health risks, methemoglobinemia, nitrates, nitrites, water pollution.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1087362

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1599

References:


[1] S. Krocova, and M. Lindovsky, “Providing the Population and Entities of Critical Infrastructure with Drinking Water in Emergency Situations on the Territory of the Czech Republic (Published Conference Proceedings style),” in The Proceedings of the XVIth International Conference VODA ZLÍN, Zlín, Moravská vodárenská, 2012, pp. 21-30.
[2] E. Bakos, et al., “Emergency Water Supply II. Vulnerability of Particular Selected Water Resource. (Published Conference Proceedings style),” in V. Niola, K. Ng, (Eds.). Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on Environment, Ecosystems and Development (EED´11). Montreux, WSEAS Press, 2011, pp. 17-21.
[3] F. Bozek, et al., “Classification of Ground Water Resources for Emergency Supply,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 71, pp. 1653-1656, 2012.
[4] J. O. Lundberg, E. Weitzberg, and M. T. Gladwin, “The Nitrate-Nitrite- Nitric Oxide Pathway in Physiology and Therapeutics, “Nature Reviews Drug Discover, vol. 7, pp. 156-157, 2008.
[5] Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (MoA CR), “Methodological Instructions of the MoA CR to Ensure the Standard Procedure to be followed by Regional and Municipal Authorities, the Authority of the Capital of Prague and its City Parts, in Emergency Water Supply provided by the Emergency Water Supply Service during the Extraordinary Events, Emergency and Crisis Situations”, Governmental Bulletin for Regional and Municipal Authorities, Article 3, pp. 42-46, 2011.
[6] Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (MoA CR), “MoA Methodical Instructions for Selecting and Maintaining the Emergency Water Supply Resources”, Bulletin of MoA CR, Article 3, pp. 1-10, 2002.
[7] Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic (MoH CR), Decree No. 252/2004 Coll. Laying Down Hygiene Requirements for Drinking and Warm Water, Frequency and Scope of Drinking Water Checks as Amended by the Decrees No 187/2005 Coll. and No 293/2006 Coll., Prague: MoH CR, 2004.
[8] National Institute of Public Health (NIPH), Emergency Drinking Water Supply. Methodical Recommendation of NIPH – National Referential Centre for Drinking Water. Prague: NIPH, 2007, p. 5.
[9] US EPA, Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual. Washington, D.C.: US EPA, 1989-2004. Part A-F. (on line). (2013-01-17). URL: .
[10] Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic (MoE CR), “Methodical Instructions for the Risk Analysis of Contaminated Area”, MoE CR Bulletin, vol. XXI, no. 3, article 3, pp. 1-52, 2011.
[11] M. Tichý, and M. Valjentová, Experts and Expertise. 1st Ed. Prague: Linde, Ltd., 2011.
[12] US EPA, Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories Tables. Washington, D.C.: US EPA, 2011, p. 9. (on line). (2013-01-07). URL: .
[13] J. Chylkova, et. al.,”The Issue of Nitrates in Drinking Water and their Removal” WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 114-123, 2011.
[14] A. Pawełczyk, “Assessment of Health Hazard Associated with Nitrogen Compounds in Water”, Water Science & Technology, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 666-672, 2012.
[15] A. A. Avery, “Infantile Methemoglobinemia: Reexamining the Role of Drinking Water Nitrate,“ Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 583-586, 1999.
[16] H. Bartsch, and R. Montesano, “Relevance of Nitrosamines to Human Cancer,” Carcinogenesis vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1381 -1393, 1984.
[17] F. Bozek, et al., “Risk Assessment of Selected Source for Emergency Water Supply. (Published Conference Proceedings style),” in S. Eslamian, (Ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Development, Energy, Environment, Economics (DEEE´12). Paris, WSEAS Press, 2012, pp. 216-221.
[18] The Council of the European Union (CEU), Council Directive 98/83/EC on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption. Brussels: CEU, 1998.
[19] World Health Organization (WHO), Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 4th Ed. Geneva: WHO, 2011, p. 183.
[20] US EPA, Drinking Water Contaminants. Washington, D.C.: US EPA, 2009. (on line). (2013-02-14). URL: .
[21] Czech Office for Standards, Metrology and Testing (COSMT), ČSN EN ISO 5667-3. Water Quality - Sampling - Part 3: Guidance on the Preservation and Handling of Samples. Prague: COSMT, 1996.
[22] Czech Office for Standards, Metrology and Testing (COSMT), ČSN ISO 7890-3. Water Quality. Determination of Nitrate. Part 3: Spectrometric Method Using Sulfosalicylic Acid. Prague: COSMT, 1995.
[23] Czech Office for Standards, Metrology and Testing (COSMT), ČSN EN 26777. Water Quality. Determination of Nitrite. Molecular Absorption Spectrometric Method. Prague: COSMT, 1995.
[24] US EPA, Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook (Final Report). Washington: National Center of Environmental Assessment, 2007. (on line). (2013-02-15). URL: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/ cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=199243.
[25] US EPA, Integrated Risk Information System. Nitrate (CASRN 14797-55-8). (on line). (2013-02-15). URL: http://www. epa.gov/ iris/subst/0076.htm.
[26] US EPA, Integrated Risk Information System. Nitrite (CASRN 14797- 65-0). (on line). (2013-02-15). URL: http://www.epa.gov/ iris/subst/0078.htm.