Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 306

Search results for: Controlled Atmosphere Storage

306 Study of Effect Different of Ozone Doses on Sugars Content in Tomatoes at Different Stages of Ripening

Authors: Milad. A. Shalluf

Abstract:

The determination of sugars in foods is very significant. Their relation in fact, can affect the chemical and sensorial quality of the matrix (e.g., sweetness, pH, total acidity, microbial stability, global acceptability) and can provide information on food to optimize several selected technological processes. Three stages of ripeness (green, yellow and red) of tomatoes (Lycopersicon Esculentum cv. Elegance) at different harvest dates were evaluated. Fruit from all harvests were exposed to different of ozone doses (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg O3/g tomatoes) and clean air for 5 day at 15 °C±2 and 90-95 % relative humidity. Then, fruits were submitted for extraction and analysis after a day from the finish of exposure of each stage. The concentrations of the glucose and fructose increased in the tomatoes which were subjected to ozone treatments.

Keywords: Post-harvest Treatment, Controlled Atmosphere Storage, Ozone, Tomatoes, Glucose, Fructose

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305 Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Storage Temperatures on Quality of Shelled Raw Walnuts

Authors: M. Javanmard

Abstract:

This study was aimed at analyzing the effects of packaging (MAP) and preservation conditions on the packaged fresh walnut kernel quality. The central composite plan was used for evaluating the effect of oxygen (0–10%), carbon dioxide (0-10%), and temperature (4-26 °C) on qualitative characteristics of walnut kernels. Also, the response level technique was used to find the optimal conditions for interactive effects of factors, as well as estimating the best conditions of process using least amount of testing. Measured qualitative parameters were: peroxide index, color, decreased weight, mould and yeast counting test, and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the defined model for peroxide index, color, weight loss, and sensory evaluation is significant (p < 0.001), so that increase of temperature causes the peroxide value, color variation, and weight loss to increase and it reduces the overall acceptability of walnut kernels. An increase in oxygen percentage caused the color variation level and peroxide value to increase and resulted in lower overall acceptability of the walnuts. An increase in CO2 percentage caused the peroxide value to decrease, but did not significantly affect other indices (p ≥ 0.05). Mould and yeast were not found in any samples. Optimal packaging conditions to achieve maximum quality of walnuts include: 1.46% oxygen, 10% carbon dioxide, and temperature of 4 °C.

Keywords: Shelled walnut, MAP, quality, storage temperature.

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304 Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian, A. Mohammad-Razdari

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles, modified atmosphere, polyethylene film, tomato.

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303 Sintering Atmosphere Effects on the Densification of Al-SiC Compacts

Authors: Tadeusz Pieczonka, Jan Kazior

Abstract:

The influence of SiC powder addition on densification of Al-SiC compacts during sintering in different atmospheres was investigated. It was performed in a dilatometer in flowing nitrogen, nitrogen/hydrogen (95/5 by volume) and argon. Fine, F500 grade of SiC powder was used. Mixtures containing 10 and 30 vol.% of SiC reinforcement were prepared in a Turbula mixer. Green compacts of about 82% of theoretical density were made of each mixture. For comparison, compacts made of pure aluminum powder were also investigated. It was shown that nitrogen is the best sintering atmosphere because only in this atmosphere did shrinkage take place. Its amount is lowered by ceramic powder addition, i.e. the more SiC the less densification occurs. Additionally, the formation of clusters, enhanced in compacts containing 30 vol.% SiC, is also responsible for limiting the shrinkage. Microstructural examinations of sintered composites revealed that sintering of compacts occurs in the presence of the liquid phase exclusively in nitrogen.

Keywords: Al-SiC composites, densification, sintering atmosphere.

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302 Quality Changes of Venison Marinated in Red Wine Marinade during Storage

Authors: Laima Silina, Ilze Gramatina, Lija Dukalska, Liga Skudra, Tatjana Rakcejeva, Dace Klava, Anita Blija

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to determine quality parameters changes of red wine marinade marinated venison during storage. Beef as a control was analysed. Protein, fat, moisture and pH content dynamics as well microbiological quality was analyzed. The meat pieces were marinated in red wine marinade at 4±2ºC temperature for 48±1h. Marinated meat was placed in polypropylene trays, hermetically sealed with high barrier polymer film Multibarrier 60 under modified atmosphere (CO2 40%+N2 60%) without and with oxygen absorber sachets, as a control packaging in air ambiance packed marinated venison and beef was used. Meat samples were analyzed after 0, 4, 7, 11 and 14 days of storage. During the storage of meat, protein and moisture content significantly (p<0.05) decreased, pH and colony forming units significantly (p<0.05) increased, fat content does not change in all treatments irrespective of the packaging method.

Keywords: Marinating, modified atmosphere, quality, venison.

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301 Effect of Passive Modified Atmosphere in Different Packaging Materials on Fresh-Cut Mixed Fruit Salad Quality during Storage

Authors: I. Krasnova, L. Dukalska, D. Seglina, K. Juhnevica, E. Sne, D. Karklina

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out at the Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing in 2011. Fresh-cut minimally processed apple and pear mixed salad were packed by passive modified atmosphere (MAP) in PP containers, which were hermetically sealed by breathable conventional BOPP PropafreshTM P2GAF, and Amcor Agrifresh films. Biodegradable NatureFlexTM NVS INNOVIA Films and VC999 BioPack PLA films coated with a barrier of pure silicon oxide (SiOx) were used to compare the fresh-cut produce quality with this packed in conventional packaging films. Samples were cold stored at temperature +4.0±0.5 °C up to 10 days. The quality of salad was evaluated by physicochemical properties – weight losses, moisture, firmness, the effect of packaging modes on the colour, dynamics in headspace atmosphere concentration (CO2 and O2), titratable acidity values, as well as by microbiological contamination (yeasts, moulds and total bacteria count) of salads, analyzing before packaging and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 storage days.

Keywords: Biodegradable packaging, conventional, fresh-cut fruit salad

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300 Artificial Voltage-Controlled Capacitance and Inductance using Voltage-Controlled Transconductance

Authors: Mansour I. Abbadi, Abdel-Rahman M. Jaradat

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique is proposed to implement an artificial voltage-controlled capacitance or inductance which can replace the well-known varactor diode in many applications. The technique is based on injecting the current of a voltage-controlled current source onto a fixed capacitor or inductor. Then, by controlling the transconductance of the current source by an external bias voltage, a voltage-controlled capacitive or inductive reactance is obtained. The proposed voltage-controlled reactance devices can be designed to work anywhere in the frequency spectrum. Practical circuits for the proposed voltage-controlled reactances are suggested and simulated.

Keywords: voltage-controlled capacitance, voltage-controlled inductance, varactor diode, variable transconductance.

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299 Quantitative Study for Exchange of Gases from Open Sewer Channel to Atmosphere

Authors: Asif Mansoor, Nasiruddin Khan, Noreen Jamil

Abstract:

In this communication a quantitative modeling approach is applied to construct model for the exchange of gases from open sewer channel to the atmosphere. The data for the exchange of gases of the open sewer channel for the year January 1979 to December 2006 is utilized for the construction of the model. The study reveals that stream flow of the open sewer channel exchanges the toxic gases continuously with time varying scale. We find that the quantitative modeling approach is more parsimonious model for these exchanges. The usual diagnostic tests are applied for the model adequacy. This model is beneficial for planner and managerial bodies for the improvement of implemented policies to overcome future environmental problems.

Keywords: Open sewer channel, Industrial waste, Municipalwaste, Gases exchange, Atmosphere, Stochastic models, Diagnosticschecks.

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298 Staling and Quality of Iranian Flat Bread Stored at Modified Atmosphere in Different Packaging

Authors: A. Hematian Sourki, F. Tabatabaei Yazdi, M. Ghiafeh Davoodi, S.A. Mortazavi, M. Karimi, S.H. Razavizadegan Jahromi, A. Pourfarzad

Abstract:

This study investigated the use of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and different packaging to extend the shelf life of Barbari flat bread. Three atmospheres including 70%CO2 and 30%N2, 50% CO2 and 50%N2 and a normal air as control were used. The bread samples were packaged in three type pouches. The shelf life was determined by appearance of mold and yeast (M +Y) in Barbari bread samples stored at 25 ± 1°C and 38 ± 2% relative humidity. The results showed that it is possible to prolong the shelf life of Barbari bread from four days to about 21 days by using modified atmosphere packaging with high carbon dioxide concentration and high-barrier laminated and vacuum bags packages. However, the hardness of samples kept in MAP increase significantly by increase of carbon dioxide concentration. The correlation coefficient (r) between headspace CO2 concentration and hardness was 0.997, 0.997 and 0.599 for A, B and C packaging respectively. High negative correlation coefficients were found between the crumb moisture and the hardness values in various packaging. There were significant negative correlation coefficients between sensory parameters and hardness of texture.

Keywords: modified atmosphere packaging, flat bread, Iranian bread, staling, correlation.

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297 An Example of Post-Harvest Thermotherapy as a Non-Chemical Method of Pathogen Control on Apples of Topaz Cultivar in Storage

Authors: M. Grabowski, K. Macnar, J. Skrzyński

Abstract:

Huge losses in apple production are caused by pathogens that cannot be seen shortly after harvest. After-harvest thermotherapy treatments can considerably improve control of storage diseases on apples and become an alternative to chemical pesticides. In the years 2010-2012 carried out research in this area. Apples of 'Topaz' cultivar were harvested at optimal maturity time for long storage and subject to water bath treatment at 45, 50, 52, 55°C for 60, 120, 180 and 240 seconds. The control was untreated fruits. After 12 and 24 weeks and during so called simulated trade turnover the fruits were checked for their condition and the originators of diseases were determined by using the standard phytopathological methods. The most common originator of 'Topaz' apple infection during storage were the fungi of genus Gloeosporium. In this paper it was proven that for effective protection of 'Topaz' apples against diseases, thermotherapy by using water treatments at temperature range of 50-52°C is quite sufficient.

Keywords: apple storage diseases, prolonged fruit storage, 'Topaz' apples, thermotherapeutic treatments.

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296 Long-Term On-Chip Storage and Release of Liquid Reagents for Diagnostic Lab-on-a-Chip Applications

Authors: D. Czurratis, Y. Beyl, S. Zinober, R. Zengerle, F. Lärmer

Abstract:

A new concept for long-term reagent storage for Labon- a-Chip (LoC) devices is described. Here we present a polymer multilayer stack with integrated stick packs for long-term storage of several liquid reagents, which are necessary for many diagnostic applications. Stick packs are widely used in packaging industry for storing solids and liquids for long time. The storage concept fulfills two main requirements: First, a long-term storage of reagents in stick packs without significant losses and interaction with surroundings, second, on demand releasing of liquids, which is realized by pushing a membrane against the stick pack through pneumatic pressure. This concept enables long-term on-chip storage of liquid reagents at room temperature and allows an easy implementation in different LoC devices.

Keywords: Lab-on-a-Chip, long-term storage, reagent storage, stick pack.

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295 A Security Cloud Storage Scheme Based Accountable Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption without Key Escrow

Authors: Ming Lun Wang, Yan Wang, Ning Ruo Sun

Abstract:

With the development of cloud computing, more and more users start to utilize the cloud storage service. However, there exist some issues: 1) cloud server steals the shared data, 2) sharers collude with the cloud server to steal the shared data, 3) cloud server tampers the shared data, 4) sharers and key generation center (KGC) conspire to steal the shared data. In this paper, we use advanced encryption standard (AES), hash algorithms, and accountable key-policy attribute-based encryption without key escrow (WOKE-AKP-ABE) to build a security cloud storage scheme. Moreover, the data are encrypted to protect the privacy. We use hash algorithms to prevent the cloud server from tampering the data uploaded to the cloud. Analysis results show that this scheme can resist conspired attacks.

Keywords: Cloud storage security, sharing storage, attributes, Hash algorithm.

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294 Remarks on Energy Based Control of a Nonlinear, Underactuated, MIMO and Unstable Benchmark

Authors: Guangyu Liu

Abstract:

In the last decade, energy based control theory has undergone a significant breakthrough in dealing with underactated mechanical systems with two successful and similar tools, controlled Lagrangians and controlled Hamiltanians (IDA-PBC). However, because of the complexity of these tools, successful case studies are lacking, in particular, MIMO cases. The seminal theoretical paper of controlled Lagrangians proposed by Bloch and his colleagues presented a benchmark example–a 4 d.o.f underactuated pendulum on a cart but a detailed and completed design is neglected. To compensate this ignorance, the note revisit their design idea by addressing explicit control functions for a similar device motivated by a vector thrust body hovering in the air. To the best of our knowledge, this system is the first MIMO, underactuated example that is stabilized by using energy based tools at the courtesy of the original design idea. Some observations are given based on computer simulation.

Keywords: Controlled Lagrangian, Energy Shaping, Spherical Inverted Pendulum, Controlled Hamiltonian.

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293 Performance Evaluation of a ‘Priority-Controlled’ Intersection Converted to Signal-Controlled Intersection

Authors: Ezenwa Chinenye Amanamba

Abstract:

There is a call to ensure that the issues of safety and efficient throughput are considered during design; the solutions to these issues can also be retrofitted at locations where they were not captured during design, but have become problems to road users over time. This paper adopts several methods to analyze the performance of an intersection which was formerly a ‘priority-controlled’ intersection, but has now been converted to a ‘signal-controlled’ intersection. Extensive review of literature helped form the basis for result analysis and discussion. The Ikot-Ekpene/Anagha-Ezikpe intersection, located at the heart of Umuahia was adopted as case study; considering the high traffic volume on the route. Anecdotal evidence revealed that traffic signals imposed enormous delays at the intersection, especially for traffic on the major road. The major road has arrival flow which surpasses the saturation flow obtained from modelling of the isolated signalized intersection. Similarly, there were several geometric elements that did not agree with the specific function of the road. A roundabout, particularly flower roundabout was recommended as a better traffic control measure.

Keywords: Highway function, level of service, roundabout, traffic delays, Umuahia.

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292 Innovative Fabric Integrated Thermal Storage Systems and Applications

Authors: Ahmed Elsayed, Andrew Shea, Nicolas Kelly, John Allison

Abstract:

In northern European climates, domestic space heating and hot water represents a significant proportion of total primary total primary energy use and meeting these demands from a national electricity grid network supplied by renewable energy sources provides an opportunity for a significant reduction in EU CO2 emissions. However, in order to adapt to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation and to avoid co-incident peak electricity usage from consumers that may exceed current capacity, the demand for heat must be decoupled from its generation. Storage of heat within the fabric of dwellings for use some hours, or days, later provides a route to complete decoupling of demand from supply and facilitates the greatly increased use of renewable energy generation into a local or national electricity network. The integration of thermal energy storage into the building fabric for retrieval at a later time requires much evaluation of the many competing thermal, physical, and practical considerations such as the profile and magnitude of heat demand, the duration of storage, charging and discharging rate, storage media, space allocation, etc. In this paper, the authors report investigations of thermal storage in building fabric using concrete material and present an evaluation of several factors that impact upon performance including heating pipe layout, heating fluid flow velocity, storage geometry, thermo-physical material properties, and also present an investigation of alternative storage materials and alternative heat transfer fluids. Reducing the heating pipe spacing from 200 mm to 100 mm enhances the stored energy by 25% and high-performance Vacuum Insulation results in heat loss flux of less than 3 W/m2, compared to 22 W/m2 for the more conventional EPS insulation. Dense concrete achieved the greatest storage capacity, relative to medium and light-weight alternatives, although a material thickness of 100 mm required more than 5 hours to charge fully. Layers of 25 mm and 50 mm thickness can be charged in 2 hours, or less, facilitating a fast response that could, aggregated across multiple dwellings, provide significant and valuable reduction in demand from grid-generated electricity in expected periods of high demand and potentially eliminate the need for additional new generating capacity from conventional sources such as gas, coal, or nuclear.

Keywords: Fabric integrated thermal storage, FITS, demand side management, energy storage, load shifting, renewable energy integration.

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291 Increase in Solar Thermal Energy Storage by using a Hybrid Energy Storage System

Authors: Hassan Zohoor, Zaeem M. Moosavi

Abstract:

The intermittent nature of solar energy and the energy requirements of buildings necessitate the storage of thermal energy. In this paper a hybrid system of storing solar energy has been analyzed. Adding a LHS medium to a commercial solar water heater, the required energy for heating a small room was obtained in addition to preparing hot water. In other words, the suggested hybrid storage system consists of two tanks: a water tank as a SHS medium; and a paraffin tank as a LHS medium. A computing program was used to find the optimized time schedule of charging the storage tanks during each day, according to the solar radiation conditions. The results show that the use of such system can improve the capability of energy gathering comparing to the individual water storage tank during the cold months of the year. Of course, because of the solar radiation angles and shorten daylight in December & January, the performance will be the same as the simple solar water heaters (in the northern hemisphere). But the extra energy stored in November, February, March & April, can be useful for heating a small room for 3 hours during the cold days.

Keywords: Hybrid, Optimization, Solar thermal energy, Storage.

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290 Synthesis and Analysis of Swelling and Controlled Release Behaviour of Anionic sIPN Acrylamide based Hydrogels

Authors: Atefeh Hekmat, Abolfazl Barati, Ebrahim Vasheghani Frahani, Ali Afraz

Abstract:

In modern agriculture, polymeric hydrogels are known as a component able to hold an amount of water due to their 3-dimensional network structure and their tendency to absorb water in humid environments. In addition, these hydrogels are able to controllably release the fertilisers and pesticides loaded in them. Therefore, they deliver these materials to the plants' roots and help them with growing. These hydrogels also reduce the pollution of underground water sources by preventing the active components from leaching. In this study, sIPN acrylamide based hydrogels are synthesised by using acrylamide free radical, potassium acrylate, and linear polyvinyl alcohol. Ammonium nitrate is loaded in the hydrogel as the fertiliser. The effect of various amounts of monomers and linear polymer, measured in molar ratio, on the swelling rate, equilibrium swelling, and release of ammonium nitrate is studied.

Keywords: Hydrogel, controlled release, ammonium nitrate fertiliser, sIPN.

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289 Adding Olive Oil into Diluents for Improving Semen Quality and Storage Ability of Roosters' Semen during Liquid Storage

Authors: Hazim J. Al-Daraji

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing the diluent of roosters' semen with different levels of olive oil on motility, viability, morphology and acrosome integrity of chicken spermatozoa after in vitro storage for up to 72 h. Semen was collected from 60 White Layer males (62 wk of age) kept in separated floor pens and randomly divided into six treatment groups (10 males in each group). Experimental groups were as follows: T1 :fresh semen, T2 : semen extended 1:1 with Al – Daraji 2 diluent (AD2D) alone, T3 – T6 :semen samples extended 1:1 with AD2D supplemented with 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml or 8 ml of olive oil / 100 ml of diluent, respectively. Semen samples were then stored at 5 °C for 24 h, 48 h or 72 h. There was a clear influence of diluent supplementation with olive oil on the spermatozoa motility profile; olive oil groups (T3, T4, T5 and T6) recorded the highest scores of mass activity and individual motility during all storage periods compared to T1 and T2 groups. In addition, the inclusion of olive oil into semen diluent (T3, T4, T5 and T6) gave significantly higher percentages of viable spermatozoa, normal morphologically spermatozoa and intact acrosomes irrespective of storage period. These results clearly show that supplementation the diluent of roosters' semen with olive oil can improve semen quality when semen samples in vitro stored at 5 °C for up to 72 h.

Keywords: Olive oil, diluent, liquid storage, semen quality of roosters.

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288 Design of Medical Information Storage System – ECG Signal

Authors: A. Rubiano F, N. Olarte, D. Lara

Abstract:

This paper presents the design, implementation and results related to the storage system of medical information associated to the ECG (Electrocardiography) signal. The system includes the signal acquisition modules, the preprocessing and signal processing, followed by a module of transmission and reception of the signal, along with the storage and web display system of the medical platform. The tests were initially performed with this signal, with the purpose to include more biosignal under the same system in the future.

Keywords: Acquisition, ECG Signal, Storage, Web Platform

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287 A Novel Low Power Digitally Controlled Oscillator with Improved linear Operating Range

Authors: Nasser Erfani Majd, Mojtaba Lotfizad

Abstract:

In this paper, an ultra low power and low jitter 12bit CMOS digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) design is presented. Based on a ring oscillator implemented with low power Schmitt trigger based inverters. Simulation of the proposed DCO using 32nm CMOS Predictive Transistor Model (PTM) achieves controllable frequency range of 550MHz~830MHz with a wide linearity and high resolution. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates that the time-period jitter due to random power supply fluctuation is under 31ps and the power consumption is 0.5677mW at 750MHz with 1.2V power supply and 0.53-ps resolution. The proposed DCO has a good robustness to voltage and temperature variations and better linearity comparing to the conventional design.

Keywords: digitally controlled oscillator (DCO), low power, jitter; good linearity, robust

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286 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov

Abstract:

Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: Contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolythic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS.

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285 Controlled Release of Glucosamine from Pluronic-Based Hydrogels for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Authors: Papon Thamvasupong, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis affects a lot of people worldwide. Local injection of glucosamine is one of the alternative treatment methods to replenish the natural lubrication of cartilage. However, multiple injections can potentially lead to possible bacterial infection. Therefore, a drug delivery system is desired to reduce the frequencies of injections. A hydrogel is one of the delivery systems that can control the release of drugs. Thermo-reversible hydrogels can be beneficial to the drug delivery system especially in the local injection route because this formulation can change from liquid to gel after getting into human body. Once the gel is in the body, it will slowly release the drug in a controlled manner. In this study, various formulations of Pluronic-based hydrogels were synthesized for the controlled release of glucosamine. One of the challenges of the Pluronic controlled release system is its fast dissolution rate. To overcome this problem, alginate and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) were added to the polymer solution. The characteristics of the hydrogels were investigated including the gelation temperature, gelation time, hydrogel dissolution and glucosamine release mechanism. Finally, a mathematical model of glucosamine release from Pluronic-alginate-hyaluronic acid hydrogel was developed. Our results have shown that crosslinking Pluronic gel with alginate did not significantly extend the dissolution rate of the gel. Moreover, the gel dissolution profiles and the glucosamine release mechanisms were best described using the zeroth-order kinetic model, indicating that the release of glucosamine was primarily governed by the gel dissolution.

Keywords: Controlled release, drug delivery system, glucosamine, Pluronic® F-127, thermoreversible hydrogel.

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284 Development of a 3D Mathematical Model for a Doxorubicin Controlled Release System using Pluronic Gel for Breast Cancer Treatment

Authors: W. Kaowumpai, D. Koolpiruck, K. Viravaidya

Abstract:

Female breast cancer is the second in frequency after cervical cancer. Surgery is the most common treatment for breast cancer, followed by chemotherapy as a treatment of choice. Although effective, it causes serious side effects. Controlled-release drug delivery is an alternative method to improve the efficacy and safety of the treatment. It can release the dosage of drug between the minimum effect concentration (MEC) and minimum toxic concentration (MTC) within tumor tissue and reduce the damage of normal tissue and the side effect. Because an in vivo experiment of this system can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, a mathematical model is desired to study the effects of important parameters before the experiments are performed. Here, we describe a 3D mathematical model to predict the release of doxorubicin from pluronic gel to treat human breast cancer. This model can, ultimately, be used to effectively design the in vivo experiments.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Doxorubicin, Controlled ReleaseSystem, Diffusion and Convection Equation.

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283 Performance Evaluation of A Stratified Chilled- Water Thermal Storage System

Authors: M. A. Karim

Abstract:

In countries with hot climates, air-conditioning forms a large proportion of annual peak electrical demand, requiring expansion of power plants to meet the peak demand, which goes unused most of the time. Use of well-designed cool storage can offset the peak demand to a large extent. In this study, an air conditioning system with naturally stratified storage tank was designed, constructed and tested. A new type of diffuser was designed and used in this study. Factors that influence the performance of chilled water storage tanks were investigated. The results indicated that stratified storage tank consistently stratified well without any physical barrier. Investigation also showed that storage efficiency decreased with increasing flow rate due to increased mixing of warm and chilled water. Diffuser design and layout primarily affected the mixing near the inlet diffuser and the extent of this mixing had primary influence on the shape of the thermocline. The heat conduction through tank walls and through the thermocline caused widening of mixed volume. Thermal efficiency of stratified storage tanks was as high as 90 percent, which indicates that stratified tanks can effectively be used as a load management technique.

Keywords: Cool Thermal Storage, Diffuser, Natural Stratification, Efficiency Improvement, Load management.

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282 An AFM Approach of RBC Micro and Nanoscale Topographic Features during Storage

Authors: K. Santacruz-Gomez, E. Silva-Campa, S. Álvarez-García, V. Mata-Haro, D. Soto-Puebla, M. Pedroza-Montero

Abstract:

Blood gamma irradiation is the only available method to prevent transfusion associated graft versus host disease (TAGVHD). However, when blood is irradiated, determine blood shelf time is crucial. Non irradiated blood have a self-time from 21 to 35 days when is preserved with anticoagulated solution and stored at 4°C. During their storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo a series of biochemical, biomechanical and molecular changes involving what is known as storage lesion (SL). SL include loss of structural integrity of RBC, decrease of 2,3-diphosphatidylglyceric acid levels, and increase of both ion potassium concentration and hemoglobin (Hb). On the other hand, Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) represents a versatile tool for a nano-scale high resolution topographic analysis in biological systems. In order to evaluate SL in irradiated and nonirradiated blood, RBC topography and morphometric parameters were obtained from an AFM XE-BIO system. Cell viability was followed using flow cytometry. Our results showed that early markers as nanoscale roughness, allow us to evaluate blood quality since other perspective.

Keywords: AFM, Blood γ-irradiation, roughness, Storage lesion.

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281 Research for Hollow Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers in Korea

Authors: Ho-Young Kim, Jae-Hoon Lee, Do-Kyu Hwang, Im-Jong Kwahk, Tae-Hoon Kim, Seung-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

Hollow section for bridge columns has some advantages. However, current seismic design codes do not provide design regulations for hollow bridge piers. There have been many experimental studied for hollow reinforced concrete piers in the world. But, Study for hollow section for bridge piers in Korea has been begun with approximately 2000s. There has been conducted experimental study for hollow piers of flexural controlled sections by Yeungnam University, Sung kyunkwan University, Korea Expressway Corporation in 2009. This study concluded that flexural controlled sections for hollow piers showed the similar behavior to solid sections. And there have been conducted experimental study for hollow piers of compression controlled sections by Yeungnam University, Korea Institute of Construction Technology in 2012. This study concluded that compression controlled sections for hollow piers showed compression fracture of concrete in inside wall face. Samsung Construction & Trading Corporation has been conducted study with Yeungnam University for reduce the quantity of reinforcement details about hollow piers. Reduce the quantity of reinforcement details are triangular cross tie. This study concluded that triangular reinforcement details showed the similar behavior as compared with existing reinforcement details.

Keywords: Hollow pier, flexural controlled section, compression controlled section, reduce the quantity of reinforcement details.

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280 Quality-Controlled Compression Method using Wavelet Transform for Electrocardiogram Signals

Authors: Redha Benzid, Farid Marir, Nour-Eddine Bouguechal

Abstract:

This paper presents a new Quality-Controlled, wavelet based, compression method for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Initially, an ECG signal is decomposed using the wavelet transform. Then, the resulting coefficients are iteratively thresholded to guarantee that a predefined goal percent root mean square difference (GPRD) is matched within tolerable boundaries. The quantization strategy of extracted non-zero wavelet coefficients (NZWC), according to the combination of RLE, HUFFMAN and arithmetic encoding of the NZWC and a resulting look up table, allow the accomplishment of high compression ratios with good quality reconstructed signals.

Keywords: ECG compression, Non-uniform Max-Lloydquantizer, PRD, Quality-Controlled, Wavelet transform

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279 Attempt to Reuse Used-PCs as Distributed Storage

Authors: Toshiya Kawato, Shin-ichi Motomura, Masayuki Higashino, Takao Kawamura

Abstract:

Storage for storing data is indispensable. If a storage capacity becomes insufficient, we can increase its capacity by adding new disks. It is, however, difficult to add a new disk when a budget is not enough. On the other hand, there are many unused idle resources such as used personal computers despite those use value. In order to solve those problems, used personal computers can be reused as storage. In this paper, we attempt to reuse used-PCs as a distributed storage. First, we list up the characteristics of used-PCs and design a storage system that utilizes its characteristics. Next, we experimentally implement an auto-construction system that automatically constructs a distributed storage environment in used-PCs.

Keywords: Distributed storage, used personal computer, idle resource, auto construction.

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278 Stand Alone Multiple Trough Solar Desalination with Heat Storage

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Kamel Benabdellaziz

Abstract:

Remote arid areas of the vast expanses of the African deserts hold huge subterranean reserves of brackish water resources waiting for economic development. This work presents design guidelines as well as initial performance data of new autonomous solar desalination equipment which could help local communities produce their own fresh water using solar energy only and, why not, contribute to transforming desert lands into lush gardens. The output of solar distillation equipments are typically low and in the range of 3 l/m2/day on the average. This new design with an integrated, water based, environmentally-friendly solar heat storage system produced 5 l/m2/day in early spring weather. Equipment output during summer exceeded 9 liters per m2 per day.

Keywords: Multiple trough distillation, solar desalination, solar distillation with heat storage, water based heat storage system.

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277 Run-off Storage in Sand Reservoirs as an Alternative Source of Water Supply for Rura land Semi-arid areas of South Africa

Authors: Olufisayo A. Olufayo, Fred A. O. Otieno, George M. Ochieng

Abstract:

Abstraction of water from the dry river sand-beds is well-known as an alternative source of water during dry seasons. Internally, because of the form of sand particles, voids are created which can store water in the riverbeds. Large rivers are rare in South Africa. Many rivers are sand river types and without water during the prolonged dry periods. South Africa has not taken full advantage of water storage in sand as a solution to the growing water scarcity both in urban and rural areas. The paper reviews the benefits of run-off storage in sand reservoirs gained from other arid areas and need for adoption in rural areas of South Africa as an alternative water supply where it is probable.

Keywords: Groundwater, Perennial river, Run-off storage, Sandreservoir.

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