Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 442

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Social and Business Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

442 Irish Film Tourism, Neocolonialism and Star Wars: Charting a Course Towards Ecologically and Culturally Considered Representation and Tourism on Skellig Michael

Authors: Rachel Gough

Abstract:

In 2014, Skellig Michael, an island off Ireland’s western seaboard and UNESCO world heritage site became a major setting in Disney’s Star Wars franchise. The subsequent influx of tourists to the site has proven to be a point of contention nationally. The increased visitor numbers have uplifted certain areas of the local economy, the mainland, but have caused irreparable damage to historic monuments and to endangered bird populations who breed on the island. Recent research carried out by a state body suggests far-reaching and longterm negative impacts on the island’s culture and environment, should the association with the Star Wars franchise persist. In spite of this, the film has been widely endorsed by the Irish government as providing a vital economic boost to historically marginalised rural areas through film tourism. This paper argues quite plainly that what is taking place on Skellig is neocolonialism. Skellig Michael’s unique resources, its aesthetic qualities, its ecosystem, and its cultural currency have been sold by the state to a multinational corporation, who profit from their use. Meanwhile, locals are left to do their best to turn a market trend into sustainable business at the expense of culture ecology and community. This paper intends to be the first dedicated study into the psychogeographic and cultural impact of Skellig Michael’s deterioration as a result of film tourism. It will discuss the projected impact of this incident on Irish culture more broadly and finally will attempt to lay out a roadmap for more collaborative filmmaking and touristic approach, which allows local cultures and ecosystem’s to thrive without drastically inhibiting cultural production. This paper will ultimately find that the consequences of this representation call for a requirement to read tourism as a split concept — namely into what we might loosely call “eco-tourism” and more capital-based “profit-bottom-line tourism.”

Keywords: ecology, film tourism, neocolonialism, sustainability

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441 New Possibilites for Testing Ux and Ui Design on Mobile Devices

Authors: Jakub Berčík, Anna Mravcová, Jana Gálová, Katarína Neomániová

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In an era when everything is increasingly digital, consumers are always looking for new options in solutions to their everyday needs. In this context, mobile apps are developing at an exponential pace. One of the fastest growing segments of mobile technologies is, obviously, e-commerce. Due to the number of commercial applications available for smart phones and tablets, its popularity is becoming more and more significant. In terms of development, Asian markets have seen a very strong 240% growth in their mobile e-commerce over the past year, which was six times more than the growth rate in the United States. European markets experienced a 71% growth over the previous year, indicating that visitors are increasingly accessing these technologies and are buying from their mobile devices still more often. It can be predicted that mobile commerce will record nearly three times the global growth of e-commerce across all platforms, which indicates its importance in the given segment. The current coronavirus pandemic is also changing many of the existing paradigms both socially, economically, and technologically, which has a major impact on changing consumer behaviour and the emphasis on simplification and clarity of mobile solutions. This is the area that User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) designers deal with. Their task is to design a sufficiently attractive and interesting solution that will be available on all mobile devices and at the same time will be easy enough for the customer/visitor to get to the destination or to get the necessary information in a few clicks. The basis for changes in UX design can now be obtained not only through online analytical tools but also through neuromarketing, especially in the case of mobile devices. The paper highlights new possibilities for testing UX design applications on mobile devices using a special platform that combines a stationary eye camera (Eye Tracking) and facereading (Facial coding).

Keywords: visual attention, emotions, user experience, mobile design

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440 The Role of Kerala Responsible Tourism Projects’ in Local Economic Development with Special Reference to Kumarakom Grama Panchayat, Kerala State

Authors: Angelin Thomas

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Local Economic Development (LED) is a new concept that entails local residents working together to achieve long-term economic growth that benefits everybody in the community. It is a process in which public, private, and non-governmental sector partners collaborate to improve economic development and job creation conditions. LED policies are mainly aimed at growing economic development, but they also share the goals of poverty alleviation and greater social and economic integration of previously marginalized groups. Many studies, especially in low and middle-income countries, show that welfare indicators like life expectancy at birth, literacy, and mortality rates are strongly correlated with income levels. This means that economic development may have a trickle-down effect, resulting in the achievement of other social goals. More precisely, the LED process' inclusive nature promotes the development of strategies that aim to strike a balance between the interests of local businesses and highly qualified, easily employable individuals, as well as other stakeholders such as informal businesses, the poor, women, and other historically marginalized groups. Local economic development is based on the bottom-up approach, which requires local stakeholders to participate in the development process. Responsible tourism is any type of tourism that can be consumed in a more responsible way. Responsible tourism is described as tourism that has minimal negative social, economic, and environmental consequences. Increases local people's economic gains and improves the well-being of host communities. As a development practitioner, it’s very relevant to observe the impact of Responsible Tourism in achieving the sustainability of a particular area, thereby meeting the real essence of Local Economic Development. The main focus of Local Economic Development is to alleviate poverty, thereby ensuring the sustainability of the local people in a particular area. In this study, the main objective is to examine the potential of the Responsible Tourism project in Kumarakom Gramapanchayat in achieving Local Economic Development. Secondary data analysis is used for the study by reviewing various kinds of literature related to Responsible Tourism and Local Economic Development.

Keywords: responsible tourism, local economic development, bottom-up approach, sustainability

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439 The Impact of Citizens’ Involvement on Their Perception of the Brand’s Image: The Case of the City of Casablanca

Authors: Abderrahmane Mousstain, Ez-Zohra Belkadi

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Many authors support more participatory and inclusive place branding practices that empower stakeholders’ participation. According to this participatory point of view, the effectiveness of place branding strategies cannot be achieved without citizen involvement. However, the role of all residents as key participants in the city branding process has not been widely discussed. The aim of this paper was to determine how citizens’ involvement impacts their perceptions of the city's image, using a multivariate model. To test our hypotheses hypothetical-deductive reasoning by the quantitative method was chosen. Our investigation is based on data collected through a survey among 200 citizens of Casablanca. Results show that the more citizens are involved, the more they tend to evaluate the image of the brand positively. Additionally, the degree of involvement seems to impact satisfaction and a sense of belonging. As well, the more citizen develops a sense of belonging to the city, the more favorable his or her perception of the brand image is. Ultimately, the role of citizens shouldn’t be limited to reception. They are also Co-creators of the brand, who ensure the correlation of the brand with authentic place roots.

Keywords: citybranding, sense of belonging, satisfaction, impact, brand’s image

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438 Problems and Prospects of Protection of Historical Building as a Corner Stone of Cultural Policy for International Collaboration in New Era: A Study of Fars Province, Iran

Authors: Kiyanoush Ghalavand, Ali Ferydooni

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Fars province Fārs or Pārs is a vast land located in the southwest of Iran. All over the province, you can see and feel the glory of Ancient Iranian culture and civilization. There are many monuments from pre-historical to the Islamic era within this province. The existence of ancient cultural and historical monuments in Fars province including the historical complex of Persepolis, the tombs of Persian poets Hafez and Saadi, and dozens of other valuable cultural and historical works of this province as a symbol of Iranian national identity and the manifestation of transcendent cultural values of this national identity. Fars province is quintessentially Persian. Its name is the modern version of ancient Parsa, the homeland, if not the place of origin, of the Persians, one of the great powers of antiquity. From here, the Persian Empire ruled much of Western and Central Asia, receiving ambassadors and messengers at Persepolis. It was here that the Persian kings were buried, both in the mountain behind Persepolis and in the rock face of nearby Naqsh-e Rustam. We have a complex paradox in Persian and Islamic ideology in the age of technology in Iran. The main purpose of the present article is to identify and describe the problems and prospects of origin and development of the modern approach to the conservation and restoration of ancient monuments and historic buildings, the influence that this development has had on international collaboration in the protection and conservation of cultural heritage, and the present consequences worldwide. The definition of objects and structures of the past as heritage, and the policies related to their protection, restoration, and conservation, have evolved together with modernity, and are currently recognized as an essential part of the responsibilities of modern society. Since the eighteenth century, the goal of this protection has been defined as the cultural heritage of humanity; gradually this has included not only ancient monuments and past works of art but even entire territories for a variety of new values generated in recent decades. In its medium-term program of 1989, UNESCO defined the full scope of such heritage. The cultural heritage may be defined as the entire corpus of material signs either artistic or symbolic handed on by the past to each culture and, therefore, to the whole of humankind. As a constituent part of the affirmation and enrichment of cultural identities, as a legacy belonging to all humankind, the cultural heritage gives each particular place its recognizable features and is the storehouse of human experience. The preservation and the presentation of the cultural heritage are therefore a corner-stone of any cultural policy. The process, from which these concepts and policies have emerged, has been identified as the ‘modern conservation movement’.

Keywords: tradition, modern, heritage, historical building, protection, cultural policy, fars province

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437 Segmentation of Lungs in Chest X-Ray Image Using U-Net -GAN

Authors: El Mansouri Omar, Yousef El Mourabit, Youssef El Habouz

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The chest x-ray (CXR) is the low-cost and the most common among medical imaging modalities Because of its contribution to the early detection of lung cancer compared to MRI, CT, and PET scans. So, to help radiologists integrate computer-aided detection methods into the diagnostic pipeline, greatly reducing the workload. For this reason, in this work, a robust algorithm to perform segmentation in medical imaging must be sought. The adversarial network (GANs) does the job. GANs are actually a framework between two neural networks (generator and discriminator). Our work, the generator is trained to generate a segmented mask for a given CXR input, the discriminator distinguishes between the ground truth, and the mask is generated, the final objective is to generate masks for the input CXR. The model is trained and evaluated using three discriminators D1, D2, and D3. Well-generalized experimental results of the JSRT CXR dataset reveal that the proposed model is able to a dice score of 0.97781, which is better than other reported state-of-the-art results.

Keywords: deep learning, tensorflow, JSRT, chest X-ray, segmentation, medical imaging, generative adversarial networks

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436 Evaluation of Robot Application in Hospitality

Authors: Lina Zhong, Sunny Sun, Rob Law

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Artificial intelligence has been developing rapidly. Previous studies have evaluated hotel technology either from an employee or consumer perspective. However, impacts, which mainly include the social and economic impacts of hotel robots, are unknown as they are newly introduced. To bridge the aforementioned research gap, this study evaluates hotel robots from contextual, diagnostic, evaluative, and strategic aspects using framework analysis as a basis to assist hotel managers in real-time hotel marketing strategy management, adjustment and revenue achievement. Findings show that, from a consumer perspective, the overall acceptance of hotel robots is low. The main implication is that the cost of hotel robots should be carefully estimated, and the investment should be made based on phases.

Keywords: application, evaluation, framework analysis, hotel robot

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435 Consumers’ Perceptions of Non-Communicable Diseases and Perceived Product Value Impacts on Healthy Food Purchasing Decisions

Authors: Khatesiree Sripoothon, Usanee Sengpanich, Rattana Sittioum

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The objective of this study is to examine the factors influencing consumer purchasing decisions about healthy food. This model consists of two latent variables: Consumer Perception relating to NCDs and Consumer Perceived Product Value. The study was conducted in the northern provinces of Thailand, which are popular with tourists and have received support from the government for health tourism. A survey was used as the data collection method, and the questionnaire was applied to 385 tourists. An accidental sampling method was used to identify the sample. The statistics of frequency, percentage, mean, and structural equation model were used to analyze the data obtained. Additionally, all factors had a significant positive influence on healthy food purchasing decisions (p<0.01) and were predictive of healthy food purchasing decisions at 46.20 (R2=0.462). Also, these findings seem to underline a supposition that consumer perceptions of NCDs and perceived product value are key variables that strengthens the competitive effects of a healthy-friendly business entrepreneur. Moreover, reduce the country's public health costs for treating patients with the disease of NCDs in Thailand.

Keywords: healthy food, perceived product value, perception of non-communicable diseases, purchasing decisions

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434 Working Women and Leave in India

Authors: Ankita Verma

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Women transform the group of people into a family and a house into a home. When a woman embraces motherhood, she undergoes several stresses – both physical and mental. Therefore, to be supportive of women during this critical stage is a societal responsibility. India is in the league of many developed nations in formulating women-friendly policies. One such initiative is the Maternity Benefits Act; first passed in 1961 and later amended from time to time with the latest amended Act of 2017. This review paper critically analyzes provisions of the Act, its implementation, and the legal issues arising out of implementation of the Act. The review suggests that the Act has made a positive impact and the judiciary also has played its role in streamlining the process of implementation of the Act. However, at the same time, it is also felt that employers often hesitate in hiring a mother or an expectant mother.

Keywords: maternity benefits, maternity benefits act 1961 & 2017, motherhood, maternity and paternity leave, medical bonus, work environment

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433 Saving Lives from a Laptop: How to Produce a Live Virtual Media Briefing That Will Inform, Educate, and Protect Communities in Crisis

Authors: Cory B. Portner, Julie A. Grauert, Lisa M. Stromme, Shelby D. Anderson, Franji H. Mayes

Abstract:

Introduction: WASHINGTON state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States is internationally known for its technology industry, fisheries, agriculture, and vistas. On January 21, 2020, Washington state also became known as the first state with a confirmed COVID-19 case in the United States, thrusting the state into the international spotlight as the world came to grips with the global threat of this disease presented. Tourism is Washington state’s fourth-largest industry. Tourism to the state generates over 1.8 billion dollars (USD) in local and state tax revenue and employs over 180,000 people. Communicating with residents, stakeholders, and visitors on the status of disease activity, prevention measures, and response updates was vital to stopping the pandemic and increasing compliance and awareness. Significance: In order to communicate vital public health updates, guidance implementation, and safety measures to the public, the Washington State Department of Health established routine live virtual media briefings to reach audiences via social media, internet television, and broadcast television. Through close partnership with regional broadcast news stations and the state public affairs news network, the Washington State Department of Health hosted 95 media briefings from January 2020 through September 2022 and continues to regularly host live virtual media briefings to accommodate the needs of the public and media. Methods: Our methods quickly evolved from hosting briefings in the cement closet of a military base to being able to produce and stream the briefings live from any home-office location. The content was tailored to the hot topic of the day and to the reporter's questions and needs. Virtual media briefings hosted through inexpensive or free platforms online are extremely cost-effective: the only mandatory components are WiFi, a laptop, and a monitor. There is no longer a need for a fancy studio or expensive production software to achieve the goal of communicating credible, reliable information promptly. With minimal investment and a small learning curve, facilitators and panelists are able to host highly produced and engaging media availabilities from their living rooms. Results: The briefings quickly developed a reputation as the best source for local and national journalists to get the latest and most factually accurate information about the pandemic. In the height of the COVID-19 response, 135 unique media outlets logged on to participate in the briefing. The briefings typically featured 4-5 panelists, with as many as 9 experts in attendance to provide information and respond to media questions. Preparation was always a priority: Public Affairs staff for the Washington State Department of Health produced over 170 presenter remarks, including guidance on talking points for 63 expert guest panelists. Implication For Practice: Information is today’s most valuable currency. The ability to disseminate correct information urgently and on a wide scale is the most effective tool in crisis communication. Due to our role as the first state with a confirmed COVID-19 case, we were forced to develop the most accurate and effective way to get life-saving information to the public. The cost-effective, web-based methods we developed can be applied in any crisis to educate and protect communities under threat, ultimately saving lives from a laptop.

Keywords: crisis communications, public relations, media management, news media

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432 Uptake and Determinants of Rabies Pre-exposure Prophylaxis among At-Risk Travelers

Authors: Florian Lienert, Peter Costa, Caroline Aurensan, Elaine Melander

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Introduction: Rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can be given before travel and simplifies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). We studied the knowledge about rabies, the uptake of PrEP, and reasons for deciding for or against PrEP in at-risk travelers. We also examined how healthcare professionals (HCPs) counsel on rabies prevention. Methods: On behalf of Bavarian Nordic, Ipsos MORI conducted two online surveys in the USA. Fieldwork from February 24th to April 23rd, 2021, 689 participants aged 18-85 years, visited one of 91 endemic rabies countries in the past 3 years for at least one week, involved in at least 1 of 7 at-risk activities, heard of rabies, positive towards vaccination and chose to take part (surveyed travelers). Secondly, 76 HCPs, with responsibility for advising/ making decisions about vaccination requirements for their patients, personally recommend or prescribe vaccines for rabies, positive towards vaccination and chose to take part (surveyed HCPs). Results: A minority (36%) of surveyed travelers classified rabies as a life-threatening disease. A third of surveyed HCPs (37%) did not discuss rabies vaccination with at-risk travelers, 18% discussed only PEP, 23% only PrEP and 22% both. A minority (21%) of surveyed travelers reported having received rabies vaccination since they were 18. Among those participants (n=145), the most common reasons for deciding to get PrEP were for their own peace of mind (35%) and following an HCP recommendation (32%). Of those who decided not to receive the rabies vaccine (n=319), the most common reasons were that they did not think their risk of rabies was sufficient (23%) and that the HCP did not suggest it (23%). Conclusions: The survey demonstrated knowledge gaps around rabies and low PrEP coverage among surveyed travelers. It also highlighted the role of HCP recommendations and showed that most HCPs did not discuss PrEP with at-risk travelers.

Keywords: rabies, pre-exposure prophylaxis, travel, travel health, post-travel care, rabies treatment, vaccine, post-exposure, prophylaxis, at-risk, education, PrEP, PEP

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431 Uncovering the Myth of Venture Capital Returns: A Meta-Analysis of Fund Performance Drivers

Authors: Philipp Hofsommer

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Strengthening the foundation of innovative start-up firms and providing the best conditions for their growth is more necessary than ever. Access to venture capital (VC) is an important success factor for young, often risky entrepreneurial firms. In recent years, VC has seen an upsurge in a number of newly founded funds, overall investment volumes, and the number of funding rounds. Both private and public investors are considering investing in this asset class but encounter difficulties in identifying the most promising and risk-adjusted funds. Building on today´s strong momentum, VC as an asset class is facing a point of inflection as financial returns of recently increased VC investments will decide about the long-term investors' interest in this asset class. Therefore, the best possible fund selection by investors in VC funds (called limited partners) is central to ensure the long-term institutional financing of innovative start-up firms. But what factors determine fund performance (to what extent) and should be an integral part of such a fund selection process? Previous empirical research has provided considerable evidence that a wide variety of factors influence the financial returns of VC funds (e.g., human capital, network, team diversity, investment strategy). However, empirical results are often controversial and fragmented. Preceding studies focused on one or few specific constructs, whereas this meta-analysis consolidates and examines various factors related to this study´s dependent variable VC fund performance. It integrates environmental, strategic, and organizational return factors of VC funds from published and unpublished studies to provide a comprehensive and integrated overview of various relevant factors. Implications for research, management, and policy practice will be provided for accelerating the forward movement of the discipline and the institutional financing of innovative start-ups firms.

Keywords: fund performance drivers, general partner selection, limited partner, venture capital

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430 Sustainable Tourism from a Multicriteria Analysis Perspective

Authors: Olga Blasco-Blasco, Vicente Liern

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The development of tourism since the mid-20th century has raised problems of overcrowding, indiscriminate construction in seaside areas and gentrification. Increasingly, the World Tourism Organisation and public institutions are promoting policies that encourage sustainability. From the perspective of sustainability, three types of tourism can be established: traditional tourism, sustainable tourism and sustainable impact tourism. Measuring sustainability is complex due to its multiple dimensions of different relative importance and diversity in nature. In order to try to answer this problem and to identify the benefits of applying policies that promote sustainable tourism, a decision-making analysis will be carried out through the application of a multicriteria analysis method. The proposal is applied to hotel reservations and to the evaluation and management of tourism sustainability in the Spanish Autonomous Communities.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, multicriteria analysis, flexible optimization, composite indicators

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429 The Role of Gender Differences in the Use of National Parks and Forested Areas in Slavonice, Czech Republic Using Quick Response Code

Authors: Chingkheihunba Pebam, Shima Yazdanmehr

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This research project aims to study the role that gender has upon the use of National Parks and forested recreation areas in Slavonice, Czech Republic. Furthermore, this study investigate the role and significance that forested areas have upon the daily lives of local residents. This research proposes to observe the users at twenty distinct locations during twelve weeks study period. The study locations are within close proximity to the historic and recreational destination of Slavonice, situated in the southern part of the Czech Republic. This research aims to monitor the frequency of human presence and their associated movements in various recreation and tourism destinations in a discreet manner without disturbing the ecological elements such as wildlife/flora and fauna using uniquely generated Quick Response Codes (QR) for each twenty locations.

Keywords: national park, gender, czech republic, QR code

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428 How Unpleasant Emotions, Morals and Normative Beliefs of Severity Relate to Cyberbullying Intentions

Authors: Paula C. Ferreira, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Nádia Pereira, Aristides Ferreira, Alexandra Marques Pinto, Alexandra Barros, Vitor Martinho

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Cyberbullying is a phenomenon of worldwide concern regarding children and adolescents’ mental health and risk behavior. Bystanders of this phenomenon can help diminish the incidence of this phenomenon if they engage in pro-social behavior. However, different social-cognitive and affective bystander reactions may surface because of the lack of contextual information and emotional cues in cyberbullying situations. Hence, this study investigated how cyberbullying bystanders’ unpleasant emotions could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions to cyberbully or defend the victim. It also proposed to investigate how their normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions. Three groups of adolescents participated in this study, namely a first of group 402 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.12; SD = 2.19; 55.7% girls) to compute explorative factorial analyses of the instruments used; a second group of 676 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 14.10; SD = 2.74; 55.5% were boys) to run confirmatory factor analyses; and a third group (N = 397; 5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.88 years; SD = 1.45; 55.5% girls) to perform the main analyses to test the research hypotheses. Self-report measures were used, such as the Personal moral beliefs about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Unpleasant emotions about cyberbullying incidents questionnaires, and the Bystanders’ behavioral intentions in cyberbullying situations questionnaires. Path analysis results revealed that unpleasant emotions were mediators of the relationship between adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ personal moral beliefs and their intentions to help the victims in cyberbullying situations. Moreover, adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ normative beliefs of gravity were mediators of the relationship between their personal moral beliefs and their intentions to cyberbully others. These findings provide insights for the development of prevention and intervention programs that promote social and emotional learning strategies as a means to prevent and intervene in cyberbullying.

Keywords: cyberbullying, normative beliefs of perceived severity, personal moral beliefs, unpleasant emotions

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427 A Qualitative Exploration of How to Improve Mentoring for Women Entrepreneurs

Authors: Alison Theaker

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Whilst the number of women-owned enterprises has been increasing substantially in recent decades, women still lag behind men in the creation of new enterprises. This is especially so in rural economies, despite the possibility that entrepreneurial activities would increase women’s economic activity in rural areas. Mentoring is a form of support that is suggested as particularly relevant to women entrepreneurs as it could tackle the problem of the under-representation of women. Policy often includes mentoring as a fundamental element of support for women. This paper aims to examine whether mentoring is effective in supporting women in a rural context to engage in entrepreneurial activity. It addresses the lack of knowledge of developed economies through undertaking a study of mentoring of female entrepreneurs in Devon, UK. It seeks to contribute insights to the development of institutional support programs and thus bridge the gap between policy and practice as well as creating value, employment, and community involvement. An interpretivist approach was adopted using a qualitative research design. One-off in-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of women who operate in some of the most common areas for women entrepreneurs identified by The Federation of Small Businesses in the UK: namely real estate, health, and social work, community, social and personal services, wholesale and retail. In addition, as the major industries in the location are farming, food and drink production, and tourism, women entrepreneurs, were sought in these areas. Participants were found through some of the local business networks that the researcher attended, as well as through LinkedIn. Quota sampling was combined with a purposive approach to select those who had had an experience of mentoring. Drawing on justification in the literature that 12 interviews should be enough to reach data saturation in a qualitative study, twelve women native to the rural context and twelve who were incomers were selected, with a further six interviews with mentors. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Some participants found that there was more expectation to run one’s own business in a rural environment. This was also connected to the lack of employment opportunities. The majority were either sole traders or used manufacturing capability outside the area. Upbringing was found to be a major influence on whether women engaged in entrepreneurship. Most stated that there had been no expectation or suggestion that this was a possibility from their schooling. With regards to mentoring, most expressed the view that it was “vital”. Most were very pragmatic about seeking out practical advice, and gender was not an issue. The most significant form of mentoring was found to be peer mentoring from women’s business networks and from professional associations and online networks. This form of mentoring has been neglected in the literature. Bearing in mind the small sample size, the findings indicate a more targeted approach to mentoring programs should be taken. Peer mentoring has not been explored in depth. In addition, the curriculum in the UK could be broadened to include recognition of entrepreneurship as a valid career path.

Keywords: entrepreneurial success, mentoring, peer mentoring, women entrepreneurs

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426 The Reality of Ethical Finance in Algerian Commercial Banks: A Case Study of a Sample of Banking Agencies in Bordj Bou Arreridj and the Setif States

Authors: Asma Righi

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After the global financial crisis of 2008, interest in ethical economics increased, particularly in the field of finance in general and commercial banks in particular. Indeed, it has become imperative for them to move from an institution that aims to make a profit to a community partner that takes the environmental aspect into account in its funding, rationalizes its decisions and adheres to ethics in its dealings. This leads it to the need of adopting the concept of ethical finance and standing on its most important principles and dimensions to realize profits on the one hand and to serve its society and its economy on the other hand. The objective of this research is centered on knowing the reality of the Algerian commercial banks’ adoption of the dimensions and principles of ethical finance. The quantitative methodology used is based on a questionnaire survey of twenty-four banking agencies in the states of Bordj Bou Arreridj and Setif. The data obtained were processed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. This research led to two main results: first, the author observed a limited application of the principles of ethical finance in commercial banks active in Algeria. This application is particularly in line with the implementation of the directives of the Central Bank and the imposed monetary policy. Second, the results showed that there is a significant difference in the application of ethical financial dimensions and principles between government and foreign banks.

Keywords: Algerian commercial banks, ethical banking, ethical finance, socially responsible investment

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425 Pueblos Mágicos in Mexico: The Loss of Intangible Cultural Heritage and Cultural Tourism

Authors: Claudia Rodriguez-Espinosa, Erika Elizabeth Pérez Múzquiz

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Since the creation of the “Pueblos Mágicos” program in 2001, a series of social and cultural events had directly affected the heritage conservation of the 121 registered localities until 2018, when the federal government terminated the program. Many studies have been carried out that seek to analyze from different perspectives and disciplines the consequences that these appointments have generated in the “Pueblos Mágicos.” Multidisciplinary groups such as the one headed by Carmen Valverde and Liliana López Levi, have brought together specialists from all over the Mexican Republic to create a set of diagnoses of most of these settlements, and although each one has unique specificities, there is a constant in most of them that has to do with the loss of cultural heritage and that is related to transculturality. There are several factors identified that have fostered a cultural loss, as a direct reflection of the economic crisis that prevails in Mexico. It is important to remember that the origin of this program had as its main objective to promote the growth and development of local economies since one of the conditions for entering the program is that they have less than 20,000 inhabitants. With this goal in mind, one of the first actions that many “Pueblos Mágicos” carried out was to improve or create an infrastructure to receive both national and foreign tourists since this was practically non-existent. Creating hotels, restaurants, cafes, training certified tour guides, among other actions, have led to one of the great problems they face: globalization. Although by itself it is not bad, its impact in many cases has been negative for heritage conservation. The entry into and contact with new cultures has led to the undervaluation of cultural traditions, their transformation and even their total loss. This work seeks to present specific cases of transformation and loss of cultural heritage, as well as to reflect on the problem and propose scenarios in which the negative effects can be reversed. For this text, 36 “Pueblos Mágicos” have been selected for study, based on those settlements that are cited in volumes I and IV (the first and last of the collection) of the series produced by the multidisciplinary group led by Carmen Valverde and Liliana López Levi (researchers from UNAM and UAM Xochimilco respectively) in the project supported by CONACyT entitled “Pueblos Mágicos. An interdisciplinary vision”, of which we are part. This sample is considered representative since it forms 30% of the total of 121 “Pueblos Mágicos” existing at that moment. With this information, the elements of its intangible heritage loss or transformation have been identified in every chapter based on the texts written by the participants of that project. Finally, this text shows an analysis of the effects that this federal program, as a public policy applied to 132 populations, has had on the conservation or transformation of the intangible cultural heritage of the “Pueblos Mágicos.” Transculturality, globalization, the creation of identities and the desire to increase the flow of tourists have impacted the changes that traditions (main intangible cultural heritage) have had in the 18 years that the federal program lasted.

Keywords: public policies, cultural tourism, heritage preservation, pueblos mágicos program

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424 Sensory Gap Analysis on Port Wine Promotion and Perceptions

Authors: José Manue Carvalho Vieira, Mariana Magalhães, Elizabeth Serra

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The Port Wine industry is essential to Portugal because it carries a tangible cultural heritage and for social and economic reasons. Positioned as a luxury product, brands need to pay more attention to the new generation's habits, preferences, languages, and sensory perceptions. Healthy lifestyles, anti-alcohol campaigns, and digitalisation of their buying decision process need to be better understood to understand the wine market in the future. The purpose of this study is to clarify the sensory perception gap between Port Wine descriptors promotion and the new generation's perceptions to help wineries to align their strategies. Based on the interpretivist approach - multiple methods and techniques (mixed-methods), different world views and different assumptions, and different data collection methods and analysis, this research integrated qualitative semi-structured interviews, Port Wine promotion contents, and social media perceptions mined by Sentiment Analysis Enginius algorithm. Findings confirm that Port Wine CEOs' strategies, brands' promotional content, and social perceptions are not sufficiently aligned. The central insight for Port Wine brands' managers is that there is a long and continuous work of understanding and associating their descriptors with the most relevant perceptual values and criteria of their targets to reposition (when necessary) and sustainably revitalise their brands. Finally, this study hypothesised a sensory gap that leads to a decrease in consumption, trying to find recommendations on how to transform it into an advantage for a better attraction towards the young age group (18-25).

Keywords: port wine, consumer habits, sensory gap analysis, wine marketing

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423 Insecticidal and Repellent Efficacy of Clove and Lemongrass Oils Against Museum Pest, Lepisma Saccharina (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae)

Authors: Suboohi Nasrin, MHD. Shahid, Abduraheem K.

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India is a tropical country, and it is estimated that biological and abiological agents are the major factors in the destruction and deterioration of archival materials like herbarium, paper, cellulose, bookbinding, etc. Silverfish, German Cockroaches, Termites, Booklice, Tobacco beetle and Carpet beetles are the common insect's pests in the museum, which causes deterioration to collections of museum specimens. Among them, silverfish is one of the most notorious pests and primarily responsible for the deterioration of Archival materials. So far, the investigation has been carried to overcome this existing problem as different management strategies such as chemical insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, nematicides, etc., have been applied. Moreover, Synthetic molecules lead to affect the ecological balance, have a detrimental effects on human health, reduce the beneficial microbial flora and fauna, etc. With a view, numbers of chemicals have been banned and advised not to be used due to their long-lasting persistency in soil ecosystem, water and carcinogenic. That’s why the authors used natural products with biocidal activity, cost-effective and eco-friendly approaches. In this study, various concentrations (30, 60 and 90 ml/L) of clove and lemongrass essential oil at different treatment duration (30, 60, 90 and 120-minutes) were investigated to test its properties as a silverfish repellent and insecticidal effect. The result of two ways ANOVA revealed that the mortality was significantly influenced by oil concentration, treatment duration and interaction between two independent factors was also found significant. The mortality rate increased with increasing the oil concentration in clove oil, and 100 % mortality was recorded in 0.9 ml at 120-minute. It was also observed that the treatment duration has the highest effect on the mortality rate of silverfish. The clove oil had the greatest effect on the silverfish in comparison to lemongrass. While in the case of percentage, repellency of adult silverfish was oil concentration and treatment duration-dependent, i.e., increase in concentration and treatment duration resulted in higher repellency percentage. The clove oil was found more effective, showing maximum repellency of 80.00% at 0.9ml/cm2 (highest) concentration, and in lemongrass highest repellency was observed at 33.4% at 0.9 ml/cm2 concentration in the treated area.

Keywords: adult silverfish, oils, oil concentration, treatment duration, mortality (%) and repellency

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422 Towards the Development of Uncertainties Resilient Business Model for Driving the Solar Panel Industry in Nigeria Power Sector

Authors: Balarabe Z. Ahmad, Anne-Lorène Vernay

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The emergence of electricity in Nigeria was dated back to 1896. The power plants have the potential to generate 12,522 MW of electric power. Whereas current dispatch is about 4,000 MW, access to electrification is about 60%, with consumption at 0.14 MWh/capita. The government embarked on energy reforms to mitigate energy poverty. The reform targeted the provision of electricity access to 75% of the population by 2020 and 90% by 2030. Growth of total electricity demand by a factor of 5 by 2035 had been projected. This means that Nigeria will require almost 530 TWh of electricity which can be delivered through generators with a capacity of 65 GW. Analogously, the geographical location of Nigeria has placed it in an advantageous position as the source of solar energy; the availability of a high sunshine belt is obvious in the country. The implication is that the far North, where energy poverty is high, equally has about twice the solar radiation as against southern Nigeria. Hence, the chance of generating solar electricity is 66% possible at 11850 x 103 GWh per year, which is one hundred times the current electricity consumption rate in the country. Harvesting these huge potentials may be a mirage if the entrepreneurs in the solar panel business are left with the conventional business models that are not uncertainty resilient. Currently, business entities in RE in Nigeria are uncertain of; accessing the national grid, purchasing potentials of cooperating organizations, currency fluctuation and interest rate increases. Uncertainties such as the security of projects and government policy are issues entrepreneurs must navigate to remain sustainable in the solar panel industry in Nigeria. The aim of this paper is to identify how entrepreneurial firms consider uncertainties in developing workable business models for commercializing solar energy projects in Nigeria. In an attempt to develop a novel business model, the paper investigated how entrepreneurial firms assess and navigate uncertainties. The roles of key stakeholders in helping entrepreneurs to manage uncertainties in the Nigeria RE sector were probed in the ongoing study. The study explored empirical uncertainties that are peculiar to RE entrepreneurs in Nigeria. A mixed-mode of research was embraced using qualitative data from face-to-face interviews conducted on the Solar Energy Entrepreneurs and the experts drawn from key stakeholders. Content analysis of the interview was done using Atlas. It is a nine qualitative tool. The result suggested that all stakeholders are required to synergize in developing an uncertainty resilient business model. It was opined that the RE entrepreneurs need modifications in the business recommendations encapsulated in the energy policy in Nigeria to strengthen their capability in delivering solar energy solutions to the yawning Nigerians.

Keywords: uncertainties, entrepreneurial, business model, solar-panel

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421 The Impact of Different Social Networks on the Development of Digital Entrepreneurship

Authors: Mohammad Mehdizadeh, Sara Miri

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In today's world, competition is one of the essential components of different markets. Therefore, in addition to economic factors, social factors can also affect the development and prosperity of businesses. In this regard, social networks are of particular importance and play a critical role in the flourishing and development of Internet businesses. The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of different social networks in promoting digital entrepreneurship. The research method is the descriptive survey. The results show that social networks have a positive and significant impact on digital entrepreneurship development. Among the social networks studied, Instagram and Facebook have the most positive effect on digital entrepreneurship.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, Facebook, Instagram, social media

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420 Digital Learning and Entrepreneurship Education: Changing Paradigms

Authors: Shivangi Agrawal, Hsiu-I Ting

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Entrepreneurship is an essential source of economic growth and a prominent factor influencing socio-economic development. Entrepreneurship education educates and enhances entrepreneurial activity. This study aims to understand current trends in entrepreneurship education and evaluate the effectiveness of diverse entrepreneurship education programs. An increasing number of universities offer entrepreneurship education courses to create and successfully continue entrepreneurial ventures. Despite the prevalence of entrepreneurship education, research studies lack inconsistency about the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education to promote and develop entrepreneurship. Strategies to develop entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions among individuals are hindered by a lack of understanding of entrepreneurs' educational purposes, components, methodology, and resources required. Lack of adequate entrepreneurship education has been linked with low self-efficacy and lack of entrepreneurial intent. Moreover, in the age of digitisation and during the COVID-19 pandemic, digital learning platforms (e.g., online entrepreneurship education courses and programs) and other digital tools (e.g., digital game-based entrepreneurship education) have become more relevant to entrepreneurship education. This paper contributes to the continuation of academic literature in entrepreneurship education by evaluating and assessing current trends in entrepreneurship education programs, leading to better understanding to reduce gaps between entrepreneurial development requirements and higher education institutions.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, digital technologies, academic entrepreneurship, COVID-19

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419 A Critical Evaluation of the Factors that Influence Visitor Engagement with U.K. Slavery Heritage Museums: A Passive Symbolic Netnographic Study

Authors: Shemroy Roberts

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Despite minor theoretical contributions in slavery heritage tourism research that have commented on the demand-side perspective, visitor behavior and engagement with slavery heritage attractions remain unexplored. Thus, there is a need for empirical studies and theoretical knowledge to understand visitor engagement with slavery heritage attractions, particularly U.K. slavery heritage museums. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the factors that influence visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums. This qualitative research utilizes a passive symbolic ethnographic methodology. Seven U.K. slavery heritage museums will be used to collect data through unobtrusive internet-mediated observations of TripAdvisor reviews and online semi-structured interviews with managers and curators. Preliminary findings indicate that social media, prior knowledge, multiple motivations, cultural capital, and the design and layout of exhibits influence visitor engagement with slavery heritage museums. This research contributes to an understanding of visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums. The findings of this paper will provide insights into the factors that influence visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums to managers, curators, and decision-makers responsible for designing and managing those attractions. Therefore, the results of this paper will enable museum professionals to better manage visitor engagement with slavery heritage museums.

Keywords: museums, netnography, slavery, visitor engagement

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418 Attitudes of Resort Hotel Managers toward Environmental Sustainability Practice: Case of Resort Hotels in Bishoftu Ethiopia

Authors: Muhammed Aman Kassim

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This study aims to investigate attitudes of resort hotel managers toward environmental sustainability practice in Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia. Six resorts were selected out of twelve by using systematic sampling method and a totally of fifty-six managers were taken for the survey. The findings revealed that more than 99% of hotel managers possess positive attitudes but a low level of performance. Owners’ attitudes and personal beliefs, government regulation and incentives for good achievement were the most important factors that motivate or influence the adoptions of environmental sustainability practices. Hotel managers’ environmental attitudes are more significantly influenced by their social demographics, such as level of education and age. Therefore, in order to increase hotels commitment to become more sustainable, some measurements should be implemented, such as vigorous support of the government, cooperation with hotel associations, continuous behaviors of hotel environmental protection, and local community participation in environmental practice.

Keywords: environmental attitude, environmental sustainability, resort hotels, Ethiopia

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417 A Mixed-method Study of Psychological Empowerment in Child Protection Practitioners

Authors: Amy Bromley

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Child protection practitioners are a vital part of systems designed to protect children from abuse and neglect. Reforms in Anglo-American systems have shown a trend towards compliance-culture that reduces practitioner autonomy and empowerment, increasing staff turnover and negatively impacting outcomes for children. This explanatory mixed-methods study examined psychological empowerment in a national sample of child protection practitioners in Australia (n=109) using the Psychological Empowerment Instrument followed by semi-structured interviews (n=19). The results show that practitioners experience the sub-dimensions of psychological empowerment differently, perceiving themselves to have high levels of competence and satisfaction in their work but limited opportunities for self-determination and low levels of impact on decision-making in their organizations. The qualitative data revealed that practitioners do not trust systemic reforms and have experienced them as ineffective, politically driven, and bureaucratic. The increased compliance demanded from these reforms has left practitioners feeling that their expertise is not valued, leading many to leave their organizations. The practitioners who remain employed in child protection identified their use of advocacy, curiosity, and child-centered values as ways of protecting their psychological empowerment. The findings highlight the ways psychological empowerment can be promoted within child protection systems, improving staff retention and building expertise.

Keywords: child protection, implementation, psychological empowerment, systems theory

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416 Teaching University Students Lateral Reading to Detect Disinformation and Misinformation

Authors: Diane Prorak, Perri Moreno

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University students may have been born in the digital age, but they need to be taught the critical thinking skills to detect misinformation and social media manipulation online. In recent years, librarians have been active in designing instructional methods to help students learn information evaluation skills. At the University of Idaho Library (USA), librarians have developed new teaching methods for these skills. Last academic year, when classes were taught via Zoom, librarians taught these skills to an online session of each first-year rhetoric and composition course. In the Zoom sessions, students were placed in breakout groups where they practiced using an evaluation method known as lateral reading. Online collaborative software was used to give each group an evaluative task and break the task into steps. Groups reported back to the full class. Students learned to look at an information source, then search outside the source to find information about the organization, publisher or author, before evaluating the source itself. Class level pre-and post-test comparison results showed students learned better techniques for evaluation than they knew before instruction.

Keywords: critical thinking, information evaluation, information literacy instruction, lateral reading.

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415 A Preliminary Study Examining the Effect of Tourism as Perceived by Locals: From Perspective of Conservative of Research Theory

Authors: Ali Ahmad AlGassim

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The objective of this study is to explore the local community perceptions toward the impact of tourism from the COR theory perspective. The current study used qualitative methods and purposive sampling to engage informants. Data was collected using an online survey with closed-ended and open-ended questions from 57 informants living in Al-Jufa Village, and then data was analysed using content analysis. The findings showed that COR theory help explains the residents’ perception of the threat and stress of losing resources. The findings showed the residents feel stressed about losing resources, such as lands, houses, heritage, sociocultural and Islamic values, as well as job and investment opportunities if the village is developed for tourism. Findings also present that one group of residents declared rejections and aiming to resist the development if it takes place, and they will not allowing foreigners to come and live in the village. The findings also show that this stress and strain can be alleviated by allowing residents to participate in the development. Finally, the residents of Al-Juhfa showed a high level of feeling of ownership towards their resources.

Keywords: perception of threat, effect of tourism, COR theory, local community, impact of tourism, Saudi Arabia

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414 Integration of Technology through Instructional Systems Design

Authors: C. Salis, D. Zedda, M. F. Wilson

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The IDEA project was conceived for teachers who are interested in enhancing their capacity to effectively implement the use of specific technologies in their teaching practice. Participating teachers are coached and supported as they explore technologies applied to the educational context. They access tools such as the technological platform developed by our team. Among the platform functionalities, teachers access an instructional systems design (ISD) tool (learning designer) that was adapted to the needs of our project. The tool is accessible from computers or mobile devices and used in association with other technologies to create new, meaningful learning environments. The objective of an instructional systems design is to guarantee the quality and effectiveness of education and to enhance learning. This goal involves both teachers who want to become more efficient in transferring knowledge or skills and students as the final recipient of their teaching. The use of Blooms’s taxonomy enables teachers to classify the learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity, thus making it possible to highlight the kind of knowledge teachers would like their students to reach. The fact that the instructional design features can be visualized through the IDEA platform is a guarantee for those who are looking for specific educational materials to be used in their lessons. Despite the benefits offered, a number of teachers are reluctant to use ISD because the preparatory work of having to thoroughly analyze the teaching/learning objectives, the planning of learning material, assessment activities, etc., is long and felt to be time-consuming. This drawback is minimized using a learning designer, as the tool facilitates to reuse of the didactic contents having a clear view of the processes of analysis, planning, and production of educational or testing materials uploaded on our platform. In this paper, we shall present the feedback of the teachers who used our tool in their didactic.

Keywords: educational benefits, educational quality, educational technology, ISD tool

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413 Dark Tourism and Local Development. Creating a Dark Urban Route

Authors: Christos N. Tsironis, Loanna Mitaftsi

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Currently, the various forms of tours and touristic visits to destinations associated with the “dark” facets of the past constitute one of the most dynamic fields of touristic initiatives and economic development. This analysis focuses on the potential development of urban dark routes. It aims a) to shed light to touristic, social, and ethical considerations and to describe some of the trends and links combining heritage and dark tourism in post-pandemic societies and b) to explore the possibilities of developing a new and polymorphic form of dark tourism in Thessaloniki, Greece, a distinctive heritage destination. The analysis concludes with a detailed dark route designed to serve a new, polymorphic and sustainable touristic product that describes a dark past with places, sights, and monuments and narrates stories and events stigmatized by death, disaster, and violence throughout the city’s history.

Keywords: dark tourism, dark urban route, local development, polymorphic tourism

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