Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 647

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Social and Business Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

647 The Ethics Of Documentary Filmmaking Discuss The Ethical Considerations And Responsibilities Of Documentary Filmmakers When Portraying Real-Life Events And Subjects

Authors: Batatunde Kolawole


Documentary filmmaking stands as a distinctive medium within the cinematic realm, commanding a unique responsibility the portrayal of real-life events and subjects. This research delves into the profound ethical considerations and responsibilities that documentary filmmakers shoulder as they embark on the quest to unveil truth and weave compelling narratives. In the exploration, they embark on a comprehensive review of ethical frameworks and real-world case studies, illuminating the intricate web of challenges that documentarians confront. These challenges encompass an array of ethical intricacies, from securing informed consent to safeguarding privacy, maintaining unwavering objectivity, and sidestepping the snares of narrative manipulation when crafting stories from reality. Furthermore, they dissect the contemporary ethical terrain, acknowledging the emergence of novel dilemmas in the digital age, such as deepfakes and digital alterations. Through a meticulous analysis of ethical quandaries faced by distinguished documentary filmmakers and their strategies for ethical navigation, this study offers invaluable insights into the evolving role of documentaries in molding public discourse. They underscore the indispensable significance of transparency, integrity, and an indomitable commitment to encapsulating the intricacies of reality within the realm of ethical documentary filmmaking. In a world increasingly reliant on visual narratives, an understanding of the subtle ethical dimensions of documentary filmmaking holds relevance not only for those behind the camera but also for the diverse audiences who engage with and interpret the realities unveiled on screen. This research stands as a rigorous examination of the moral compass that steers this potent form of cinematic expression. It emphasizes the capacity of ethical documentary filmmaking to enlighten, challenge, and inspire, all while unwaveringly upholding the core principles of truthfulness and respect for the human subjects under scrutiny. Through this holistic analysis, they illuminate the enduring significance of upholding ethical integrity while uncovering the truths that shape our world. Ethical documentary filmmaking, as exemplified by "Rape" and countless other powerful narratives, serves as a testament to the enduring potential of cinema to inform, challenge, and drive meaningful societal discourse.

Keywords: filmmaking, documentary, human right, film

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646 Exploring the Nexus of Gastronomic Tourism and Its Impact on Destination Image

Authors: Usha Dinakaran, Richa Ganguly


Gastronomic tourism has evolved into a prominent niche within the travel industry, with tourists increasingly seeking unique culinary experiences as a primary motivation for their journeys. This research explores the intricate relationship between gastronomic tourism and its profound influence on the overall image of travel destinations. It delves into the multifaceted aspects of culinary experiences, tourists' perceptions, and the preservation of cultural identity, all of which play pivotal roles in shaping a destination's image. The primary aim of this study is to comprehensively examine the interplay between gastronomy and tourism, specifically focusing on its impact on destination image. The research seeks to achieve the following objectives: (1) Investigate how tourists perceive and engage with gastronomic tourism experiences. (2) Understand the significance of food in shaping the tourism image. (3.) Explore the connection between gastronomy and the destination's cultural identity Quantify the relationship between tourists' engagement in co-creation activities related to gastronomic tourism and their overall satisfaction with the quality of their culinary experiences. To achieve these objectives, a mixed-method research approach will be employed, including surveys, interviews, and content analysis. Data will be collected from tourists visiting diverse destinations known for their culinary offerings. This research anticipates uncovering valuable insights into the nexus between gastronomic tourism and destination image. It is expected to shed light on how tourists' perceptions of culinary experiences impact their overall perception of a destination. Additionally, the study aims to identify factors influencing tourist satisfaction and how cultural identity is preserved and promoted through gastronomic tourism. The findings of this research hold practical implications for destination marketers and stakeholders. Understanding the symbiotic relationship between gastronomy and tourism can guide the development of more targeted marketing strategies. Furthermore, promoting co-creation activities can enhance tourists' culinary experiences and contribute to the positive image of destinations.This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding gastronomic tourism by consolidating insights from various studies and offering a comprehensive perspective on its impact on destination image. It offers a platform for future research in this domain and underscores the importance of culinary experiences in contemporary travel. In conclusion, this research endeavors to illuminate the dynamic interplay between gastronomic tourism and destination image, providing valuable insights for both academia and industry stakeholders in the field of tourism and hospitality.

Keywords: gastronomy, tourism, destination image, culinary

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645 Indigenous Knowledge and Archaeological Heritage Resources in Lawra, Upper West Region, Ghana

Authors: Christiana Wulty Diku


This research mapped and documented archaeological heritage resources with associated indigenous knowledge in Lawra, an understudied Municipality in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Since the inception of Archaeology as a discipline in the 1930s at the University of Ghana, the Lawra Municipality has rarely been investigated archaeologically. Consequently, the unconsciousness and ignorance of indigenes on the relevance of these resources to national development has destroyed many significant archaeological sites, with agriculture and infrastructural developmental activities endangering countless of them. Drawing from a community archaeological approach, a collaborative archaeological investigation between local groups, communities and professionals (archaeologists) was conducted to recover these lost histories of settlements in the municipality, salvage and protect endangered archaeological heritage resources and sites from agricultural, exploitative and developmental activities. This was geared towards expanding on the limited research on northern Ghana and deepening our understanding on the existing symbiotic relationship between people and their heritage resources in past and present times. The study deploying ethnographic, archaeological and physical survey techniques as methods in six field seasons beginning from August 2013 to April 2023. This resulted in the reconstruction of the settlement history of Lawra with chronological dates, compilation of inventory on significant archaeological heritage resources with associated indigenous knowledge, mitigation of endangered archaeological sites and heritage resources through surface collections and the development of a photographic record, with associated metadata for purposes of preservation and future research.

Keywords: archaeological heritage resources, indigenous knowledge, lawra municipality, community archaeology

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644 Cultural Heritage, War and Heritage Legislations: An Empirical Review

Authors: Gebrekiros Welegebriel Asfaw


The conservation of cultural heritage during times of war is a topic of significant importance and concern in the field of heritage studies. The destruction, looting, and illicit acts against cultural heritages have devastating consequences. International and national legislations have been put in place to address these issues and provide a legal framework for protecting cultural heritage during armed conflicts. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine the existing heritage legislations and evaluate their effectiveness in protecting cultural heritage during times of war with a special insight of the Tigray war. The review is based on a comprehensive empirical analysis of existing heritage legislations related to the protection of cultural heritage during war, with a special focus on the Tigray war. The review reveals that there are several international and national legislations in place to protect cultural heritage during times of war. However, the implementation of these legislations has been insufficient and ineffective in the case of the Tigray war. The priceless cultural heritages in Tigray, which were once the centers of investment and world pride were, have been subjected to destruction, looting, and other illicit acts, in violation of both international conventions such as the UNESCO Convention and national legislations. Therefore, there is a need for consistent intervention and enforcement of different legislations from the international community and organizations to rehabilitate, repatriate, and reinstitute the irreplaceable heritages of Tigray.

Keywords: cultural heritage, heritage legislations, tigray, war

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643 Kanga Traditional Costume as a Tool for Community Empowerment in Tanzania in Ubuntu perspective – A literature Review

Authors: Meinrad Haule Lembuka


Introduction: Ubuntu culture represents African humanism with collective and positive feeling of people living together, interdependence, equally and peaceful etc. Overtime, Ubuntu culture developed varieties of communicative strategies to express experiences, feelings and knowledge. Khanga or kanga (garment) is among the Ubuntu cultural practice of Bantu speaking people along the East African coast following interaction with Arabs and Bantu speaking people to formulate Swahili culture. Kanga or Kanga is a Swahili word which means a traditional soft cotton cloths in varieties of colours, patterns, and styles which as a deep cultural, historical, and social significance not only in Tanzania but the rest of East African coast. Swahili culture is a sub culture of Ubuntu African culture which is rich in customs and rituals that serve to preserve goodness and life where Tanzania, like the rest of East African societies along the Indian coast engaged in kanga dressing custom under Swahili culture to express their feelings and knowledge sharing. After the independence of Tanzania (formerly Tanganyika) from British colonial rule, Kanga traditional dressing gained momentum in Swahili culture and spread to the rest of East Africa and beyond. To date kanga dressing holds a good position as a formal and informal tool for advocating marginalised groups, counselling, psychosocial therapy, liberation, compassion, love, justice, campaign, and cerebration etc. Methodology: A literature review method was guided by Ubuntu theory to assess the implications of kanga traditional dressing in empowering Tanzanian community. Findings: During slavery, slaves wore Kaniki and people despised Kaniki dressing due to its association with slavery. Ex-slave women seeking to become part of the Swahili society began to decorate their Kaniki clothes. After slavery was abolished in 1897, Kangas began to be used for self-empowerment and to indicate that the wearer had personal wealth. During colonial era, freedom of expressions for Africans were restricted by colonial masters thus Tanzanians used kanga to express the evils of colonialism and other social problems, Under Ubuntu value of unity and solidarity liberation and independence fighters crafted motto and liberation messages that were shared and spread rapidly in the community. Political parities like TANU used kanga to spread nationalism and Ujamaa policy. kanga is more than a piece of fabric-it is a space for women to voice unspeakable communication and a women-centred repository for indigenous knowledge, feminisms addressing social ills, happiness, campaigns, memories and reconciliation etc. Kanga provides an indirect voice and support vulnerable and marginalised populations and strongly it has proved to be a peaceful platform of capture attention of government and societies. Kanga textiles gained increased international fame when an Obama kanga design was produced upon the president’s election in 2008 and his visit to Tanzania in 2013. Conclusion: Kanga preserves and symbolises Swahili culture and contributes in realization of social justice, inclusion, national identity and unity. As an inclusive cultural tool, Kanga spread across Africa to international community and the practice has moved from being a woman domination dressing code to other sex orientations.

Keywords: African culture, Kanga, khanga, swahili culture, ubuntu

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642 The role of Financial Development and Institutional Quality in Promoting Sustainable Development through Tourism Management

Authors: Hashim Zameer


Effective tourism management plays a vital role in promoting sustainability and supporting ecosystems. A common principle that has been in practice over the years is “first pollute and then clean,” indicating countries need financial resources to promote sustainability. Financial development and the tourism management both seems very important to promoting sustainable development. However, without institutional support, it is very difficult to succeed. In this context, it seems prominently significant to explore how institutional quality, tourism development, and financial development could promote sustainable development. In the past, no research explored the role of tourism development in sustainable development. Moreover, the role of financial development, natural resources, and institutional quality in sustainable development is also ignored. In this regard, this paper aims to investigate the role of tourism development, natural resources, financial development, and institutional quality in sustainable development in China. The study used time-series data from 2000–2021 and employed the Bayesian linear regression model because it is suitable for small data sets. The robustness of the findings was checked using a quantile regression approach. The results reveal that an increase in tourism expenditures stimulates the economy, creates jobs, encourages cultural exchange, and supports sustainability initiatives. Moreover, financial development and institution quality have a positive effect on sustainable development. However, reliance on natural resources can result in negative economic, social, and environmental outcomes, highlighting the need for resource diversification and management to reinforce sustainable development. These results highlight the significance of financial development, strong institutions, sustainable tourism, and careful utilization of natural resources for long-term sustainability. The study holds vital insights for policy formulation to promote sustainable tourism.

Keywords: sustainability, tourism development, financial development, institutional quality

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641 Positioning Mama Mkubwa Indigenous Model into Social Work Practice through Alternative Child Care in Tanzania: Ubuntu Perspective

Authors: Johnas Buhori, Meinrad Haule Lembuka


Introduction: Social work expands its boundary to accommodate indigenous knowledge and practice for better competence and services. In Tanzania, Mama Mkubwa Mkubwa (MMM) (Mother’s elder sister) is an indigenous practice of alternative child care that represents other traditional practices across African societies known as Ubuntu practice. Ubuntu is African Humanism with values and approaches that are connected to the social work. MMM focuses on using the elder sister of a deceased mother or father, a trusted elder woman from the extended family or indigenous community to provide alternative care to an orphan or vulnerable child. In Ubuntu's perspective, it takes a whole village or community to raise a child, meaning that every person in the community is responsible for child care. Methodology: A desk review method guided by Ubuntu theory was applied to enrich the study. Findings: MMM resembles the Ubuntu ideal of traditional child protection of those in need as part of alternative child care throughout Tanzanian history. Social work practice, along with other formal alternative child care, was introduced in Tanzania during the colonial era in 1940s and socio-economic problems of 1980s affected the country’s formal social welfare system, and suddenly HIV/AIDS pandemic triggered the vulnerability of children and hampered the capacity of the formal sector to provide social welfare services, including alternative child care. For decades, AIDS has contributed to an influx of orphans and vulnerable children that facilitated the re-emerging of traditional alternative child care at the community level, including MMM. MMM strongly practiced in regions where the AIDS pandemic affected the community, like Njombe, Coastal region, Kagera, etc. Despite of existing challenges, MMM remained to be the remarkably alternative child care practiced in both rural and urban communities integrated with social welfare services. Tanzania envisions a traditional mechanism of family or community environment for alternative child care with the notion that sometimes institutionalization care fails to offer children all they need to become productive members of society, and later, it becomes difficult to reconnect in the society. Implications to Social Work: MMM is compatible with social work by using strengths perspectives; MMM reflects Ubuntu's perspective on the ground of humane social work, using humane methods to achieve human goals. MMM further demonstrates the connectedness of those who care and those cared for and the inextricable link between them as Ubuntu-inspired models of social work that view children from family, community, environmental, and spiritual perspectives. Conclusion: Social work and MMM are compatible at the micro and mezzo levels; thus, application of MMM can be applied in social work practice beyond Tanzania when properly designed and integrated into other systems. When MMM is applied in social work, alternative care has the potential to support not only children but also empower families and communities. Since MMM is a community-owned and voluntary base, it can relieve the government, social workers, and other formal sectors from the annual burden of cost in the provision of institutionalized alternative child care.

Keywords: ubuntu, indigenous social work, african social work, ubuntu social work, child protection, child alternative care

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640 Dynamics of Museum Visitors’ Experiences Studies: A Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: Tesfaye Fentaw Nigatu, Alexander Trupp, Teh Pek Yen


Research on museums and the experiences of visitors has flourished in recent years, especially after museums became centers of edutainment beyond preserving heritage resources. This paper aims to comprehensively understand the changes, continuities, and future research development directions of museum visitors’ experiences. To identify current research trends, the paper summarizes and analyses research article publications from 1986 to 2023 on museum visitors' experiences. Bibliometric analysis software VOSviewer and Harzing POP (Publish or Perish) were used to analyze 407 academic articles. The articles were generated from the Scopus database. The study attempted to map new insights for future scholars and academics to expand the scope of museum visitors’ experience studies by analyzing keywords, citation patterns, influential articles in the field, publication trends, collaborations between authors, institutions, and clusters of highly cited articles. Accessibility to museums, social media usage within museums, aesthetics in museum settings, mixed reality experiences, sustainability issues, and emotions have emerged as key research areas in the study of museum visitors' experiences. The results benefit stakeholders and researchers in advancing the collective progress of considering recent research trends to stay informed about the latest developments and breakthroughs in the global academic landscape and visitors’ experiences development in the museum.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, museum, network analysis, visitors’ experiences, visual analysis

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639 Sustainable Management of Water and Soil Resources for Agriculture in Dry Areas

Authors: Alireza Nejadmohammad Namaghi


Investigators have reported that mulches increase production potential in arid and semi arid lands. Mulches are covering materials that are used on soil surface for efficiency irrigation, erosion control, weed control, evaporation decrease and improvement of water perpetration. Our aim and local situation determine the kind of material that we can use. In this research we used different mulches including chemical mulch (M1), Aquasorb polymer, manure mulch (M2), Residue mulch (M3) and polyethylene mulch (M4), with control treatment (M0), without usage of mulch, on germination, biomass dry matter and cottonseed yield (Varamin variety) in Kashan area. Randomized complete block (RCB) design have measured the cotton yield with 3 replications for measuring the biomass dry matter and 4 replication in tow irrigation periods as 7 and 14 days. Germination percentage for M0, M1, M2, M3 and M4 treatment were receptivity 64, 65, 76, 57 and 72% Biomass dry matter average for M0, M1, M2, M3 and M4 treatment were receptivity 276, 306, 426, 403 and 476 gram per plot. M4 treatment (polyethylene Mulch) had the most effect, M2 and M3 had no significant as well as M0 and M1. Total yield average with respect to 7 days irrigation for M0, M1, M2, M3 and M4 treatment were receptivity 700, 725, 857, 1057 and 1273 gram per plot. Dunken ne multiple showed no significant different among M0, M1, M2, and M3, but M4 ahs the most effect on yield. Total yield average with respect to 14 days irrigation for M0, M1, M2, M3 and M4 treatment were receptivity 535, 507, 690, 957 and 1047 gram per plot. These were significant difference between all treatments and control treatment. Results showed that used different mulches with water decrease in dry situation can increase the yield significantly.

Keywords: mulch, cotton, arid land management, irrigation systems

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638 Regenerative Tourism: Industry Readiness for the Big Shift

Authors: Renuka Mahadevan, Maneka Jayasinghe, Dianne Dredge


Over the last two years, tourism has been subject to unprecedented changes, and experts predict further change, especially with respect to travel and tourism choices. As concerns regarding the environment and climate change grow, many tourism industry stakeholders are particularly keen on taking steps to mitigate the adverse impacts of the travel industry to the broader society and environment. This approach and process is commonly referred to as 'Sustainable Tourism'. An emerging concept that extends beyond 'sustainable tourism' is 'Regenerative Tourism', which aims to impact the local systems, society and environment positively. In particular, it aims to provide transformational experiences to tourists and thereby inspire the travellers while the local cultural heritage and traditions are preserved from generation to generation. This study analyses how tourism stakeholders are shifting their attitude towards travel and tourism, particularly regarding its impact on people, places, businesses and the environment. The analysis will be based on a global survey of 1200 businesses, tourism organisations, employees, and travel consumers. The preliminary analysis of responses reveals a high interest towards transformational experiences during travel.

Keywords: regenerative tourism, transformational, experience, local systems

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637 An Exploratory Study of Potential Cruisers Preferences using Choice Experiment and Latent Class Modelling

Authors: Renuka Mahadevan, Sharon Chang


This exploratory study is based on potential cruisers’ monetary valuation of cruise attributes. Using choice experiment, monetary trade-offs between four different cruise attributes are examined with Australians as a case study. We found 50% of the sample valued variety of onboard cruise activities the least while 30% were willing to pay A$87 for cruise-organised activities per day, and the remaining 20% regarded an ocean view to be most valuable at A$125. Latent class modelling was then applied and results revealed that potential cruisers’ valuation of the attributes can be used to segment the market into adventurers, budget conscious and comfort lovers. Evidence showed that socio demographics are not as insightful as lifestyle preferences in developing cruise packages and pricing that would appeal to potential cruisers. Marketing also needs to counter the mindset of potential cruisers’ belief that cruises are often costly and that cruising can be done later in life.

Keywords: latent class modelling, choice experiment, potential cruisers, market segmentation, willingness to pay

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636 The Use of Tourism Destination Management for Image Branding as a Preferable Choice of Foreign Policy

Authors: Mehtab Alam, Mudiarasan Kuppusamy


Image branding is the prominent and well-guided phenomena of managing tourism destinations. It examines the image of cities forming as brand identity. Transformation of cities into tourist destinations is obligatory for the current management practices to be used for foreign policy. The research considers the features of perception, destination accommodation, destination quality, traveler revisit, destination information system, and behavioral image for tourism destination management. Using the quantitative and qualitative research methodology, the objective is to examine and investigate the opportunities for destination branding. It investigates the features and management of tourism destinations in Abbottabad city of Pakistan through SPSS and NVivo 12 software. The prospective outlook of the results and coding reflects the significant contribution of integrated destination management for image branding, where Abbottabad has the potential to become a destination city. The positive impact of branding integrates tourism management as it is fulfilling travelers’ requirements to influence the choice of destination for innovative foreign policy.

Keywords: image branding, destination management, tourism, foreign policy, innovative

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635 Retirement and Tourism Consumption -- Evidence from The Elderly in China

Authors: Sha Fan, Renuka Mahadevan


In recent years, the subject of how retirement influences consumption behaviours has garnered attention in economic research. However, a significant gap persists in our understanding of how retirement precisely impacts tourism consumption patterns among the elderly demographic. To address this gap, this research conducts an in-depth exploration into the multifaceted relationship between retirement and elderly tourism consumption.To achieve this, the study employs regression discontinuity design, using three waves of panel data from China covering a span of six years. This approach aims to identify the causality between retirement and tourism consumption. Furthermore, the study scrutinizes the pathways through which retirement's impact on tourism consumption unfolds. It adopts a dual-pronged perspective, examining the roles played by economic status and the availability of leisure time. The economic dimension underscores the financial adjustments that retirees make as they transition into a new phase of life, impacting their propensity to allocate resources towards tourism activities. Meanwhile, considering leisure time recognizes that retirement often heralds an era of newfound freedom, allowing retirees the luxury to engage in leisurely pursuits like tourism.

Keywords: tourism consumption, retirement, the elderly, regression discontinuity design

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634 The Conservation of the Botanical Collar of Tutankhamun

Authors: Safwat Mohamed Sayed Ali, Hussein Kamal


This paper discusses the conservation procedures of the botanical collar of King Tutankhamun. It dates back to the new Kingdom. This collar was kept in a box but found in bad condition. Many parts of the collar were separated. The collar suffered from dryness and dust, so it needed to be cleaned mechanically and recollected together. Japanese paper was used to collect the separated parts of the collar on a linen thread. The linen thread was dyed with organic dye to match the color of the plant material. The guidance in collecting the different parts of the plant collar is the original photograph captured at the discovery of the tomb. Also, the optical microscope was used in collecting fractured parts. The weak parts of the collar were treated with a suitable consolidation material. Klucel G dissolved in Ethyl Alcohol 0.5% was used in the treatment and gave convenient results. Some investigations were executed in order to identify the plant types used in making the botanical collar. Scanning Electron microscope and optical microscope were used in plant identification.

Keywords: sustainable, consolidation, plant, investigation

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633 Measuring Stakeholder Engagement And Drivers Of Success In Ethiopian Tourism Sector

Authors: Gezahegn Gizaw


The FDRE Tourism Training Institute organizes forums for debates, best practices exchange and focus group discussions to forge a sustainable and growing tourism sector while minimizing negative impacts on the environment, communities, and cultures. This study aimed at applying empirical research method to identify and quantify relative importance of success factors and individual engagement indicators that were identified in these forums. Response to the 12-question survey was collected from a total of 437 respondents in academic training institutes (212), business executive and employee (204) and non-academic government offices (21). Overall, capacity building was perceived as the most important driver of success for stakeholder engagement. Business executive and employee category rated capacity building as the most important driver of success (53%), followed by decision-making process (27%) and community participation (20%). Among educators and students, both capacity building and decision-making process were perceived as the most important factors (40% of respondents), whereas community participation was perceived as the most important success factor only by 20% of respondents. Individual engagement score in capacity building, decision-making process and community participation showed highest variability by educational level of participants (variance of 3.4% - 5.2%, p<0.001). Individual engagement score in capacity building was highly correlated to perceived benefit of training on improved efficiency, job security, higher customer satisfaction and self-esteem. On the other hand, individual engagement score in decision making process was highly correlated to its perceived benefit on lowering business costs, improving ability to meet the needs of a target market, job security, self-esteem and more teamwork. The study provides a set of recommendations that help educators, business executives and policy makers to maximize the individual and synergetic effect of training, decision making process on sustainability and growth of the tourism sector in Ethiopia.

Keywords: engagement score, driver of success, capacity building, tourism

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632 A Sustainable Model of Cultural Heritage Management for Museums and Cultural Heritage Institutions

Authors: Irini Stamatoudi, Konstantinos Roussos


Cultural Heritage Management (CHM) is the main vehicle for helping museums and cultural heritage (CH) institutions to face challenges, secure sustainable competitiveness, be resilient to climate change, natural hazards and pandemic risks, and redefine themselves in a constantly changing world. The paper will present a state-of-the-art management model for museums and CH institutions that takes into account the latest developments in the field. It aims to bring forward the main issues that need to be taken into account in a CHM Plan and a) explores current state-of-affairs of professional practice in the CH sector across Europe, b) offers clear and concise information on the CH sector needs, challenges and bottlenecks, and c) eventually, provides measures in the form of practical recommendations that need to be taken into account so as to develop long-term cultural policies and strategies within the digital transformation and innovation context in order for museums and CH institutions to be relevant to contemporary societies. This model has been developed in the context of the research project “Redefining the future of cultural heritage, through a disruptive model of sustainability” (ReInHerit), which has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program ( More specifically this model aspires to disrupt the current status quo of communication, collaboration, and innovation exchange between museums and heritage sites. The ReInHerit project proposes an innovative and inclusive model of sustainable heritage management, through which a dynamic network will be born; this network will comprise of CH professionals, innovation and CH solution tech experts, researchers, national museums, regional and local museums, and representative managers of Heritage Label sites.

Keywords: CHM plan, museums, audience, sustainable CHM

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631 Queuing Analysis and Optimization of Public Vehicle Transport Stations: A Case of South West Ethiopia Region Vehicle Stations

Authors: Mequanint Birhan


Modern urban environments present a dynamically growing field where, notwithstanding shared goals, several mutually conflicting interests frequently collide. However, it has a big impact on the city's socioeconomic standing, waiting lines and queues are common occurrences. This results in extremely long lines for both vehicles and people on incongruous routes, service coagulation, customer murmuring, unhappiness, complaints, and looking for other options sometimes illegally. The root cause of this is corruption, which leads to traffic jams, stopping, and packing vehicles beyond their safe carrying capacity, and violating the human rights and freedoms of passengers. This study focused on the optimizing time of passengers had to wait in public vehicle stations. This applied research employed both data gathering sources and mixed approaches, then 166 samples of key informants of transport station were taken by using the Slovin sampling formula. The length of time vehicles, including the drivers and auxiliary drivers ‘Weyala', had to wait was also studied. To maximize the service level at vehicle stations, a queuing model was subsequently devised ‘Menaharya’. Time, cost, and quality encompass performance, scope, and suitability for the intended purposes. The minimal response time for passengers and vehicles queuing to reach their final destination at the stations of the Tepi, Mizan, and Bonga towns was determined. A new bus station system was modeled and simulated by Arena simulation software in the chosen study area. 84% improvement on cost reduced by 56.25%, time 4hr to 1.5hr, quality, safety and designed load performance calculations employed. Stakeholders are asked to put the model into practice and monitor the results obtained.

Keywords: Arena 14 automatic rockwell, queue, transport services, vehicle stations

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630 Environmental Users’ Perceptions on Tourism in the Grangettes Nature Reserve, Switzerland

Authors: Ralph Lugon, Randolf Ramseyer


The beauty and quality of the natural heritage can be appreciated in different ways by different users, but the delicate balance of the environment in a nature reserve must be respected. The case of the territorial anchorage of the Grangettes natural reserve gives an interesting insight into the users' perception of the environmental constraints and standards of tourist activities. The nature reserve was once conceived as a sanctuary of natural heritage, a place where flora and fauna could flourish with minimal human interference. However, over time and with the transition to modernity, the values and meanings of the reserve have changed for visitors and the people living in the surrounding area. Today, The Grangettes nature reserve is a place of relaxation for urban dwellers with limited knowledge of nature and a lack of awareness of conservation issues. As a result, the reserve is now threatened by the negative impacts of human activities and mass tourism on its environment. Les Grangettes is a nature reserve that faces the challenge of preserving biodiversity while managing tourist flows. Ways must be found to accommodate new types of visitors from towns and cities who are looking for new activities, quality services and facilities, as well as aesthetic inspiration. To ensure the long-term conservation of the area, the flow of tourists must be carefully controlled. Through a dual qualitative-quantitative approach in 2021-22, this paper explores new visitor trends, changes in the reserve, and potential consequences for other stakeholders in the ecosystem. The purpose of this research is to assess users' perceptions of environmental constraints and standards on tourist activities in a nature reserve.

Keywords: outdoor recreation, nature-based tourism, over tourism, protected area, user's perceptions

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629 Tourism Marketing in the Middle East and North Africa as a Main Source of National Income

Authors: Samuel Gaber Fathy Beshara


Information technology dominates all strategic and operational management functions. The Internet (a product of information technology) is becoming an increasingly popular marketing medium. The article analyzes the potential of the Internet in tourism marketing. To achieve this, the article examines the characteristics of tourism marketing and analyzes the use of the Internet in tourism marketing. It is argued that the use of the Internet in tourism marketing will not only reach large audiences and reduce transaction costs (through the traditional methods once used by travel agents) but will also alleviate the problems of tourist identification, authentication and travel confirmation or events organized by tourists and promotion of the sector. Britain was basically a pioneering country for royal tourists. Although many other countries with monarchies, such as India, Thailand, Japan, Spain, Netherlands and many others, attract tourists who want to see and experience the royalty of their nations, Middle Eastern countries have never really been an attraction for real tourists. Middle Eastern royalty is fast becoming a tourist destination and also offers a marketing opportunity that could lead to the increasing popularity of royal residences in the region. Dubai is at the center of pioneering projects, economic growth initiatives and ongoing urbanization efforts that have thrust the Al Maktoum royal family into the global limelight, with young members of the royal family being widely recognized and valued for their audience and private adventures that are shared via various social media platforms. The purpose of this article is to analyze the popularity of His Highness Sheikh Hamdan Bin Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum via social media platforms and the opportunity to boost royal tourism in Dubai.

Keywords: internet, marketing, tourism, tourism management, royalty, royal tourism, monarchy, marketing strategy, repositioning

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628 Talking Back to Hollywood: Museum Representation in Popular Culture as a Gateway to Understanding Public Perception

Authors: Jessica BrodeFrank, Beka Bryer, Lacey Wilson, Sierra Van Ryck deGroot


Museums are enjoying quite the moment in pop culture. From discussions of labor in Bob’s Burger to introducing cultural repatriation in The Black Panther, discussions of various museum issues are making their way to popular media. “Talking Back to Hollywood” analyzes the impact museums have on movies and television. The paper will highlight a series of cultural cameos and discuss what each reveals about critical themes in museums: repatriation, labor, obfuscated histories, institutional legacies, artificial intelligence, and holograms. Using a mixed methods approach to include surveys, descriptive research, thematic analysis, and context analysis, the authors of this paper will explore how we, as the museum staff, might begin to cite museums and movies together as texts. Drawing from their experience working in museums and public history, this contingent of mid-career professionals will highlight the impact museums have had on movies and television and the didactic lessons these portrayals can provide back to cultural heritage professionals. From tackling critical themes in museums such as repatriation, labor conditions/inequities, obfuscated histories, curatorial choice and control, institutional legacies, and more, this paper is grounded in the cultural zeitgeist of the 2000s and the message these media portrayals send to the public and the cultural heritage sector. In particular, the paper will examine how portrayals of AI, holograms, and more technology can be used as entry points for necessary discussions with the public on mistrust, misinformation, and emerging technologies. This paper will not only expose the legacy and cultural understanding of the museum field within popular culture but also will discuss actionable ways that public historians can use these portrayals as an entry point for discussions with the public, citing literature reviews and quantitative and qualitative analysis of survey results. As Hollywood is talking about museums, museums can use that to better connect to the audiences who feel comfortable at the cinema but are excluded from the museum.

Keywords: museums, public memory, representation, popular culture

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627 Performants: A Digital Event Manager-Organizer

Authors: Ioannis Andrianakis, Manolis Falelakis, Maria Pavlidou, Konstantinos Papakonstantinou, Ermioni Avramidou, Dimitrios Kalogiannis, Nikolaos Milios, Katerina Bountakidou, Kiriakos Chatzidimitriou, Panagiotis Panagiotopoulos


Artistic events, such as concerts and performances, are challenging to organize because they involve many people with different skill sets. Small and medium venues often struggle to afford the costs and overheads of booking and hosting remote artists, especially if they lack sponsors or subsidies. This limits the opportunities for both venues and artists, especially those outside of big cities. However, more and more research shows that audiences prefer smaller-scale events and concerts, which benefit local economies and communities. To address this challenge, our project “PerformAnts: Digital Event Manager-Organizer” aims to develop a smart digital tool that automates and optimizes the processes and costs of live shows and tours. By using machine learning, applying best practices and training users through workshops, our platform offers a comprehensive solution for a growing market, enhances the mobility of artists and the accessibility of venues and allows professionals to focus on the creative aspects of concert production.

Keywords: event organization, creative industries, event promotion, machine learning

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626 Information Asymmetry and Governing Boards in Higher Education: The Heat Map of Information Asymmetry Across Competencies and the Role of Training in Mitigating Information Asymmetry

Authors: Ana Karaman, Dmitriy Gaevoy


Successful and effective governing boards play an essential role in higher education by providing essential oversight and helping to steer the direction of an institution while creating and maintaining a thriving culture of stewardship. A well-functioning board can also help mitigate conflicts of interest, ensure responsible use of an organization's assets, and maintain institutional transparency. However, boards’ functions in higher education are inhibited by the presence of information asymmetry between the board and management. Board members typically have little specific knowledge about the business side of the higher education, in general, and an institution under their oversight in particular. As a result, boards often must rely on the discretion of the institutional upper administration as to what type of pertinent information being disclosed to the board. The phenomenon of information asymmetry is not unique to the higher education and has been studied previously in the context of both corporate and non-for-profit boards. Various board characteristics have been analyzed with respect to mitigating the information asymmetry between an organizational board and management. For example, it has been argued that such board characteristics as its greater size, independence, and a higher proportion of female members tend to reduce information asymmetry by raising levels of information disclosure and organizational transparency. This paper explores the phenomenon of information asymmetry between boards and management in the context of higher education. In our analysis, we propose a heat map of information asymmetry based on the categories of board competencies in higher education. The proposed heat map is based on the assessment of potential risks to both the boards and its institutions. It employs an assumption that a potential risk created by the presence of information asymmetry varies in its magnitude across various areas of boards’ competencies. Then, we explore the role of board members’ training in mitigating information asymmetry between the boards and the management by increasing the level of information disclosure and enhancing transparency in management communication with the boards. The paper seeks to demonstrate how appropriate training can provide board members with an adequate preparation to request a sufficient level of information disclose and transparency by arming them with knowledge of what questions to ask of the management.

Keywords: higher education, governing boards information asymmetry, board competencies, board training

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625 Implementing Total Quality Management in Higher Education

Authors: Abbos Utkirov


Total Quality Management (TQM) in the context of educational institutions requires careful planning and the implementation of an annual quality program to achieve its vision effectively. By applying TQM concepts, the higher education system can experience significant improvements. This study aims to examine TQM in higher education, focusing on Critical Success Factors (CSF) and their implementation across all areas. The study ultimately concludes that CSF and their execution play a crucial role in higher education institutions. Some institutions have already benefited from TQM methods by dedicating themselves to the system and using it to achieve their objectives. Through this review, recent studies shed light on how the TQM system can employ various strategies and hypotheses to empower employees, foster a positive and supportive environment, and emphasize the importance of enabling students to unleash their full potential.

Keywords: total quality management (TQM), critical success factor (CSF), organizational performance, quality management practices

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624 Branding Tourism Destinations; The Trending Initiatives for Edifice Image Choices of Foreign Policy

Authors: Mehtab Alam, Mudiarasan Kuppusamy, Puvaneswaran Kunaserkaran


The purpose of this paper is to bridge the gap and complete the relationship between tourism destinations and image branding as a choice of edifice foreign policy. Such options became a crucial component for individuals interested in leisure and travel activities. The destination management factors have been evaluated and analyzed using the primary and secondary data in a mixed-methods approach (quantitative sample of 384 and qualitative 8 semi-structured interviews at saturated point). The study chose the Environmental Management Accounting (EMA) and Image Restoration (IR) theories, along with a schematic diagram and an analytical framework supported by NVivo software 12, for two locations in Abbottabad, KPK, Pakistan: Shimla Hill and Thandiani. This incorporates the use of PLS-SEM model for assessing validity of data while SPSS for data screening of descriptive statistics. The results show that destination management's promotion of tourism has significantly improved Pakistan's state image. The use of institutional setup, environmental drivers, immigration, security, and hospitality as well as recreational initiatives on destination management is encouraged. The practical ramifications direct the heads of tourism projects, diplomats, directors, and policymakers to complete destination projects before inviting people to Pakistan. The paper provides the extent of knowledge for academic tourism circles to use tourism destinations as brand ambassadors.

Keywords: tourism, management, state image, foreign policy, image branding

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623 Tourism Management in the Middle East Luxurious Hotels

Authors: Reda Moussa Massoud Embark


Tourism and hospitality graduate development is key to the future state of the tourism and hospitality industry. Meanwhile, Information and Communication Technology is increasingly becoming the engine for improving productivity and business opportunities in the travel and hospitality industry. Given the challenges and fierce global competition that have arisen in today's hospitality industry, it was important to shed light on strategic management. In addition, five-star hotels play a key role in supporting the tourism industry and investments in Egypt. Therefore, this study aims to examine the extent to which strategic management practices are implemented in five-star hotels in Egypt and to examine the differences between resort and inner-city hotels in terms of the implementation of strategic management processes. The influence of different hotel types on the implementation of the strategic management process is examined. A simple random sampling technique is used to select a sample of the target population, including hotels in the cities of Sharm el-Sheikh, Cairo and Hurghada. The data collection tool used in this study is an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Finally, combining the study results with the literature review allowed to present a set of recommendations to be addressed to hoteliers in the area of strategic management practices. Education and training in tourism and hospitality must take these changes into account in order to improve the ability of future managers to use a variety of tools and strategies to make their organizations more efficient and competitive. Therefore, this study aims to examine the types and effectiveness of training courses offered by tourism and hospitality departments in Egypt and to assess the importance of these training courses from the perspective of the graduate. The survey is aimed at graduates who have completed three different majors in the past decade: tourism and hospitality. Findings discussed the nature, level and effectiveness of the training provided at these faculties and the extent to which the training programs were valued by graduates working in different fields, and finally recommended specific practices to improve learning effectiveness increase and increase perceived employee benefits in the tourism and hospitality industry.

Keywords: marketing channels, crisis, hotel, international, tour, operators, online travel agencies, e-tourism, hotel websites, tourism, web-tourism, strategic-management, strategic tools, five-star hotels, resorts, downtown hotels, egyptian markets

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622 The Spatial Potential of the Croatian Adriatic Area for the Development of an Indigenous Form of Cruising Tourism - Mini Croatian Cruiser

Authors: Srećko Favro, Dora Mužinić


The eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea has been a significant part of the most important traffic corridors since Antiquity due to its position as the deepest indented bay of the Mediterranean and numerous bays on the coast and is-lands. The central place throughout history was occupied by the central part - Split-Dalmatia County, with its center in Antica in Salona and later in Split. Nowadays, in addition to its traffic and economic importance, this area is also important for tourism, an area where Croatia develops its economy and realizing its economic growth. Nautical tourism is the most important form of the tourist economic sector that uses the geographical features of the Croatian Adriatic water area and achieves the greatest growth based on tour-ist trends in the world (coronavirus - separation from the masses, adventure tourism - own arrangements) and thus opens up the possibility of develop-ment for other parts of the tourist economy. This will be described in the ex-ample of the business of the Split-Dalmatia County shipping company from Krilo Jesenice, which operates as a mini-cruising service provider, the lead-ing form of cruising in Croatia. The advantages that this type of tourism provides to travelers in terms of customized itineraries, high-quality services, an intimate atmosphere, and a unique experience through familiarization with local culture and tradition will be considered. Through direct primary research and analysis of available secondary research data, an attempt will be made to show how traditional Croatian mini cruisers manage to stand out in a competitive tourist environment. Their impact on the local economy, sus-tainability, and environmental protection will be considered, as well as how they are integrated into the tourist offer of other destinations in Croatia. In addition, the challenges and opportunities that arise in the maintenance and development of traditional Croatian mini cruisers will be discussed, includ-ing issues such as infrastructure, staff training, and market trends.

Keywords: croatia, adriatic, cruising, nautical tourism, mini cruise

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621 Role of Tourism Cluster in Improvement of Economic Competitiveness

Authors: Beshoy Khalil Danial Khalil


As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with the tourism sector and legislators. E-tourism is among the issues that have recently been entered into the field of tourism. In order to achieve this type of tourism, Information and Communications Technology (or ICT) infrastructures, as well as Co-governmental organizations and tourism resources, are important. In this study, the opinions of managers and tourism officials about the e-tourism in Leman city were measured; it also surveyed the impact of level of digital literacy of managers and tourism officials on attracting tourists.This study was conducted. One of the environs of the Esfahan province. This study is a documentary – survey and the sources include library resources and also questionnaires. The results obtained indicate that if managers use ICT, it may help e-tourism to be developed in the region, and increasing managers’ beliefs on e-tourism and upgrading their level of digital literacy may affect e-tourism development.

Keywords: financial problems, the problems of tourism businesses, tourism businesses, internet, marketing, tourism, tourism management economic competitiveness, enhancing competitiveness

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620 From Over-Tourism to Over-Mobility: Understanting the Mobility of Incoming City Users in Barcelona

Authors: José Antonio Donaire Benito, Konstantina Zerva


Historically, cities have been places where people from many nations and cultures have met and settled together, while population flows and density have had a significant impact on urban dynamics. Cities' high density of social, cultural, business offerings, everyday services, and other amenities not intended for tourists draw not only tourists but a wide range of city users as well. With the coordination of city rhythms and the porosity of the community, city users order and frame their urban experience. From one side, recent literature focuses on the shift in urban tourist experience from 'having' a holiday through 'doing' activities to 'becoming' a local by experiencing a part of daily life. On the other hand, there is a debate on the 'touristification of everyday life', where middle and upper class urban dwellers display attitudes and behaviors that are virtually undistinguishable from those of visitors. With the advent of globalization and technological advances, modern society has undergone a radical transformation that has altered mobility patterns within it, blurring the boundaries between tourism and everyday life, work and leisure, and "hosts" and "guests". Additionally, the presence of other 'temporary city' users, such as commuters, digital nomads, second home owners, and migrants, contributes to a more complex transformation of tourist cities. Moving away from this traditional clear distinction between 'hosts' and 'guests', which represents a more static view of tourism, and moving towards a more liquid narrative of mobility, academics on tourism development are embracing the New Mobilities Paradigm. The latter moves beyond the static structures of the modern world and focuses on the ways in which social entities are made up of people, machines, information, and images in a moving system. In light of this fluid interdependence between tourists and guests, a question arises as to whether overtourism, which is considered as the underlying cause of citizens' perception of a lower urban quality of life, is a fair representation of perceived mobility excessiveness, place consumption disruptiveness, and residents displacement. As a representative example of an overtourism narrative, Barcelona was chosen as a study area for this purpose, focusing on the incoming city users to reflect in depth the variety of people who contribute to mobility flows beyond those residents already have. Several statistical data have been analyzed to determine the number of national and international visitors to Barcelona at some point during the day in 2019. Specifically, tracking data gathered from mobile phone users within the city are combined with tourist surveys, urban mobility data, zenithal data capture, and information about the city's attractions. The paper shows that tourists are only a small part of the different incoming city users that daily enter Barcelona; excursionists, commuters, and metropolitans also contribute to a high mobility flow. Based on the diversity of incoming city users and their place consumption, it seems that the city's urban experience is more likely to be impacted by over-mobility tan over-tourism.

Keywords: city users, density, new mobilities paradigm, over-tourism.

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619 Analysis of the 2023 Karnataka State Elections Using Online Sentiment

Authors: Pranav Gunhal


This paper presents an analysis of sentiment on Twitter towards the Karnataka elections held in 2023, utilizing transformer-based models specifically designed for sentiment analysis in Indic languages. Through an innovative data collection approach involving a combination of novel methods of data augmentation, online data preceding the election was analyzed. The study focuses on sentiment classification, effectively distinguishing between positive, negative, and neutral posts while specifically targeting the sentiment regarding the loss of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) or the win of the Indian National Congress (INC). Leveraging high-performing transformer architectures, specifically IndicBERT, coupled with specifically fine-tuned hyperparameters, the AI models employed in this study achieved remarkable accuracy in predicting the INC’s victory in the election. The findings shed new light on the potential of cutting-edge transformer-based models in capturing and analyzing sentiment dynamics within the Indian political landscape. The implications of this research are far-reaching, providing invaluable insights to political parties for informed decision-making and strategic planning in preparation for the forthcoming 2024 Lok Sabha elections in the nation.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, twitter, Karnataka elections, congress, BJP, transformers, Indic languages, AI, novel architectures, IndicBERT, lok sabha elections

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618 Marketing Research and Benefits

Authors: Ishak Kamal Baskhayroun Yacoub


Mobile phones are one of the direct marketing tools that can be used to reach today’s hard-to-reach consumers. Mobile phones are very personal devices and they are always carried with the consumer where ever they go. This creates an opportunity for marketers to create personalized marketing communications messages and send them at the right time and place. This study examines consumer attitudes toward mobile marketing, especially toward SMS marketing. Unlike similar studies, this study does not focus on the young but includes consumers who are in the 18-70 age range in the field research. According to the results, it has been concluded that most participants think SMS marketing is disturbing. The most important problems with SMS marketing are getting subscribed to message lists without the permission of the receiver, the high number of messages sent, and the irrelevancy of the message content. The emergence of sponsorship as a new marketing communication tool and a source of competitive advantage in the marketplace has changed the entire marketing communication process. Sponsorship has overtaken other marketing communication tools in terms of growth and expenditure. This paper seeks to evaluate the role of sponsorship in marketing communication tools. The study recommends that proper measures be taken before the company embarks into sponsorship programs. This is necessary because investment in sponsorship does not always guarantee a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace.

Keywords: direct marketing, mobile phones mobile marketing, SMS advertising, marketing sponsorship, marketing communication theories, marketing communication tools corporate responsibility, employee organizational performance, internal marketing, internal customer

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