Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 547

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Social and Business Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

547 Development of Policy and Planning Processes Towards a Comprehensive Tourism Plan, Community Participation: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Ruth Yunji Nange

Abstract:

Tourism has continued to increase as a significant industry, enhancing economic growth and development in Cameroon; due to the tremendous success of this industry, community participation (CP) has enhanced tourism development (TD). While gaining augmented attractiveness, considering how local CP is encouraged in such initiatives has become imperative. It has become essential to examine the importance of CP in the development of policies and planning processes for the equitable distribution of benefits and the effects of TD in the country. This study will exactly explore the cases of CP in the most populated cities in Cameroon (Douala and Yaoundé) and also understand how local CP is incorporated into tourism to enhance development in the tourism industry in particular and Cameroon in general. This paper is based on a qualitative research method, semi-structured interviews, and in-depth, face-to-face interviews carried out with the top administrators of tourism, both in the public and private sectors, such as the minister, provincial and regional delegates of tourism, non-governmental organizations (NGO), leaders of local community associations and tour operators. The forms and surveys were open-ended with a high level of flexibility. The findings of this study will pose implications for the development of CP in tourism initiatives programs in Cameroon and other developing economies.

Keywords: Cameroon, local community, participation and planning, tourism

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546 Runaway Girl Children and the Reasons: Qualitative Study in Government Girls Home Bangalore

Authors: Hazel Johanna J., Ntailang Mary Tariang

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The paper “Runaway Girl Children and the Reasons: Qualitative Study In Government Girls Home Bangalore” explores the different reasons why children choose this last resort of running away rather than seeking proper help from the authorities. A qualitative study using a purposive sampling method was used to identify the participants based on the objectives. Girl runaway children between the age group of 12-18 years admitted to the Government Girls Home, Bangalore, were chosen for this study. Data was collected through in-depth interviews using semi-structured questions. Thematic analysis has been done using QDA Miner Lite. The main objectives of this study were to identify the reasons behind running away in children, to explore their childhood experiences and future dreams after they leave the Child Care Institution. The findings of this study derived five major themes that have caused the children to run away from their homes. The themes are child maltreatment and dysfunctional families, coerced into adulthood, forced work, adolescent dalliance, and aspirations. As a result, all the themes that emerged here are related to the family in one way or another. In conclusion, it is revealed that interpersonal family conflicts lead to the violation of child rights in so many ways, which in this context leads the child to run away from the comfort of their home.

Keywords: runaway children, dysfunctional family, abuse, child marriage, education

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545 Monitoring Public Attitudes Towards Tourism Valorisation of the Dinara Nature Park’s Dry Grasslands

Authors: Sven Ratković

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The survey of public attitudes and knowledge was conducted as part of the Dinara back to LIFE project during June and July 2020. The aim of the research was to collect public opinions and knowledge on the topics of the biodiversity of Dinara, perception of tourist potential, sustainable development, and acceptance of the project. The research was conducted using the survey method in the cities of Sinj, Knin, Vrlika, and Trilj, and the municipalities of Hrvace, Otok, Kijevo, and Civljane, where a total of 404 people were surveyed. The respondents perceive the cultural and recreational potential of Dinara and recognize it as a potential for agriculture and tourism. According to respondents, the biological diversity of Dinara is most affected by fires and human activity. When it comes to nature protection, the majority of respondents don’t trust local self-government units and relevant ministries. The obtained results indicate the need for informing and educating the community, and they serve to adjust the project activities and better guide the touristic development of the project area. The examination will be repeated in the last project year (2023).

Keywords: protected area tourism, Dinara Nature Park, dry grasslands, touristic infrastructure

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544 Heritage Management of Wooden Monasteries in Mandalay

Authors: Mary Oo, Thet Oo

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Mandalay is home to the last dynasty of Myanmar and is rich in cultural heritage. In Mandalay, cultural heritage is still being seen today, in not only intangible but also many tangible heritages. Intangible heritage, a religious structure such as mosques, churches, stupas, temples, Buddha libraries and monasteries, comprise over 80%. Among these religious structures, the authors aim to study the wooden monasteries built in the 19th century and then propose heritage management for them. Although some of the wooden monasteries are being conserved by the government, NGOs or inhabitants in those buildings, because of the unsystematic management plan and some of the inappropriate traditional methods, even their authentic architectural values have been lost today. In this paper, four aspects are explored: 1) the architectural features of 19th-century wooden monasteries 2) the condition of the problems and challenges, 3) the analysis of the problems of them and finally, based on these above analyses, recommend the appropriate heritage management proposal.

Keywords: Mandalay, wooden monasteries, challenges, problems, heritage management proposal

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543 Authenticity during Conflict Reporting: The China-India Border Clash in the Indian Press

Authors: Arjun Chatterjee

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The India-China border clash in Galwan valley in June 2020, the first deadly skirmish between the two Asian giants in the Himalayan border area in over four decades, highlighted the need to examine the notion of ‘authenticity’ in journalistic practices. Information emanating from such remotely located, sparsely populated, and not well-demarcated international land borders have limited sources, restricted to official sources, which have their own narrative. Geopolitical goals and ambitions embolden narratives of nationalism in the media, and these often challenge the notion and understanding of authenticity in journalism. The Indian press, contrary to the Chinese press, which is state-owned, is diverse and also confrontational, where narratives of nationalism are differentially interpreted, embedded, and realised. This paper examines how authenticity has become a variable, rather than a constant, in conflict reporting of the Sino-Indian border clash and how authenticity is interpreted similarly or differently in conflict journalism. The paper reports qualitative textual analysis of two leading English language newspapers – The Times of India and The Hindu, and two mainstream regional language newspapers, Amar Ujala (Hindi) and Ananda Bazar Patrika (Bengali), to evaluate the ways in which representations of information function in conflict reporting and to recontextualize (and thus change or modify the meaning of) that which they represent, and with what political and cultural implications.

Keywords: India-China, framing, conflict, media narratives, border dispute

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542 Best Halal Compliance Practice Model for Restaurants: A Validation Through Halal Compliance Rating and Structural Equation Modelling

Authors: Md. Siddique E. Azam, Anis Najiha Ahmad, Moha Asri Abdullah, Haruna Babatunde Jaiyeoba

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The global halal industry has been growing at a rapid pace and relies on halal products and services to meet consumer demand. Likewise, the number of halal-certified restaurants that serve halal foods and beverages is increasing day by day. However, an established Halal Compliance Rating (HCR) system has been lacking by the industry that could differentiate the halal compliance performance of the restaurants and help the consumers to put their preferences. Such a rating is also crucial for restaurants to ensure a competitive position in the market. To minimise this gap, the earlier studies developed HCR tool for the best halal compliance practice model. However, the model is yet to be validated, and the HCR tool is yet to be applied. In this regard, the present study surveys 320 halal-certified restaurants across Malaysia using self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of 67 indicators under 10 HCR components to measure and rate the level of halal compliance. The 10 HCR components included knowledge, management responsibility, premise location and design, hygiene and food safety, human resources, branding, customer satisfaction, legal requirements, sustainability practices, and halal supply chain. Additionally, 10 indicators were included under financial and non-financial performance of restaurant operators to measure their business performance. The background statistics show that majority of the respondents were female and Muslim. More than half of the respondents had a diploma or first-degree level of education. Moreover, the surveyed sample in this research represented the MSMEs in the halal-certified restaurant business in Malaysia. Majority of them were small enterprises in terms of both annual sales-turnover and employee size. The analysis of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was adopted to validate the model. The analysis tested 13 hypotheses, out of which 12 were accepted. A significant positive impact was found between the HCR components and best halal compliance practice. Simultaneously, the halal compliance practice was found to have a significant positive impact on both the financial and non-financial performance of the restaurants. The research is significant in terms of measuring the level of halal compliance practices by the restaurants and rating them accordingly for the first time. Additionally, the such model draws the attention of the restaurant owners and/or managers to practice halal compliance with more care to enhance their business performance. The inclusion of components like sustainability practices, human resource and culture, and customer satisfaction justifies the model to be called the best halal compliance practice model. Such model is crucial in Muslim-friendly tourism sector. Finally, the validation of the model confirms the applicability of HCR tool in the rating system of halal-certified restaurants during periodic audits by the respective authorities.

Keywords: halal compliance rating, best halal compliance practice, halal restaurant, SEM

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541 Patterns of Sustainable Financial Incentives Utilisation among Fashion Design Entrepreneurs in Nigeria

Authors: O. B. Urhibo, D. Imhonopi, T. George

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The global rate of decline in entrepreneurial activities, and the prevalence in Africa, especially Nigeria, is more worrisome. In recent times, these problems, such as the lack of accessibility and utilization of financial incentives needed to promote entrepreneurial activities, have led to a decrease in entrepreneurial activities. The causes of the decline have been evaluated from a different perspective and have further confirmed the relevance and need for the sustainability of the Fashion industry. With the increasing rate of unemployment and poverty in Nigeria and the literature gap in the social context, this study investigated the patterns of sustainable financial incentives utilisation among fashion design entrepreneurs in Nigeria through a qualitative approach. The Eastern part of Nigeria was considered in this study because of the high rate of market activity for textile and clothing firms. Specifically, Delta state was considered in this study. A purposive sampling technique was used to select key informants consisting of twelve (12) executives of the associations (i.e., Fashion Designer & Exhibitors Association, Delta Fashion Designers, and Fashion Designers Association of Nigeria for the interview sessions. Four themes emanate from the thematic analysis -lack of sufficient collateral, difficulties and duration of loan application processes, unacceptable business proposal/plan, and the absence of audited financial accounts were found to be the patterns of sustainable financial incentives utilisation among fashion design entrepreneurs in Nigeria. The promotion of sustainable patterns and supports has been suggested to reduce the challenges of sustainable financial incentives utilisation among fashion design entrepreneurs.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, fashion design, financial incentives, patterns, sustainability, utilisation

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540 Lifestyle Entrepreneurship and Dimensions Taken from the Literature: Lifestyle Entrepreneurship and Spring for New Businesses

Authors: Sarah Irani

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Statement of the problem: "Lifestyle entrepreneurship" was coined to describe business owners who seek to achieve work-life balance. Lifestyle entrepreneurship allows the business owner to create a business activity that aligns with their personal values, interests, and motivations.. Therefore, they emphasize non-economic goals over financial interests. Although some lifestyle entrepreneurs are not interested in creating big businesses, knowing their views and opinions. In business, it has an important impact on the growth of the entrepreneurial economy and the concept of entrepreneurship. Methodology and theoretical orientation: This research is qualitative, and by presenting a comprehensive model with regard to studies in the field of lifestyle entrepreneurship, it tries to develop research in this field. Findings: In this way, lifestyle entrepreneurship is affected by four aspects. These four aspects are goals and motivations, available opportunities and resources, features and characteristics, and limitations and obstacles; this research examines each of them.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, lifestyle entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs, small business development, innovation

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539 Wellness Tourism in Baluwarti Tourism Village, Surakarta City

Authors: Deria Adi Wijaya, Amad Saeroji, Jimmi Sandi P., Nanang Wijayanto

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Tourism and the creative economy are combinations that can become a sustainable source of welfare that can boost the economy so as to increase the country's foreign exchange. Therefore the development of the tourism sector is one of the priorities in President Joko Widodo's leadership framework for the 2019-2024 period. Entering the current pandemic, each party is required to be able to implement strict health protocols to slow the rate of SARS-Cov2 infection, or what is known as the coronavirus, but on the other hand, the need to turn the wheels of the economy must continue. Therefore, an effort is needed to develop tourism activities that are full of experiences that add health benefits. Anticipating this, the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy collaborated with the Ministry of Health to offer an innovative development model, namely wellness tourism. The development of wellness tourism is an alternative that can make a positive contribution to the development of Indonesian tourism during the pandemic. This research seeks to synergize efforts to develop national tourism into the regional sphere; in this case, Baluwarti Tourism Village, which is located within the walls of the Surakarta Sunanate Palace, has the potential to be developed into a wellness tourism destination in Surakarta City. Considering that a village that is in the immediate vicinity of a palace certainly has a variety of potential attractions for royal wellness tourism. The main objectives of this study are 1) to identify the potential for palace-style wellness tourism in Baluwarti Tourism Village; 2) to formulate development in the form of tour packages in Baluwarti Tourism Village. Of course, the development of the wellness tour package is still based on local wisdom, namely a tour package that raises local potential as a palace-style wellness tourism attraction that can improve the economy of the local people through the tourism sector in the post-pandemic era.

Keywords: potential, wellness tourism, Baluwarti Tourism Village, Surakarta Sunanate Palace, Surakarta City

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538 Model and Algorithm for Dynamic Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging Network Design

Authors: Trung Hieu Tran, Jesse O'Hanley, Russell Fowler

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When in-wheel wireless charging technology for electric vehicles becomes mature, a need for such integrated charging stations network development is essential. In this paper, we thus investigate the optimisation problem of in-wheel wireless electric vehicle charging network design. A mixed-integer linear programming model is formulated to solve into optimality the problem. In addition, a meta-heuristic algorithm is proposed for efficiently solving large-sized instances within a reasonable computation time. A parallel computing strategy is integrated into the algorithm to speed up its computation time. Experimental results carried out on the benchmark instances show that our model and algorithm can find the optimal solutions and their potential for practical applications.

Keywords: electric vehicle, wireless charging station, mathematical programming, meta-heuristic algorithm, parallel computing

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537 Atomic Town: History And Vernacular Heritage At The Mary Kathleen Uranium Mine In Australia

Authors: Erik Eklund

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Mary Kathleen was a purpose-built company town located in north west Queensland in Australia. It was created to work a rich uranium deposit discovered in the area in July 1954. The town that was complete by 1958 with its curved streets, modern materials, and progressive urban planning scheme Formed in the minds of corporate executives and architects and made manifest in arid zone country between Cloncurry and Mount Isa, Mary Kathleen was a modern marvel in the outback; a town that tamed the wild country of north west Queensland, or so it seemed. The town was also a product of the Cold War. In the context of a nuclear arms race between the Soviet Union and her allies and the United States of America (USA) and her Allies, a rapid rush to locate, mine, and process uranium after 1944 led to the creation of uranium towns in Czechoslovakia, Canada, the Soviet Union, USA and Australia of which Mary Kathleen was one such example. Mary Kathleen closed in 1981, and most of the town’s infrastructure was removed. Since then, the town’s ghostly remains have attracted travellers and tourists. Never an officially-sanctioned tourist site, the area has nevertheless became a regular stop for campers and day trippers who have engaged with the site often without formal interpretation. This paper explores the status of this vernacular heritage and asks why it has it not gained any official status and what visitors might see in the place despite it’s uncertain status.

Keywords: uranium mining, planned communities, official heritage, vernacular heritage, australian history

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536 The Influence of Smart Tourism Applications on Memorable Tourism Experience in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Wikanda Boonma, Jang Hyunmi

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Smart tourism applications (STAs) play an important role in tourism to enhance the quality tourism experience and add value to tourists with accurate information, better decision support, greater time-saving, and providing more personalized information to meet tourists’ expectations. This paper intends to develop and investigate the effect of smart tourism applications on memorable tourism experiences in enhancing tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty. Questionnaires were distributed to tourists who are traveling in Bangkok, Thailand. A structural equation method was used to find the relationship among smart tourism technology attributes, the perceived value of the STAs, memorable tourism experience, tourist satisfaction, and destination loyalty. The findings of this study provide insight into the critical role of smart tourism applications, which create chances for smart tourism development. Additionally, some theoretical and managerial implications were derived from the findings.

Keywords: smart tourism applications, memorable tourism experience, tourist satisfaction, destination loyalty

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535 Activism: Impact on Businesses and Ways to Engage Activists for Entrepreneurs - An Experiential Sharing

Authors: Lee Kar Heng

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Activists are people who use strong actions such as public protests or social media accusations in support of or opposition to controversial issues, while activism is the act of using such vigorous campaigns and actions to achieve political or social changes by the activists. Today, the pressure and stresses from activism do not only grow in terms of civil rights but also in racial justice, labour reforms, and environmental change, to name a few. While some activism acts are constructive, many are destructive, and they affect businesses as activists direct their sights on corporations, business entities, and organizations to achieve their supporting objectives. The paper attempts to share experiences of businesses being attacked by activists and how the attacks are mitigated. In sharing, this paper will discuss the effectiveness of the activist action and ways to react to them. The positive and negative impacts caused by activists' support action against corporations are also discussed.

Keywords: entrprenership, activism, sustabinabikity, business

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534 Factors Affecting Attitude of Community Pharmacists Towards Locally Manufactured Pharmaceutical Products in Addisababa: A Cross-sectional Study

Authors: Gelila Tamyalew, Asres Abitie

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Community Pharmacists (CPs) have a significant part in consumer choice in the rational use of LMPPs. The opinion of pharmacists regarding branded and generic medications can offer a perception of the potential obstacles that might have to be overcome to advance generic medicine utilization. Many factors affect CPs' attitudes negatively toward LMPPs. Therefore, the current study assessed factors that can affect CPs' attitudes toward LMPPs. In the regression analysis of variables, three variables were associated with CPs' attitudes toward LMPPs. These are; maximum educational status, professional status, and year of experience in community pharmacy practice. Moreover, lack of belief in LMPPs, substitution agreement with the prescriber, cost-effectiveness of LMPPs, and consumer preference/demand were the most influencing reasons for the selection of LMPPs. In conclusion, the attitude of CPs seems suboptimal that requires an intervention to optimize LMPP utilization.

Keywords: locally manufactured pharmaceutical products, attitude, community pharmacist, Ethiopia

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533 The Relationship Between Cultural Factors and Dividend Payouts of the Banks in Some Middle East Countries

Authors: Benjamin Bae, Mahdy Elhusseiny, Sherif El-Halaby

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This study investigates the relationship between some cultural factors and the level of dividend payouts of banks in a number of Muslim countries. We examine whether cultural factors play any role in determining dividend payout policy in banks. The results suggest that banks in high masculinity countries tend to pay higher dividends than low masculinity countries. The results also show that banks in high uncertainty avoidance (UA) countries tend to pay lower dividends than high UA countries. Additionally, the results of this study indicate that banks in high long-term orientation (LTO) countries tend to pay lower dividends than low LTO countries. However, two other cultural factors of power distance (PD) and individualism do not have any incremental explanatory power on the dividend payouts. Overall, this research adds to our understanding of the bank’s dividend payout policies. First, evidence on the relationship between the cultural factors and bank’s level of dividend payouts should be useful to investors. Second, the findings of this study provide financial statement users with useful information about the bank’s dividend payout levels. Third, in general, it also adds to the accounting and finance literature on dividends.

Keywords: cultural factor, dividend payout, Hofstede index, bank industry

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532 Accounting for Cryptocurrency: Urgent Need for an Accounting Standard

Authors: Fatima Ali Abbass, Hassan Ibrahim Rkein

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The number of entities worldwide that currently accept digital currency as payment is increasing; however, digital currency still is not widely accepted as a medium of exchange, nor they represent legal tender. At the same time, this makes accounting for cryptocurrency, as cash (Currency) is not possible under IAS 7 and IAS 32, Cryptocurrency also cannot be accounted for as Financial Assets at fair value through profit or loss under IFRS 9. Therefore, this paper studies the possible means to account for Cryptocurrency, since, as of today, there is not yet an accounting standard that deals with cryptocurrency. The request to have a specific accounting standard is increasing from top accounting firms and from professional accounting bodies. This study uses a mixture of qualitative and quantitative analysis in its quest to explore the best possible way to account for cryptocurrency. Interviews and surveys were conducted targeting accounting professionals. This study highlighted the deficiencies in the current way of accounting for Cryptocurrency as intangible Assets with an indefinite life. The deficiency becomes well highlighted, as the asset will then be subject to impairment, where under GAAP, only depreciation in the value of the intangible asset is recognized. On the other hand, appreciation in the value of the asset is ignored, and this prohibits the reporting entity from showing the true value of the cryptocurrency asset. This research highlights the gap that arises due to using accounting standards that are not specific for Cryptocurrency and this study confirmed that there is an urgent need to call upon the accounting standards setters (IASB and FASB) to issue accounting standards specifically for Cryptocurrency.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, accounting, IFRS, GAAP, classification, measurement

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531 Stock Prediction and Portfolio Optimization Thesis

Authors: Deniz Peksen

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This thesis aims to predict trend movement of closing price of stock and to maximize portfolio by utilizing the predictions. In this context, the study aims to define a stock portfolio strategy from models created by using Logistic Regression, Gradient Boosting and Random Forest. Recently, predicting the trend of stock price has gained a significance role in making buy and sell decisions and generating returns with investment strategies formed by machine learning basis decisions. There are plenty of studies in the literature on the prediction of stock prices in capital markets using machine learning methods but most of them focus on closing prices instead of the direction of price trend. Our study differs from literature in terms of target definition. Ours is a classification problem which is focusing on the market trend in next 20 trading days. To predict trend direction, fourteen years of data were used for training. Following three years were used for validation. Finally, last three years were used for testing. Training data are between 2002-06-18 and 2016-12-30 Validation data are between 2017-01-02 and 2019-12-31 Testing data are between 2020-01-02 and 2022-03-17 We determine Hold Stock Portfolio, Best Stock Portfolio and USD-TRY Exchange rate as benchmarks which we should outperform. We compared our machine learning basis portfolio return on test data with return of Hold Stock Portfolio, Best Stock Portfolio and USD-TRY Exchange rate. We assessed our model performance with the help of roc-auc score and lift charts. We use logistic regression, Gradient Boosting and Random Forest with grid search approach to fine-tune hyper-parameters. As a result of the empirical study, the existence of uptrend and downtrend of five stocks could not be predicted by the models. When we use these predictions to define buy and sell decisions in order to generate model-based-portfolio, model-based-portfolio fails in test dataset. It was found that Model-based buy and sell decisions generated a stock portfolio strategy whose returns can not outperform non-model portfolio strategies on test dataset. We found that any effort for predicting the trend which is formulated on stock price is a challenge. We found same results as Random Walk Theory claims which says that stock price or price changes are unpredictable. Our model iterations failed on test dataset. Although, we built up several good models on validation dataset, we failed on test dataset. We implemented Random Forest, Gradient Boosting and Logistic Regression. We discovered that complex models did not provide advantage or additional performance while comparing them with Logistic Regression. More complexity did not lead us to reach better performance. Using a complex model is not an answer to figure out the stock-related prediction problem. Our approach was to predict the trend instead of the price. This approach converted our problem into classification. However, this label approach does not lead us to solve the stock prediction problem and deny or refute the accuracy of the Random Walk Theory for the stock price.

Keywords: stock prediction, portfolio optimization, data science, machine learning

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530 Inclusive Cultural Heritage Tourism Project

Authors: L. Cruz-Lopes, M. Sell, P. Escudeiro, B. Esteves

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It might be difficult for deaf people to communicate since spoken and written languages are different from sign language. When it comes to getting information, going to places of cultural heritage, or using services and infrastructure, there is a clear lack of inclusiveness. By creating assistive technology that enables deaf individuals to get around communication hurdles and encourage inclusive tourism, the ICHT- Inclusive Cultural Heritage Tourism initiative hopes to increase knowledge of sign language. The purpose of the Inclusive Cultural Heritage Tourism (ICHT) project is to develop online and on-site sign language tools and material for usage at popular tourist destinations in the northern region of Portugal, including Torre dos Clérigos, the Lello bookstore, Maia Zoo, Porto wine cellars, and São Pedro do Sul (Viseu) thermae. The ICHT system consists of an application using holography, a mobile game, an online platform for collaboration with deaf and hearing users, and a collection of International Sign training courses. The project also offers a prospect for a more inclusive society by introducing a method of teaching sign languages to tourism industry professionals. As a result, the teaching and learning of sign language along with the assistive technology tools created by the project sets up an inclusive environment for the deaf community, producing results in the area of automatic sign language translation and aiding in the global recognition of the Portuguese tourism industry.

Keywords: inclusive tourism, games, international sign training, deaf community

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529 Consumer Reactions to Hospitality Social Robots Across Cultures

Authors: Lisa C. Wan

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To address customers’ safety concerns, more and more hospitality companies are using service robots to provide contactless services. For many companies, the switch from human employees to service robots to lower the contagion risk during and after the pandemic may be permanent. The market size for hospitality service robots is estimated to reach US$3,083 million by 2030, registering a CAGR of 25.5% from 2021 to 2030. While service robots may effectively reduce interpersonal contacts and health risk, it also eliminates the social interactions desired by customers. A recent survey revealed that more than 60% of Americans feel lonely during the pandemic. People who are traveling can also feel isolated when they are at a hotel far away from home. It is therefore important for the hospitality companies to understand whether and how social robots can remedy deprived social connection not only due to a pandemic but also for a trip away from home in the post-pandemic future. This study complements extant hospitality literature regarding service robots by examining how service robots can forge social connections with customers. The service robots we are concerned with are those that can interact and communicate with humans; we broadly refer to them as social robots. We define a social robot as one that is equipped with interaction capabilities – it can either be one that directly interacts with the consumer or one through which the consumer can interact with other humans. Drawing on the theories of mind perception, we propose that service robots can foster social connectedness and increase the perception of social competence of the robot, but these effects will vary across cultures. By applying theories of mind perception and cultural dimension to the hospitality setting, this study shows that service robots that are equipped with social connection function will receive a more favorable evaluation from the consumers and enhance their intention to visit a hotel. The more favorable reaction to social robots is stronger for collectivists (i.e., Asians) than individualists (i.e., Westerners). To our knowledge, this is among the first studies to investigate the impact of culture on consumer reactions to social robots in the hospitality and tourism context. Moreover, this research extends the literature by examining whether people imbue non-human entities (i.e., telepresence social robots) with social competence. Because social robots that foster social connection with humans are still rare in hospitality and tourism, this aspect is an underexplored research area. Our study is the first to propose that, just like their human counterparts that possess relevant social skills, social robots’ interaction capabilities (e.g., telepresence robots) are used to infer social competence. More studies will be conducted to examine consumer reactions to humanoid (vs. non-humanoid) robot in the hospitality settings to generalize our research findings.

Keywords: service robots, COVID-19, social connection, cultures

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528 Research on the Protection and Development of Ancient Town Cultural Landscape Based on “Four State” Elements: Illustrated by the Example of Qikou

Authors: Bian ChengXiang, Wang Qian

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With the deepening of the research on the connotation of cultural heritage and human geography, the cultural landscape takes landscape as a cultural product, integrates and blends cultural and natural heritage to explore the cultural value behind its material landscape. Qikou ancient town is a typical traditional settlement with a homomorphism of mountain and water veins. Its cultural accumulation and natural landscape play an important role in its development. Therefore, this paper will combine the material and cultural elements of Qikou ancient town to analyze the composition of the cultural landscape of the ancient town and explore the protection and utilization of the cultural landscape of Qikou ancient town from the four aspects of ecology, form, cultural form, and business form, so as to provide effective strategies for the development of the ancient town.

Keywords: four state, cultural landscape, ancient town, protection, development

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527 The Relationship between Urbanization and the Rapid Development of Real Estate Industry in China: Taking Chongqing as an Example

Authors: Deng Tingting

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There is a very close interaction between the rapid development of the real estate industry and regional urbanization. The real estate problem can be boiled down to the problem of urbanization, in essence. The growth of hundreds of millions of people in the future will determine the development of low-level demand in the real estate market. At the same time, the practical problems of urbanization also seriously restrict the healthy development of real estate itself. The latter two interact with each other by adjusting the industrial structure, economic aggregate, regional population flow, and many other linkage factors. Through the case analysis of Chongqing, this paper finds that the urbanization of Chongqing and the overall development level of the real estate industry are still in the stage of development and upgrading, and its development potential and future development and application space are still very large. Therefore, from the perspective of the regional economy, studying the interaction between the two is of great significance to accelerate the process of urbanization in Chongqing, promote the healthy development of the real estate industry, and promote the rapid growth of the regional economy.

Keywords: urbanization, demographics, real estate, interrelationships

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526 Heritage Impact Assessment Policy within Western Balkans, Albania

Authors: Anisa Duraj

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As usually acknowledged, cultural heritage is the weakest component in EIA studies. The role of heritage impact assessment (HIA) in development projects is not often accounted for, and in those cases where it is, HIA is considered as a reactive response and not as a solutions provider. Because of continuous development projects, in most cases, heritage is unconsidered and often put under threat. Cultural protection and development challenges ask for prudent legal regulation and appropriate policy implementation. The challenges become even more peculiar in underdeveloped countries or endangered areas, which are generally characterized by numerous legal constraints. Therefore, the need for strategic proposals for HIA is of high importance. In order to trigger HIA as a proactive operation in the IA process and make sure to cover cultural heritage in the whole EIA framework, an appropriate system of evaluation of impacts should be provided. To obtain the required results for HIA, this last must be part of a regional policy, which will address and guide development projects toward a proper evaluation of their impacts affecting heritage. In order to get a clearer picture of existing gabs but also new possibilities for HIA, this paper will focus on the Western Balkans region and the undergoing changes that it faces. Concerning continuous development pressure in the region and within the aspiration of the Western Balkans countries to join the European Union (EU) as member states, attention should be paid to new development policies under the EU directives for conducting EIAs, and accurate support is required for the restructuration of existing policies as well as for the implementation of the UN Agenda for SDGs. In the framework of new emerging needs, if HIA is taken into account, the outcome would be an inclusive regional program that would help to overcome marginality issues of spaces and people.

Keywords: cultural heritage, impact assessment, SDGs, urban development, western Balkans, regional policy, HIA, EIA

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525 Voters' Acceptance of Anti-guardians' Narratives: Electoral Politics in Establishmentarian Democracies

Authors: Rai Mansoor Imtiaz

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Guardians in hybrid regimes fragment opposition parties and ban their political leaders, and disenfranchise their voters' political participation. When guardians in hybrid regimes are so powerful that they remain decisive on electoral politics of states, and have powers to ban political parties and their leadership, then "why do political parties backed by those powerful guardians lose elections" and "how do anti-establishment parties make electoral inroads at the local and national levels." These two questions are interrelated with the key research question of my research "why do people vote for political parties rejected by powerful guardians in establishmentarian democracies." Furthermore, this research question is important to be explored for two reasons. First, existing literature only reflects the electoral victories of opposition parties or defeats of military-sponsored parties (see Thailand and Turkey) but remains silent on political change that led the anti-military parties to win the elections. Second, why is it a case that people belonging to the countries where militaries remain popular among the public (see Turkey and Pakistan) have started putting their trust in anti-establishment politicians who criticise the military against their intervention in politics? For instance, in Pakistan, where commenting against the military is meant to comment against the state –– an anti-military narrative is getting popular support. The conceptual framework of hybrid states in this research relies on the concept of a 'reserved domain/tutelary body' (guardians of hybrid states). However, this research makes a case that hybrid states are not consolidated separate political entities but rather vacillated states that fluctuate between democratic and authoritarian practices. This paper, therefore, uses the term establishmentarian democracy as a subtype of the hybrid regime, which is more consolidated than a hybrid democracy.

Keywords: Guardians, Hybrid Regimes, Voters, Elections, Democracy, South Asia

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524 The Church of San Paolo in Ferrara, Restoration and Accessibility

Authors: Benedetta Caglioti

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The ecclesiastical complex of San Paolo in Ferrara represents a monument of great historical, religious and architectural importance. Its long and articulated story, over time, is already manifested by the mere reading of its planimetric and altimetric configuration, apparently unitary but, in reality, marked by modifications and repeated additions, even of high quality. It follows, in terms of protection, restoration and enhancement, a commitment of due respect for how the ancient building was built and enriched over its centuries of life. Hence a rigorous methodological approach, while being aware of the fact that every monument, in order to live and make use of the indispensable maintenance, must always be enjoyed and visited, therefore it must enjoy, in the right measure and compatibly with its nature, the possibility of improvements and functional, distributive, technological adjustments and related to the safety of people and things. The methodological approach substantiates the different elements of the project (such as distribution functionality, safety, structural solidity, environmental comfort, the character of the site, building and urban planning regulations, financial resources and materials, the same organization methods of the construction site) through the guiding principles of restoration, defined for a long time: the 'minimum intervention,' the 'recognisability' or 'distinguishability' of old and new, the Physico-chemical and figurative 'compatibility,' the 'durability' and the, at least potential, 'reversibility' of what is done, leading to the definition of appropriate "critical choices." The project tackles, together with the strictly functional ones, also the directly conservative and restoration issues, of a static, structural and material technology nature, with special attention to precious architectural surfaces, In order to ensure the best architectural quality through conscious enhancement, the project involves a redistribution of the interior and service spaces, an accurate lighting system inside and outside the church and a reorganization of the adjacent urban space. The reorganization of the interior is designed with particular attention to the issue of accessibility for people with disabilities. To accompany the community to regain possession of the use of the church's own space, already in its construction phase, the project proposal has hypothesized a permeability and flexibility in the management of the works such as to allow the perception of the found Monument to gradually become more and more familiar at the citizenship. Once the interventions have been completed, it is expected that the Church of San Paolo, second in importance only to the Cathedral, from which it is a few steps away, will be inserted in an already existing circuit of use of the city which over the years has systematized the different aspects of culture, the environment and tourism for the creation of greater awareness in the perception of what Ferrara can offer in cultural terms.

Keywords: conservation, accessibility, regeneration, urban space

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523 Altruistic and Hedonic Motivations to Write eWOM Reviews on Hotel Experience

Authors: Miguel Llorens-Marin, Adolfo Hernandez, Maria Puelles-Gallo

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The increasing influence of Online Travel Agencies (OTAs) on hotel bookings and the electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) contained in them has been featured by many scientific studies as a major factor in the booking decision. The main reason is that nowadays, in the hotel sector, consumers first come into contact with the offer through the web and the online environment. Due to the nature of the hotel product and the fact that it is booked in advance to actually seeing it, there is a lack of knowledge about its actual features. This makes eWOM a major channel to help consumers to reduce their perception of risk when making their booking decisions. This research studies the relationship between aspects of customer influenceability by reading eWOM communications, at the time of booking a hotel, with the propensity to write a review. In other words, to test relationships between the reading and the writing of eWOM. Also investigates the importance of different underlying motivations for writing eWOM. Online surveys were used to obtain the data from a sample of hotel customers, with 739 valid questionnaires. A measurement model and Path analysis were carried out to analyze the chain of relationships among the independent variable (influenceability from reading reviews) and the dependent variable (propensity to write a review) with the mediating effects of additional variables, which help to explain the relationship. The authors also tested the moderating effects of age and gender in the model. The study considered three different underlying motivations for writing a review on a hotel experience, namely hedonic, altruistic and conflicted. Results indicate that the level of influenceability by reading reviews has a positive effect on the propensity to write reviews; therefore, we manage to link the reading and the writing of reviews. Authors also discover that the main underlying motivation to write a hotel review is the altruistic motivation, being the one with the higher Standard regression coefficient above the hedonic motivation. The authors suggest that the propensity to write reviews is not related to sociodemographic factors (age and gender) but to attitudinal factors such as ‘the most influential factor when reading’ and ‘underlying motivations to write. This gives light on the customer engagement motivations to write reviews. The implications are that managers should encourage their customers to write eWOM reviews on altruistic grounds to help other customers to make a decision. The most important contribution of this work is to link the effect of reading hotel reviews with the propensity to write reviews.

Keywords: hotel reviews, electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), online consumer reviews, digital marketing, social media

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522 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Brand Equity of the Telecommunication Industry in South Africa

Authors: Keitumetse Gaesirwe

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This study investigated the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on brand equity. Specific objectives include examining the connections between ethics and philanthropic constructs of CSR and brand loyalty in the telecommunication industry in South Africa. A convenience sampling technique was used, and closed-ended questionnaires were administered to 800 research participants across the nine provinces of South Africa. Data collected from the field was analyzed using inferential statistics (Ordinary Least Squares regression and correlation analysis) as well as descriptive statistics. Findings show positive and significant connections between the constructs of CSR and brand loyalty. The implications of the findings indicate that keeping ethical and philanthropy standards can be a source of competitive advantage and guarantee brand loyalty for telecommunication companies in South Africa.

Keywords: CSR, brand awareness, telecommunication industry, COVID-19, South Africa

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521 Inclusive Cultural Tourism: Understanding the Policy and Practice of Embedding Inclusivity into Historic Sites in Jordan

Authors: Aseel Aljaafreh, Vanja Garaj, Youngok Choi

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This paper presents a study that examined the ways in which the relevant policymakers and practitioners consider inclusive design in the context of architectural intervention and service provision in the historical built environment in Jordan, an important vehicle of the cultural tourism industry in the country. The Jordanian government recently started promoting inclusive design in archaeological and cultural heritage sites such as Amman Citadel and Jordan museum under a government project called “Accessible Tourism” and there is, therefore, a need to understand the interrelationship between the policy development and implementation, as well as highlight the factors and challenges that affect the project delivery process, which is the main aim of this research. The study consisted of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 archaeological and cultural heritage experts who work on the “Accessible Tourism” project in the areas of legal affairs, technical development, accessibility, and inclusive design. The interview data were analysed using thematic analysis in NVIVO software. The findings reveal an intricate and ongoing planning process between each planning or designing phase, in which any design or planning decision is developed through ongoing multi-layering meetings, followed by ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the visitor's performance. The findings also show that natural geographic, social, and cultural contexts, besides the inflexibility of conservation regulations and lack of public knowledge, awareness of accessibility issues, as well as limited resources and funding, all affect accessibility application in policy and practice on historical sites. Despite the government's interest in the issue of the inclusivity of historical sites, the present development approach still requires a more integrated vision grounded on equity and inclusion and considering participatory decision-making processes.

Keywords: cultural tourism, historic built environment, policy and practice, inclusive design

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520 Social Security Reform and Management: The Case of Three Member Territories of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States

Authors: Cleopatra Gittens

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It has been recognized that some social security and national insurance systems in the Eastern Caribbean are experiencing ageing populations and economic and other crises that will present a financial challenge of being unable to pay pension benefits in fifteen to twenty years. This has implications for the fiscal and economic positions of the countries themselves. Hence, organizations would need to address the issue urgently. The study adds to the body of knowledge on social security systems and social security reforms in small island developing states (SIDS). It also makes recommendations for the types of reforms that social security systems in other SIDS can implement given their special circumstances. Secondary research is used to gather financial and other related information on three social security schemes in the Eastern Caribbean. Actuarial and financial reports and other documents of the social security systems are analysed to obtain financial and static data on each of the schemes. The findings show that the three schemes studied are experiencing steady increases in benefit expenditure versus contributions and increasing pensioner to insured ratios. The schemes will deplete their reserves between 2038 and 2050. Two of the schemes have increased their retirement age while the other has not embarked on any reforms. One scheme has made changes to its contribution percentages. Due to their small size, small populations and other unique circumstances, the social security schemes in the identified territories are not likely to be able to take advantage of all of the reform initiatives that the developed world embarked on when faced with similar problems. These schemes will need to make incremental changes that align with the timeframes recommended by the actuarial studies.

Keywords: benefits, pension, small island developing states, social security reform

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519 Green Public Procurement in Open Access and Traditional Journals: A Comparative Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: Alonso-Cañadas J., Galán-Valdivieso F., Saraite-Sariene L., García-Tabuyo M., Alonso-Morales N.

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Green Public Procurement (GPP) has recently gained attention in the academic and policy arenas since climate change has shown the need to be addressed by both private companies and public entities. Such growing interest motivates this article, aiming to explore the most influential journals, publishers, categories, and topics, as well as the recent trends and future research lines in GPP. Based on the Web of Science database, 578 articles from 2004 to February 2022 devoted to GPP are analyzed using Bibliometrix, an R-tool to perform bibliometric analysis, and Google’s Big Query and Data Studio. This article introduces a variety of findings. First, the most influential journals by far are “Journal of Cleaner Production” and “Sustainability,” differing in that the latter is open access while the former publishes via traditional subscription. This result also occurs regarding the main publishers (Elsevier and MDPI). These features lead us to split the sample into open access journals and traditional journals to deepen into the similarities and differences between them, confirming that traditional journals exhibit a higher degree of influence in the literature than their open access counterparts in terms of the number of documents, number of citations and impact (according to the H index). Second, this research also highlights the recent emergence of green-related terms (sustainable, environment) and, parallelly, the increase in categorizing GPP papers in “green” WoS’ categories, particularly since 2019. Finally, a number of related topics are emerging and will lead the research, such as food security, infrastructures, and implementation barriers of GPP.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, green public procurement, open access, traditional journals

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518 Factors That Contribute to Differences in Climate Change Reporting

Authors: Petra F. A. Dilling, Sinan Caykoylu

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The aim of this study was to shed light on the understanding of the factors determining a company’s disclosure on climate change reporting. The underlying study examines the effect of gender diversity and the mediating effect of female representation in management and on the board of directors and the existence of a dedicated sustainability board committee. To test the study’s objectives, the authors use a global sample of the largest companies and their reporting for the year 2020. The results suggest that corporate female participation has a significant influence on the quality of climate change reporting. In addition, having a dedicated sustainability board committee also significantly impacts the non-financial disclosure of climate change information.

Keywords: climate change, non-financial reporting, governance, board diversity, sustainability, CSR

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