Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 371

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Social and Business Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

371 Mythological Influences on the Works of J. R. R. Tolkien: A Scrutiny of Middle-Earth Stories

Authors: Ali Mohammadi

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to investigate the influence of mythology on J.R.R. Tolkien's literary works in general and on Middle-Earth in particular. Moreover, despite the fact that mythology is usually regarded as a thing of the past predominantly found in the early works of literature, this inquiry reveals that how modern literary works can artistically benefit from mythological elements of Old English Era so as to enrich their content and stand out as innovative masterpieces. Indeed, having been a philologist and well-acquainted with mythological literature, Tolkien paved the way for a novel understanding of literature by bridging the gap between the old and the new. In the end, it was concluded that had mythology not been utilised by Tolkien, his works, and on top of all, Middle-Earth, would not have turned into a modern literary showpiece.

Keywords: Literature, Mythology, Middle-Earth, Tolkien

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370 The Consequences of COVID-19 Crisis on Informal Workers in Brazil: An Analysis of Emergency Aid from the Government

Authors: Michele Romanello

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COVID-19 has spread rapidly in Brazil since March 2020, making the country one of the most affected in the world by the pandemic. From an economic point of view, Brazil came from a pre-pandemic period characterized by low or negative growth, with a resulting increase in the number of unemployed and informal workers. This paper considers lockdown implementation in the situation of the large presence of informality in the economy. The objective of the paper is to analyze how the country has tried to help workers affected by economic crisis after the implementation of measures against COVID-19 and whether the emergency assistance from the government has been adequate to contain the increase of informal workers and unemployed. The methodology used in this paper is survival analysis. Through this methodology, the formality – informality, and informality – unemployment transitions are analyzed. This analysis draws data from the Continuous National Household Sample Survey (Continuous PNAD) and from the National Household Sample Survey COVID-19 (PNAD COVID-19) covering the period of January 2020 – July 2020. The results indicate that emergency aid has been not sufficient to reduce the transitions of workers from formal to informal jobs and from informal jobs to unemployment. Emergency aid has been not sufficient considering the previous situation of the country, with levels of poverty and inequality very high. In the next months, another fundamental determinant of the income trajectory in the context of the COVID-19 crisis will be the continuity of the emergency aid, especially considering the fiscal adjustment policy pursued by the government. Therefore, the current negative portrait may be even worse in the coming months.

Keywords: Informality, Brazil, survival analysis, COVID-19

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369 Tourist Attraction through Agricultural Way of Life: A Case Study at Tra Que Village, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

Authors: Ha Van Trung, Suchint Simaraks

Abstract:

Agro-tourism is a form of rural tourism that has actively developed in recent years. Tra Que vegetable village has developed this type of tourism to meet the needs of visitors to visit and experience. However, in the process of agricultural tourism development, Tra Que village is facing many issues related to the agricultural way of life, affecting the attraction of tourists. The purpose of this study is to find those issues. The survey questionnaire of 71 households and a semi-structured group interview of 30 households has been applied for the data collection. Research results show that there is a shortage of young workers, lack of training in tourism and agricultural production, and households only exploit a few agricultural activities for tourism. The number of households receiving tourists tends to decrease, and the number of households selling products to tourists at farms accounts for a small proportion. These will affect sustainable agro-tourism development in the future. Focusing on training local households in tourism and agricultural production, encourage young generation to preserve the agricultural way of life, upgrade infrastructure and public services, develop agro-products and tourism services will contribute to the sustainable development of agro-tourism in Tra Que vegetable village in the future.

Keywords: Agro-tourism, way of life, Vietnamese tourists, Tra Que vegetable village

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368 Towards Sustainable Evolution of Bioeconomy: The Role of Technology and Innovation Management

Authors: Ronald Orth, Johanna Haunschild, Sara Tsog

Abstract:

The bioeconomy is an inter- and cross-disciplinary field covering a large number and wide scope of existing and emerging technologies. It has a great potential to contribute to the transformation process of industry landscape and ultimately drive the economy towards sustainability. However, bioeconomy per se is not necessarily sustainable and technology should be seen as an enabler rather than panacea to all our ecological, social and economic issues. Therefore, to draw and maximize benefits from bioeconomy in terms of sustainability, we propose that innovative activities should encompass not only novel technologies and bio-based new materials but also multifocal innovations. For multifocal innovation endeavors, innovation management plays a substantial role, as any innovation emerges in a complex iterative process where communication and knowledge exchange among relevant stake holders has a pivotal role. The knowledge generation and innovation are although at the core of transition towards a more sustainable bio-based economy, to date, there is a significant lack of concepts and models that approach bioeconomy from the innovation management approach. The aim of this paper is therefore two-fold. First, it inspects the role of transformative approach in the adaptation of bioeconomy that contributes to the environmental, ecological, social and economic sustainability. Second, it elaborates the importance of technology and innovation management as a tool for smooth, prompt and effective transition of firms to the bioeconomy. We conduct a qualitative literature study on the sustainability challenges that bioeconomy entails thus far using Science Citation Index and based on grey literature, as major economies e.g. EU, USA, China and Brazil have pledged to adopt bioeconomy and have released extensive publications on the topic. We will draw an example on the forest based business sector that is transforming towards the new green economy more rapidly as expected, although this sector has a long-established conventional business culture with consolidated and fully fledged industry. Based on our analysis we found that a successful transition to sustainable bioeconomy is conditioned on heterogenous and contested factors in terms of stakeholders , activities and modes of innovation. In addition, multifocal innovations occur when actors from interdisciplinary fields engage in intensive and continuous interaction where the focus of innovation is allocated to a field of mutually evolving socio-technical practices that correspond to the aims of the novel paradigm of transformative innovation policy. By adopting an integrated and systems approach as well as tapping into various innovation networks and joining global innovation clusters, firms have better chance of creating an entire new chain of value added products and services. This requires professionals that have certain capabilities and skills such as: foresight for future markets, ability to deal with complex issues, ability to guide responsible R&D, ability of strategic decision making, manage in-depth innovation systems analysis including value chain analysis. Policy makers, on the other hand, need to acknowledge the essential role of firms in the transformative innovation policy paradigm.

Keywords: Sustainability, Bioeconomy, Innovation and Technology Management, multifocal innovation, transformative innovation policy

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367 An Integrated Emergency Management System for the Tourism Industry in Oman

Authors: Majda Al Salti

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Tourism industry is considered globally as one of the leading industries due to its noticeable contribution to countries' gross domestic product (GDP) and job creation. However, tourism is vulnerable to crisis and disaster that requires its preparedness. With its limited capabilities, there is a need to improve links and the understanding between the tourism industry and the emergency services, thus facilitating future emergency response to any potential incident. This study aims to develop the concept of an integrated emergency management system for the tourism industry. The study used face-to-face semi-structured interviews to evaluate the level of crisis and disaster preparedness of the tourism industry in Oman. The findings suggested that there is a lack of understanding of crisis and disaster management, and hence preparedness level among Oman Tourism Authorities appears to be under-expectation. Therefore, a clear need for tourism sector inter- and intra-integration and collaboration is important in the pre-disaster stage. The need for such integrations can help the tourism industry in Oman to prepare for future incidents as well as identifying its requirements in time of crisis for effective response.

Keywords: Tourism, Disaster, emergency Services, Crisis

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366 COVID-19 Case: A Definition of Infodemia through Online Italian Journalism

Authors: Concetta Papapicco

Abstract:

The spreading of new Coronavirus (COVID-19) in addition to becoming a global phenomenon, following the declaration of a pandemic state, has generated excessive access to information, sometimes not thoroughly screened, which makes it difficult to navigate a given topic because of the difficulty of finding reliable sources. As a result, there is a high level of contagion, understood as the spread of the virus, but also as the spread of information in a viral and harmful way, which prompted the World Health Organization to coin the term Infodemia to give 'a name' the phenomenon of excessive information. With neologism 'Infodemia', the World Health Organization (OMS) wanted, in these days when fear of the coronavirus is raging, point out that perhaps the greatest danger of global society in the age of social media. This phenomenon is the distortion of reality in the rumble of echoes and comments of the global community on real or often invented facts. The general purpose of the exploratory study is to investigate how the coronavirus situation is described from journalistic communication. Starting from La Repubblica online, as a reference journalistic magazine, as a specific objective, the research aims to understand the way in which journalistic communication describes the phenomenon of the COVID-19 virus spread, the spread of contagion and restrictive measures of social distancing in the Italian context. The study starts from the hypothesis that if the circulation of information helps to create a social representation of the phenomenon, the excessive accessibility to sources of information (Infodemia) can be modulated by the 'how' the phenomenon is described by the journalists. The methodology proposed, in fact, in the exploratory study is a quanti-qualitative (mixed) method. A Content Analysis with the SketchEngine software is carried out first. In support of the Content Analysis, a Diatextual Analysis was carried out. The Diatextual Analysis is a qualitative analysis useful to detect in the analyzed texts, that is the online articles of La Repubblica on the topic of coronavirus, Subjectivity, Argomentativity, and Mode. The research focuses mainly on 'Mode' or 'How' are the events related to coronavirus in the online articles of La Repubblica about COVID-19 phenomenon. The results show the presence of the contrast vision about COVID-19 situation in Italy.

Keywords: coronavirus, Italian infodemia, La Republica online, mix method

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365 Integration of Knowledge and Metadata for Complex Data Warehouses and Big Data

Authors: Jean Christian Ralaivao, Fabrice Razafindraibe, Hasina Rakotonirainy

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This document constitutes a resumption of work carried out in the field of complex data warehouses (DW) relating to the management and formalization of knowledge and metadata. It offers a methodological approach for integrating two concepts, knowledge and metadata, within the framework of a complex DW architecture. The objective of the work considers the use of the technique of knowledge representation by description logics and the extension of Common Warehouse Metamodel (CWM) specifications. This will lead to a fallout in terms of the performance of a complex DW. Three essential aspects of this work are expected, including the representation of knowledge in description logics and the declination of this knowledge into consistent UML diagrams while respecting or extending the CWM specifications and using XML as pivot. The field of application is large but will be adapted to systems with heterogeneous, complex, and unstructured content and, moreover, requiring a great (re)use of knowledge such as medical data warehouses.

Keywords: Knowledge, Integration, Metadata, data warehouse, Description Logics

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364 Covid -19 Pandemic and Impact on Public Spaces of Tourism and Hospitality in Dubai- an Exploratory Study from a Design Perspective

Authors: Manju Bala Jassi

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The Covid 19 pandemic has badly mauled Dubai’s GDP heavily dependent on hospitality, tourism, entertainment, logistics, property and the retail sectors. In the context of the World Health protocols on social distancing for better maintenance of health and hygiene, the revival of the battered tourism and hospitality sectors has serious lessons for designers- interiors and public places. The tangible and intangible aesthetic elements and design –ambiance, materials, furnishings, colors, lighting and interior with architectural design issues of tourism and hospitality need a rethink to ensure a memorable tourist experience. Designers ought to experiment with sustainable places of tourism and design, develop, build and projects are aesthetic and leave as little negative impacts on the environment and public as possible. In short, they ought to conceive public spaces that makes use of little untouched materials and energy, and creates pollution and waste that are minimal. The spaces can employ healthier and more resource-efficient prototypes of construction, renovation, operation, maintenance, and demolition and thereby mitigate the environment impacts of the construction activities and it is sustainable These measures encompass the hospitality sector that includes hotels and restaurants which has taken the hardest fall from the pandemic. The paper sought to examine building energy efficiency and materials and design employed in public places, green buildings to achieve constructive sustainability and to establish the benefits of utilizing energy efficiency, green materials and sustainable design; to document diverse policy interventions, design and Spatial dimensions of tourism and hospitality sectors; to examine changes in the hospitality, aviation sector especially from a design perspective regarding infrastructure or operational constraints and additional risk-mitigation measures; to dilate on the nature of implications for interior designers and architects to design public places to facilitate sustainable tourism and hospitality while balancing convenient space and their operations' natural surroundings. The qualitative research approach was adopted for the study. The researcher collected and analyzed data in continuous iteration. Secondary data was collected from articles in journals, trade publications, government reports, newspaper/ magazine articles, policy documents etc. In depth interviews were conducted with diverse stakeholders. Preliminary data indicates that designers have started imagining public places of tourism and hospitality against the backdrop of the government push and WHO guidelines. For instance, with regard to health, safety, hygiene and sanitation, Emirates, the Dubai-based airline has augmented health measures at the Dubai International Airport and on board its aircraft. It has leveraged high tech/ Nano-tech, social distancing to encourage least human contact, flexible design layouts to limit the occupancy. The researcher organized the data into thematic categories and found that the Government of Dubai has initiated comprehensive measures in the hospitality, tourism and aviation sectors in compliance with the WHO guidelines.

Keywords: Design, Tourism, hospitality, Public Spaces, Dubai, Covid 19

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363 The Influence of Activity Selection and Travel Distance on Forest Recreation Policies

Authors: Mark Morgan, Christine Li, Shuangyu Xu, Jenny McCarty

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The National Wild and Scenic Rivers System was created by the U.S. Congress in 1968 (Public Law 90-542; 16 U.S.C. 1271 et seq.) to preserve outstanding natural, cultural, and recreational values of some U.S. rivers in a free-flowing condition for the enjoyment of present and future generations. This Act is notable for safeguarding the special character of these rivers while supporting management action that encourages public participation for co-creating river protection goals and strategies. This is not an easy task. To meet the challenges of modern ecosystem management, federal resource agencies must address many legal, environmental, economic, political, and social issues. The U.S. Forest Service manages a 44-mile section of the Eleven Point National Scenic River (EPR) in southern Missouri, mainly for outdoor recreation purposes. About half of the acreage is in private lands, while the remainder flows through the Mark Twain National Forest. Private land along the river is managed by scenic easements to ensure protection of scenic values and natural resources, without public access. A portion of the EPR lies adjacent to a 16,500-acre tract known as the Irish Wilderness. The spring-fed river has steep bluffs, deep pools, clear water, and a slow current, making it an ideal setting for outdoor enthusiasts. A 10-month visitor study was conducted at five access points along the EPR during 2019 so the US Forest Service could update their river management plan. A mail-back survey was administered to 560 on-site visitors, yielding a response rate of 53%. Although different types of visitors use the EPR, boating and fishing were the predominant forms of outdoor recreation. Some river use was from locals, but other visitors came from farther away. Formulating unbiased policies for outdoor recreation is difficult because managers must assign relative values to recreational activities and travel distance. Because policymaking is a subjective process, management decisions can affect user groups in different ways (i.e., boaters vs. fishers; proximate vs. distal visitors), as seen through a GIS analysis.

Keywords: Policy, Forest Recreation, Activity Selection, travel distance

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362 Neural Network Approach For Clustering Host Community: Based on Perceptions Toward Tourism, Their Satisfaction Level and Demographic Attributes in Iran (Lahijan)

Authors: Ali Rajabzadeh, Nasibeh Mohammadpour, Adel Azar, Hamid Zargham Borujeni

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Generally, various industries development depends on their stakeholders and beneficiaries supports. One of the most important stakeholders in tourism industry ( which has become one of the most important lucrative and employment-generating activities at the international level these days) are host communities in tourist destination which are affected and effect on this industry development. Recognizing host community and its segmentations can be important to get their support for future decisions and policy making. In order to identify these segments, in this study, clustering of the residents has been done by using some tools that are designed to encounter human complexities and have ability to model and generalize complex systems without any needs for the initial clusters’ seeds like classic methods. Neural networks can help to meet these expectations. The research have been planned to design neural networks-based mathematical model for clustering the host community effectively according to multi criteria, and identifies differences among segments. In order to achieve this goal, the residents’ segmentation has been done by demographic characteristics, their attitude towards the tourism development, the level of satisfaction and the type of their support in this field. The applied method is self-organized neural networks and the results have compared with K-means. As the results show, the use of Self- Organized Map (SOM) method provides much better results by considering the Cophenetic correlation and between clusters variance coefficients. Based on these criteria, the host community is divided into five sections with unique and distinctive features, which are in the best condition (in comparison other modes) according to Cophenetic correlation coefficient of 0.8769 and between clusters variance of 0.1412.

Keywords: Tourism, Clustering, SOM, resident, Artificial Nural Network

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361 The Impact of COVID-19 on Italian Tourism: the Current Scenario, Opportunity and Future Tourism Organizational Strategies

Authors: Marco Camilli

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This article examines the impact of the pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 in the tourism sector in Italy, analyzing the current scenario, the government decisions and the private company reaction for the summer season 2020. The framework of the data analyzed shows how massive it’s the impact of the pandemic outbreak in the tourism revenue, and the weaknesses of the measures proposed. Keywords Travel &Tourism, Transportation, Sustainability, COVID-19, Businesses Introduction The current COVID-19 scenario shows a shocking situation for the tourism and transportation sectors: it could be the most affected by the Coronavirus in Italy. According to forecasts, depending on the duration of the epidemic outbreak and the lockdown strategy applied by the Government, businesses in the supply chain could lose between 24 and 66 billion in turnover in the period of 2020-21, with huge diversified impacts at the national and regional level. Many tourist companies are on the verge of survival and if there are no massive measures by the government they risk closure. Data analysis The tourism and transport sector could be among the sectors most damaged by Covid-19 in Italy. Considering the two-year period 2020-21, companies operating in the travel & tourism sector (Tour operator, Travel Agencies, Hotel, Guides, Bus Company, etc..) could in suffer losses in revenues of 24 to 64 billion euros, especially in the sectors such as the travel agencies, hotel and rental. According to Statista Research Department, from April 2020 estimated that the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic will have a significant impact on revenues of the tourism industry in Italy. Revenues are expected to decrease by over 40 billion euros in the first semester of 2020, compared to the same period of the previous year. According to the study, hotel and non-hotel accommodations will experience the highest loss. Revenues of this sector are expected to decrease by 13 billion euros compared to the first semester of 2019 when accommodations registered revenues for about 17 billion euros. According to Statista.com, in 2020, Italy is expected to register a decrease of roughly 28.5 million tourist arrivals due to the impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) on the country's tourist sector. According to the estimate, the region of Veneto will record the highest drop with a decrease of roughly 4.61 million arrivals. Similarly, Lombardy is expected to register a decrease of about 3.87 million arrivals in 2020.

Keywords: Transportation, Sustainability, Travel and Tourism, Businesses, COVID-19

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360 Palestine Smart Tourism Augmented Reality Mobile Application

Authors: Murad Al-Rajab, Sherin Hazboun, Azhar Al-Hamamreh, Nirmeen Odeh, Siham Halaseh

Abstract:

Purpose: Tourism is considered an important sector for most countries while maintaining good tourism attractions can promote national economic development. The state of Palestine is historically considered a wealthy country full of many archeological places. In the city of Bethlehem, for example, the Church of the Nativity is the most important touristic site, but it does not have enough technology development to attract tourists. In this paper, we propose a smart mobile application named 'Pal-STAR' (Palestine Smart Tourist Augmented Reality) as an innovative solution which targets the tourists and assists them to make a trip inside the Church of the Nativity, by means of augmented reality using a virtual tourist guide reflecting the real world of the church while explaining the historical information of the place in a smart, easy, effective, and a user-friendly way. Design/Methodology/Approach: Our proposed application is compatible with multiple mobile platforms and is considered user friendly. Findings: The Application will improve the practice of the tourism sector in the holy land, it will also increase the number of tourists visiting the church of the nativity and will ease the access to the historical data, which was difficult to gain using traditional tourism guidance. Originality/Value: The value that tourism adds to a country cannot be denied, and the more technologically advanced incorporated in this sector, the more it becomes better to serves the country’s tourism. Palestine’s economy is heavily dependent on tourism in many of its main cities despite of several limitations; however, it is still in need of technological development that will help flourish this sector. Our mobile application would definitely have a good impact on the development of the tourism sector by creating an Augmented Reality environment for the tourists inside the church, help them navigate and learn about the holy places in a non-traditional way with the use of a virtual tourist guide.

Keywords: Tourism, Augmented Reality, smartphones, Palestine, tourists guide

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359 Motives and Barriers of Using Airbnb: Findings from Mixed Method Approach

Authors: Mohamed Abdel Salam, Ghada Mohammed, Passent Tantawi

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The study aimed to investigate the impact of motives and barriers for Egyptian users to use Airbnb as a platform of peer-to-peer accommodation instead of hotels on overall attitude towards Airbnb. A sequential mixed-methods approach was adopted to this study and it proposed a comprehensive research model adapted from both literature and results of qualitative phase and then tested via an online questionnaire. The findings revealed that, motives, price, home benefits, privacy, and online reviews significantly explained overall attitude towards Airbnb, while the main barriers were respectively: perceived risk and distrust in which they can predict the overall attitude. While from the subjective norms, only social influence can predict behavioral intention to use Airbnb. The study may serve as a practical reference for practitioners as well as researchers when developing programs and strategies to manage Airbnb consumers' needs and decision process. Some of the main conclusions drawn from this study are that variety was one of the major things that users like about Airbnb and the most important motives are the functional ones like price rather than the experiential ones like authenticity.

Keywords: barriers, Sharing Economy, disruptive innovation, motives, Airbnb

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358 Interaction or Conflict: Addressing Modern Trans-Himalayan Pastoralism and Wildlife

Authors: Amit Kaushik

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Equus kiang kiang is an indigenous large-bodied herbivore species, and in India, it is restricted to limited geographies of Ladakh. One of such areas is the Tsokar Basin. With the rise in global pashmina demand, the livestock numbers have grown significantly. Previous studies have reported conflict between a nomadic pastoral community, the Changpas, and kiang. Absentee pastoralism (in lieu of pure pastoralism) and tourism are two major economic activities among the local people. However, the social, economic, political, and ecological changes are inevitable in such a contemporary system. The study examines several factors influencing the local pastoral economy and focuses on the presence of two non-human cohabitants, kiang, and the wolf. This study used semi-structured interviews and vehicle count method in four different seasons. The results show that people perceived kiang as a threat but also reveal a level of tolerance towards them. The locals predicted high kiang numbers ranging from 200-3000 in the basin and contrastingly ranked them behind wolves, which are very few in numbers. Due to a lack of scientific pieces of evidence, the kiang population status remains obscure, and local peoples’ concerns remain unaddressed. But how this competitive dysfunctionality does take place? On one side, the rural development or the animal husbandry department aims at developing the area by providing stall-feed and tourism, whereas, on another side, the wildlife department emphasizes wildlife conservation. Therefore, the managers and planners may need to be cautious about the local socio-ecological complexities and may require inter-departmental communications. The study concludes that an interdisciplinary inquiry may be an important tool in understanding such a precarious situation and may be used in the policy-making processes.

Keywords: Interdisciplinary Approach, Coexistence, policymaking, human-livestock-wildlife interactions, kiang, tsokar

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357 Importance of Community Involvement in Tourism Development Activities

Authors: Lombuso P. Shabalala

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This research paper investigates the importance of community involvement in tourism development activities from the initial stage. Community is defined as a group of people living in the same area and practicing common ownership and practices or with a commonality such as norms, religion, values, customs, or identity. Globalisation has restructured economic, political, and social relationships at the local level, which impacts community involvement in activities taking place in their own space. Although social relationships and interests are no longer limited to local communities, the power of place remains. Whereas, tourism is considered as an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational, and economic sectors of national societies and their international relations. The existing literature has indicated that the four types of motivation in community involvement are best differentiated by identifying the unique ultimate goal for each motivation. In a nutshell, the ultimate goal for egoism is to increase one's own welfare; altruism is to increase the welfare of another individual or individuals; collectivism is aimed at increasing the welfare of a group, and the principlism is to uphold one or more moral principles. As a base of community involvement, each of these four forms of motivation exhibits its own strengths and weaknesses to be acknowledged. Purposive sampling was suitable to select the fourteen descendant group representatives. The representatives included chief/s, headman, senior descendants’ member, and members of the traditional council who descends from MWCHS. The qualitative research design was adopted for the study in the form of semi-structured interviews. Community development is a social process involving residents in activities designed to improve their quality of life. The key finding of the research is the importance of involving communities, in particular, the immediate community members from the initial stage of any proposed tourism development activity. Without a doubt, the immediate communities are well informed about the dynamics of the area (economically, politically, and socially). Therefore, the finding suggests that communities are in a better position to advise project managers on possible potential tourism developments activities that can address the real needs and benefit the community, instead of investing resources in a development that will not benefit or add any value in the lives of the targeted communities. It must be noted that the power of the place where the development will be implemented remains with the community. Furthermore, community support and buy-in are crucial to the success of prospective tourism development. In conclusion, it cannot be denied that community involvement comes with its own challenges, contrary to greater sustainable benefits that can be realized prior to articulation. The study suggests for project managers to ensure a fair and transparent community involvement process. Fair distribution of meaningful roles could secure trust and result in these communities to view the proposed development as their own.

Keywords: Development, Tourism, Communities, involvement

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356 The Nexus between Social Media Usage and Overtourism: A Survey Study Applied to Hangzhou in China

Authors: Song Qingfeng

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This research aims to seek the relationship between social media usage and overtourism from the perspective of tourists based on the theory of Maslow’s hierarchy needs. A questionnaire is formulated to collect data from 400 tourists who have visited the Hangzhou city in China in the last 12 months. Structural Equation Model (SEM) is employed to analysis data. The finding is that social media usage aggravates overtourism. Specifically, social media is used by tourists to information-seeking, entertainment, self-presentation, and socialization for traveling. These roles of social media would evoke the traveling intention to a specific destination at a certain time, which further influences the tourist flow. When the tourist flow concentrate, the overtourism would be aggravated. This study contributes to the destination managers to deep-understand the cause-effect relationship between social media and overtourism in order to address this problem.

Keywords: Social Media, SEM, Hangzhou, overtourism, tourist flow, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

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355 Followership Styles in the U.S. Hospitality Workforce: A Multi-Generational Comparison Study

Authors: Yinghua Huang, Tsu-Hong Yen

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The latest advance in leadership research has revealed that leadership is co-created through the combined action of leading and following. The role of followers is as important as leaders in the leadership process. However, the previous leadership studies often conceptualize leadership as a leader-centric process, while the role of followers is largely neglected in the literature. Until recently, followership studies receives more attention because the character and behavior of followers are as vital as the leader during the leadership process. Yet, there is a dearth of followership research in the context of tourism and hospitality industries. Therefore, this study seeks to fill in the gap of knowledge and investigate the followership styles in the U.S. hospitality workforce. In particular, the objectives of this study are to identify popular followership practices among hospitality employees and evaluate hospitality employees' followership styles using Kelley’s followership typology framework. This study also compared the generational differences in followership styles among hospitality employees. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the workforce in the lodging and foodservice sectors consists of around 12% baby boomers, 29% Gen Xs, 23% Gen Ys, and 36% Gen Zs in 2019. The diversity of workforce demographics in the U.S. hospitality industry calls for more attention to understand the generational differences in followership styles and organizational performance. This study conducted an in-depth interview and a questionnaire survey to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. A snowball sampling method was used to recruit participants working in the hospitality industry in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. A total of 120 hospitality employees participated in this study, including 22 baby boomers, 32 Gen Xs, 30 Gen Ys, and 36 Gen Zs. 45% of the participants were males, and 55% were female. The findings of this study identified good followership practices across the multi-generational participants. For example, a Gen Y participant said that 'followership involves learning and molding oneself after another person usually an expert in an area of interest. I think of followership as personal and professional development. I learn and get better by hands-on training and experience'. A Gen X participant said that 'I can excel by not being fearful of taking on unfamiliar tasks and accepting challenges.' Furthermore, this study identified five typologies of Kelley’s followership model among the participants: 45% exemplary followers, 13% pragmatist followers, 2% alienated followers, 18% passive followers, and 23% conformist followers. The generational differences in followership styles were also identified. The findings of this study contribute to the hospitality human resource literature by identifying the multi-generational perspectives of followership styles among hospitality employees. The findings provide valuable insights for hospitality leaders to understand their followers better. Hospitality leaders were suggested to adjust their leadership style and communication strategies based on employees' different followership styles.

Keywords: followership, generational diversity, hospitality workforce, Kelley’s followership topology

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354 The Impact of Culture on Tourists’ Evaluation of Hotel Service Experiences

Authors: Eid Alotaibi

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of tourists’ culture on perception and evaluation of hotel service experience and behavioral intentions. Drawing on Hofested’s cultural dimensions, this study seeks to further contribute towards understanding the effect of culture on perception and evaluation of hotels’ services, and whether there are differences between Saudi and European tourists’ perceptions of hotel services evaluation. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this study. Data were collected from tourists staying in five-star hotels in Saudi Arabia using the self-completion technique. The findings show that evaluations of hotel services differ from one culture to another. T-test results reveal that Saudis were more tolerant and reported significantly higher levels of satisfaction, were more likely to return and recommend the hotel, and perceived the price for the hotel stay as being good value for money as compared to their European counterparts. The sample was relatively small and specific to only five-star hotel evaluations. As a result, findings cannot be generalized to the wider tourist population. The results of this research have important implications for management within the Saudi hospitality industry. The study contributes to the tourist cultural theory by emphasizing the relative importance of cultural dimensions in-service evaluation. The author argues that no studies could be identified that compare Saudis and Europeans in their evaluations of their experiences staying at hotels. Therefore, the current study would enhance understanding of the effects of cultural factors on service evaluations and provide valuable input for international market segmentation and resource allocation in the Saudi hotel industry.

Keywords: Culture, Hotel Industry, Service Experience, tourist, Hofested’s cultural dimensions

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353 A Niche Sustainable Tourism Product: Stakeholder Perceptions on Sustainable Conference Tourism in Cyprus

Authors: Xenia I. Loizidou, Anthi Gavriel, Demetra Petsa

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The tourism industry is a significant contributor to Cyprus's Gross Domestic Product. However, as the main tourism product is 'sun and sea', the industry is significantly unsustainable, with the majority of tourists (approx. 90%) concentrated in coastal areas over a short period of time, causing negative environmental, social, and economic impacts. The newly established Cypriot Deputy Ministry of Tourism aims to diversify the Cypriot tourism industry by focusing on the development of niche tourism products that will elongate the touristic season and divert visitors to inland mountainous and rural areas. In this respect, conference and event tourism is an ideal product for development. The current paper presents the results of fieldwork carried out between January and March 2020 in Cyprus, with key stakeholders within the conference and event tourism sector. The work consisted of a survey and semi-structured interviews to determine the current level of sustainability within the conference tourism sector, the main barriers to the sector's development, as well as key stakeholder insights and suggestions for measures to improve the sector's sustainability. The results suggest that there is a general lack of understanding of the negative economic, environmental and social impacts associated with the organization of conventional conferences and events, compared to the positive impacts of sustainable conferences/events. There also seems to be a lack of awareness of actions that can be taken to make the conference and event sector more sustainable. Incentives, marketing, branding, and training are identified as some of the effective means to improve the sustainability of the Cypriot conference and event sector, as is the development of country-wide sustainability policy and a review and enforcement of national waste management legislation. The research outputs will be utilized for the development of targeted toolkits, training, and awareness-raising activities that will drive Cyprus towards becoming an international sustainable tourism destination.

Keywords: Tourism, Sustainability, conference, event

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352 Potentials of Ecotourism to Nature Conservation and Improvement of Livelihood of People around Ayikunnugba Waterfalls, Oke-Ila Orangun, Nigeria

Authors: Funmilola Ajani, I. A. Ayodele, O.A. Filade

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Tourism has direct, indirect and induced impacts on economic development and the industry is one of the most crucial tradable sectors in the world. The study was therefore carried out to assess the potentials of ecotourism to nature conservation and its contributions to the improvement of the livelihood of Oke- Ila Orangun community. One hundred and fifty residents were chosen by stratified random sampling as respondents. Respondents awareness of ecotourism was assessed using an 8-point scale while respondents acceptance of ecotourism was assessed using a 14-point scale. Contributions to improvement of livelihood of residents and perceived constraints identified by residents to the development of the water fall and socio-economic variables among others were also obtained. Also, in-depth interview was conducted with the king of Ayikunnugba. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency count, mean and percentages. Correlation analysis was used to determine whether or not a relationship exists between two variables at 0.05 level of significance. Perception of respondents based on the awareness of ecotourism and contributions to livelihood development was high (78.3%). A significant relationship exists between acceptance of ecotourism and its contributions to peoples’ livelihood. Also, relationship between constraints encountered by respondents and its contributions to peoples livelihood is highly significant(r =0.546; P =0.00). Majority (71.3%) of the respondents believed that the development of the area will not lead to environmental pollution. Public- Private- Partnership (PPP) is therefore recommended so as to enable the recreation site to meet international standard in terms of development and management.

Keywords: Nature Conservation, awareness, Ayikunnugba water fall, ecotourism constraints

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351 Application of Machine Learning Models to Predict Couchsurfers on Free Homestay Platform Couchsurfing

Authors: Yuanxiang Miao

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Couchsurfing is a free homestay and social networking service accessible via the website and mobile app. Couchsurfers can directly request free accommodations from others and receive offers from each other. However, it is typically difficult for people to make a decision that accepts or declines a request when they receive it from Couchsurfers because they do not know each other at all. People are expected to meet up with some Couchsurfers who are kind, generous, and interesting while it is unavoidable to meet up with someone unfriendly. This paper utilized classification algorithms of Machine Learning to help people to find out the Good Couchsurfers and Not Good Couchsurfers on the Couchsurfing website. By knowing the prior experience, like Couchsurfer’s profiles, the latest references, and other factors, it became possible to recognize what kind of the Couchsurfers, and furthermore, it helps people to make a decision that whether to host the Couchsurfers or not. The value of this research lies in a case study in Kyoto, Japan in where the author has hosted 54 Couchsurfers, and the author collected relevant data from the 54 Couchsurfers, finally build a model based on classification algorithms for people to predict Couchsurfers. Lastly, the author offered some feasible suggestions for future research.

Keywords: Machine Learning, classification algorithm, couchsurfing, Couchsurfers prediction, hospitality tourism platform, hospitality sciences

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350 Research on Perceptual Features of Couchsurfers on New Hospitality Tourism Platform Couchsurfing

Authors: Yuanxiang Miao

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This paper aims to examine the perceptual features of couchsurfers on a new hospitality tourism platform, the free homestay website couchsurfing. As a local host, the author has accepted 61 couchsurfers in Kyoto, Japan, and attempted to figure out couchsurfers' characteristics on perception by hosting them. Moreover, the methodology of this research is mainly based on in-depth interviews, by talking with couchsurfers, observing their behaviors, doing questionnaires, etc. Five dominant perceptual features of couchsurfers were identified: (1) Trusting; (2) Meeting; (3) Sharing; (4) Reciprocity; (5) Worries. The value of this research lies in figuring out a deeper understanding of the perceptual features of couchsurfers, and the author indeed hosted and stayed with 61 couchsurfers from 30 countries and areas over one year. Lastly, the author offers practical suggestions for future research.

Keywords: Hospitality Tourism, couchsurfing, depth interview, perceptual features

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349 Deterrents in Tourism Development in Pakistan: A Case Study of Northern Areas

Authors: Qurat Ul Ain Bashir

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Since the inception of Pakistan Tourism industry was not on developed level but afterwards 9/11 the tourism has declined rapidly in the country. Despite Northern areas full potential, rich historical and cultural heritage, natural beauty, museums, art galleries, hiking tracks, tourism is not getting that response in Pakistan, which it deserves. In fact Pakistan has been blessed with all the features that could make her a tourist destination. On the other side the attitude of the local people, socio-political condition, lack of facilities of international standards, media’s way of reporting about country, governments’ negligence etc has more adversely affected the international tourism than domestic tourism. From 2013 onward some developments in the said industry has been shown but that is not much encouraging. In 2017 approximately two million tourist visited Pakistan in comparison to 1.75 million in 2016. In the light of above debate the paper attempts to diagnose the causes which are not allowing the reasonable growth of tourism in Pakistan and suggests steps which must be taken to develop the industry through a large scale campaign and long term planning. The methodology about this research is quantitative with reference to description, analysis and recommendations. The material would be collected from the government publications, articles, surveys, tourist accounts, books, internet, magazines.

Keywords: Culture, Tourism, Infrastructure, Terrorism, barriers, Northern Areas

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348 The Significance of Oranyan Festival among the Oyo Yoruba

Authors: Emmanuel Bole Akinpelu

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Festival is a social event that takes place every year which showcase culture and other social activities that usually take place in an environment or town. However, Oranyan Festival is an annual event organized and celebrated in Oyo town in honor of Oranyan the great who is reputed to be the overall head of the Kings of the Yoruba. This event is attended by people from all works of life. The Oyos are used to celebrating various cultural festivals; like Ogun, Oya, Sango, Egungun, Obatala and others. However, Oranyan festival in Oyo is a recent development in honour of Oranyan. He was said to be powerful and an embodiment of a unique cultural tradition. The study examined the significance of the festival to the Oyo Yoruba group. Oyo Yoruba cultural heritage include; Ewi, Ijala, Traditional food ‘Amala and Gbegiri’, Ekun Iyawo, (Bridal Chants), Traditional Music, Traditional Dance, Traditional Game ‘Ayo Olopon’ Eke (Traditional wrestling) and others. Data for this work was gathered through archival sources as journals and relevant publications on the various Oyo Yoruba Traditional Art and Culture. The study is of the opinion that the festival has influence over the religion, Political, economic and other aspects of the modern day traditions. The study also revealed that Oranyan Festival made people to have a better understanding of their rich Cultural Heritage and promoted unity among all and sundry. It also promotes peace among the people. Conclusively, it promotes the rich Cultural Heritage of Oyo Yoruba’s both within and outside NIGERIA and the world at large.

Keywords: festival, Yoruba Oyo, arts and culture, Oranyan

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347 Leadership Styles in the Hotel Sector and Its Effect on Employees’ Creativity and Organizational Commitment

Authors: Hatem Radwan Ibrahim Radwan

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Leadership is crucial for hotel survival and success. It enables hotels to develop and compete effectively. This research intends to explore the implementation of six leadership styles by frontline hotel managers in four star hotels in Cairo and assess its impact on employees’ creativity and organizational commitment. The leadership patterns considered in this study includes: democratic, autocratic, laissez-faire, transformational, transactional, and ethical leaderships. Questionnaire was used as a research method to gather data. A structured survey was established and distributed on employees in Cairo’s four star hotels. A total of 284 questionnaire forms were returned and usable for statistical analysis. The results of this study identified that transactional and autocratic leadership were the prevalent styles used in four star hotels in Cairo. Two leadership styles proved to have significant high correlation and impact on employees’ creativity and organizational commitment including: transformational and democratic leadership. Besides, laissez-faire leadership was found had a smaller effect on employees’ creativity and ethical leadership had a lesser influence on employees’ commitment. The autocratic leadership had strong negative correlation and significant impact on both dependent variables. This research concludes that frontline hotel managers should adopt transformational and/or democratic leadership style in managing their subordinates.

Keywords: Creativity, Hotels, Leadership Styles, organizational commitment

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346 Analyzing the Efficiency of Initiatives Taken against Disinformation during Election Campaigns: Case Study of Young Voters

Authors: Fatima-Zohra Ghedir

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Social media platforms have been actively working on solutions and combined their efforts with media, policy makers, educators and researchers to protect citizens and prevent interferences in information, political discourses and elections. Facebook, for instance, deleted fake accounts, implemented fake accounts and fake content detection algorithms, partnered with news agencies to manually fact check content and changed its newsfeeds display. Twitter and Instagram regularly communicate on their efforts and notify their users of improvements and safety guidelines. More funds have been allocated to media literacy programs to empower citizens in prevision of the coming elections. This paper investigates the efficiency of these initiatives and analyzes the metrics to measure their success or failure. The objective is also to determine the segments of population more prone to fall in disinformation traps during the elections despite the measures taken over the last four years. This study will also examine the groups who were positively impacted by these measures. This paper relies on both desk and field methodologies. For this study, a survey was administered to French students aged between 17 and 29 years old. Semi-guided interviews were conducted on a similar audience. The analysis of the survey and of the interviews show that respondents were exposed to the initiatives described above and are aware of the existence of disinformation issues. However, they do not understand what disinformation really entails or means. For instance, for most of them, disinformation is synonymous of the opposite point of view without taking into account the truthfulness of the content. Besides, they still consume and believe the information shared by their friends and family, with little questioning about the ways their closed ones get informed.

Keywords: Social Media, disinformation, democratic elections, foreign interference, success metrics

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345 Tourism Economics and Tourism Development in Greece, in the Period of the Economic Adjustment Programmes

Authors: Aimilia Vlami

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This paper examines the tourist economic development of Greece on the basis of the analysis of the main characteristics of the financing and development processes and the spatial and temporal structure of supply and demand. Taking into consideration the evolution of the economic planning and the policy for the tourist development of Greece over time, we study at the same time: the composition, the changes and the dynamics of the hotel industry in the last 20 years and especially the period of the economic adjustment programmes, where tourism has become a key pillar of development. It is clearly evident that this paper is written in a specific economic situation, which directs as much the emphases as the flow of arguments around the central question of balance of interventions in the tourist space, between the need for planning and practice of policy for sustainable tourist growth and in the de facto adaptation of fragmentary and urgent interventions of shaping and transforming the tourist space, as they are shaped by the requirements of various institutions and interest groups.

Keywords: Development, hospitality, Economic Policy, Greece, tourism investments

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344 Comparing Hotels' Official Websites with Their Pages on Booking Sites: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Iman Shawky

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Hotel websites frequently aim at encouraging visitors to become potential guests by completing their booking procedures, and accordingly, they have been proved to be attractive and appealing. That might be due to the consideration of them as one of the direct efficacious tools to promote and sell hotels' facilities, besides building strong communication with guests to create unforgettable brand images. This study tried to find out a step for five-star and four-star hotels to develop their websites to meet their visitors' or guests' requirements for an effective site. In addition, it aimed at exploring to what extent hotels' official websites compared with their pages on hotel booking sites still influence visitors' or guests' desires to book. Besides, it also aimed at investigating to what extent visitors or guests widely trust and use those sites to accomplish their booking. Furthermore, it tried to explore to what extent visitors' or guests' preferences of those sites can influence on hotels' financial performance. To achieve these objectives, the researcher conducted an exploratory study by surfing both hotels' official websites and their pages on booking sites of such hotels in Alexandria city in Egypt to make a comparison between them. Moreover, another separate comparison was made on Arab and foreign guests' views conducted by using a questionnaire during the past seven months to investigate the effectiveness of hotels' official websites against their pages on booking sites to trust and motive them to book. The results indicated that hotels' pages on booking sites represented widely trusted and used sites compared with their official websites for achieving visitors' or guests' booking process, while a few other visitors or guests still trusted official hotel websites for completing their booking.

Keywords: five-star and four-star hotels, hotel booking sites, hotels' financial performance, hotels' official websites

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343 The Role of Leisure in Older Adults Transitioning to New Homes

Authors: Kristin Prentice, Carri Hand

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As the Canadian population ages and chronic health conditions continue to escalate, older adults will require various types of housing, such as long term care or retirement homes. Moving to a new home may require a change in leisure activities and social networks, which could be challenging to maintain identity and create a sense of home. Leisure has been known to help older adults maintain or increase their quality of life and life satisfaction and may help older adults in moving to new homes. Sense of home and identity within older adults' transitions to new homes are concepts that may also relate to leisure engagement. Literature is scant regarding the role of leisure in older adults moving to new homes and how the sense of home and identity inter-relate. This study aims to explore how leisure may play a role in older adults' transitioning to new homes, including how sense of home and identity inter-relate. An ethnographic approach will be used to understand the culture of older adults transitioning to new homes. This study will involve older adults who have recently relocated to a mid-sized city in Ontario, Canada. The study will focus on the older adult’s interactions with and connections to their home environment through leisure. Data collection will take place via video-conferencing and will include a narrative interview and two other interviews to discuss an activity diary of leisure engagement pre and post move and mental maps to capture spaces where participants engaged in leisure. Participants will be encouraged to share photographs of leisure engagement taken inside and outside their home to help understand the social spaces the participants refer to in their activity diaries and mental maps. Older adults attempt to adjust to their new homes by maintaining their identity, developing a sense of home through creating attachment to place, and maintaining social networks, all of which have been linked to engaging in leisure. This research will provide insight into the role of leisure in this transition process and the extent that the home and community can contribute to aiding their transition to the new home. This research will contribute to existing literature on the inter-relationships of leisure, sense of home, and identity and how they relate to older adults moving to new homes. This research also has potential for influencing policy and practice for meeting the housing needs of older adults.

Keywords: Identity, Transition, Leisure, Older Adults

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342 Cryptocurrency as a Payment Method in the Tourism Industry: A Comparison of Volatility, Correlation and Portfolio Performance

Authors: Shu-Han Hsu, Jiho Yoon, Chwen Sheu

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With the rapidly growing of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency, various industries which include tourism has added in cryptocurrency as the payment method of their transaction. More and more tourism companies accept payments in digital currency for flights, hotel reservations, transportation, and more. For travellers and tourists, using cryptocurrency as a payment method has become a way to circumvent costs and prevent risks. Understanding volatility dynamics and interdependencies between standard currency and cryptocurrency is important for appropriate financial risk management to assist policy-makers and investors in marking more informed decisions. The purpose of this paper has been to understand and explain the risk spillover effects between six major cryptocurrencies and the top ten most traded standard currencies. Using data for the daily closing price of cryptocurrencies and currency exchange rates from 7 August 2015 to 10 December 2019, with 1,133 observations. The diagonal BEKK model was used to analyze the co-volatility spillover effects between cryptocurrency returns and exchange rate returns, which are measures of how the shocks to returns in different assets affect each other’s subsequent volatility. The empirical results show there are co-volatility spillover effects between the cryptocurrency returns and GBP/USD, CNY/USD and MXN/USD exchange rate returns. Therefore, currencies (British Pound, Chinese Yuan and Mexican Peso) and cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Tether, Litecoin and Stellar) are suitable for constructing a financial portfolio from an optimal risk management perspective and also for dynamic hedging purposes.

Keywords: Cryptocurrencies, Exchange Rates, Blockchain, co-volatility effects, diagonal BEKK model, risk spillovers

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