Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 317

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Social and Business Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

317 The Impacts of Grassroots Museums on the Community: A Case Study

Authors: John Vella

Abstract:

The paper focuses on data elicited from the analysis of grassroots museums found on the Maltese Islands and southwest Sicily. The curators of these museums were interviewed. The paper deals with the positive and/or negative impacts curators felt such museums have on the community. Curators were also asked to state what factors or situations can facilitate or inhibit these museums from benefitting the community. The curators interviewed felt that grassroots museums leave a positive effect on the community. This impact would be greater if the resources were not limited. Curators retain that grassroots museums bring life to a place and its community. Likewise, they can be both a pedagogic tool for visitors and community and facilitators for changes in society. Grassroots museums can be as beneficial if they are sustained. Such grassroots museums can be more beneficial to communities once the State recognizes that grassroots initiatives like the museums under study are cultural initiatives which, while retaining their independence, need freedom to sustain and grow their community-oriented objectives.

Keywords: community, curator, grassroots, impacts, museums

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316 Importance-Implementation of Disability Management Practices in Hotels: The Moderating Effect of Team Orientation

Authors: Zakaria Elkhwesky, Islam E. Salem, Mona Barakat

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the importance of disability management practices (DMPs) and the level of implementation from viewpoints of food and beverage (F & B) managers, F and B entry-level employees, working in F & B departments, and human resources (HRs) managers in five-star hotels in Egypt. It also examined the moderating effect of team orientation (TO) between the importance and the implementation. Data were collected from 400 participants. The correlation proved to be significant, moderate, and positive between the importance and the implementation of DMPs. More, the findings revealed that the relationship between the importance and the implementation is significantly more positive under the condition of a high encouragement of TO.

Keywords: disability management practices, diversity management, team orientation, HR management, hospitality, and tourism operations

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315 Materials and Techniques of Anonymous Egyptian Polychrome Cartonnage Mummy Mask: A Multiple Analytical Study

Authors: Hanaa A. Al-Gaoudi, Hassan Ebeid

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The research investigates the materials and processes used in the manufacturing of an Egyptian polychrome cartonnage mummy mask with the aim of dating this object and establishing trade patterns of certain materials that were used and available at the time of ancient Egypt. This anonymous-source object was held in the basement storage of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (EMC) and has never been on display. Furthermore, there is no information available regarding its owner, provenance, date, and even the time of its possession by the museum. Moreover, the object is in a very poor condition where almost two-thirds of the mask was bent and has never received any previous conservation treatment. This research has utilized well-established multi-analytical methods to identify the considerable diversity of materials that have been used in the manufacturing of this object. These methods include Computed Tomography Scan (CT scan) to acquire detailed pictures of the inside physical structure and condition of the bended layers. Dino-Lite portable digital microscope, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), and the non-invasive imaging technique of multispectral imaging (MSI) to obtain information about the physical characteristics and condition of the painted layers and to examine the microstructure of the materials. Portable XRF Spectrometer (PXRF) and X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD) to identify mineral phases and the bulk element composition in the gilded layer, ground, and pigments; Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) to identify organic compounds and their molecular characterization; accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C) to date the object. Preliminary results suggest that there are no human remains inside the object, and the textile support is linen fibres with tabby weave 1/1 and these fibres are in a very bad condition. Several pigments have been identified, such as Egyptian blue, Magnetite, Egyptian green frit, Hematite, Calcite, and Cinnabar; moreover, the gilded layers are pure gold and the binding media in the pigments is Arabic gum and animal glue in the textile support layer.

Keywords: analytical methods, Egyptian museum, mummy mask, pigments, textile

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314 The Truth about Good and Evil: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Color Theory

Authors: Raniya Alsharif, Doha Abualsaud

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The color theory of good and evil is the association of colors to the omnipresent concept of good and evil, where human behavior and perception can be highly influenced by seeing black and white, making these connotations almost dangerously distinctive where they can be very hard to distinguish. This theory is a human construct that dates back to ancient Egypt and has been used since then in almost all forms of communication and expression, such as art, fashion, literature, and religious manuscripts, helping the implantation of preconceived ideas that influence behavior and society. This is a mixed-methods research that uses both surveys to collect quantitative data related to the theory and a vignette to collect qualitative data by using a scenario where participants aged between 18-25 will style two characters of good and bad characteristics with color contrasting clothes, both yielding results about the nature of the preconceived perceptions associated with ‘black and white’ and ‘good and evil’, illustrating the important role of media and communications in human behavior and subconscious, and also uncover how far this theory goes in the age of social media enlightenment.

Keywords: color perception, interpretivism, thematic analysis, vignettes

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313 A Proof of Concept Investigating the Support of Densification through the Planning and Implementation of Road Infrastructure in the South African Context

Authors: Kerisha Govender, Marion Sinclair

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In recent decades, the metropolitan areas of Johannesburg and Pretoria in South Africa have expanded rapidly. It is expected that the trend will continue in the future. Planning and implementation of road infrastructure, controlling urban sprawl, compact city layouts, jobs-housing balance, mobility in around urban areas, and the viability and efficiency of public transport systems within and around regions have been an ongoing concern for transportation planners. These elements are inter-dependent and form the principles in creating a compact city. With ongoing refinements, they can eventually be the key to achieving 'The Future City'. The 'Future City' concept, currently being developed in Europe (for example Barcelona Superblocks), enshrines the concept of 'live, work and play' in areas within proximity of each other. Although urban design paradigms are shifting, it is argued that approaches to strategic transportation planning can facilitate the Future City by ensuring shorter trip lengths, higher gross-population densities in cities, and efficient public transport systems are achieved. The aim of this study is to develop a proof of concept to investigate the support of densification through the planning and implementation of road infrastructure in the South African context. A linking idea to this concept tests the question of 'Are we spending our road infrastructure budget correctly?'. The main outcomes of this study are: (i) a set of synthesized deterrence functions for trips on the Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project (GFIP) road network; (ii) graphical representations of congestion on the GFIP road infrastructure resulting from the assignment of the different synthesized deterrence functions; (iii) resulting trip lengths and trip times from the assignment of each synthesized deterrence function to the GFIP network; and (iv) economic benefit/disbenefit in terms of travel time for the base year and design year per scenario tested. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that shorter trips and densification can be supported through the planning and implementation of road infrastructure, which can, in turn, promote the viability of the Future Cities concept. The research methodology estimates the deterrence function for the existing trip distribution on the GFIP network and uses that function to develop synthesized deterrence functions to test various trip distribution scenarios. Synthesized trip matrices, produced from each synthesized deterrence function, were assigned to the GFIP road network to obtain comparable trip lengths, travel times and congestion levels. All transport modelling was completed using the Simulation and Assignment of Traffic in Urban Road Networks (SATURN) software. A brief economic study relating to the economic benefit/disbenefit in terms of travel time was completed for each scenario to determine the optimal solution. The results from this study demonstrate that intelligent planning of road infrastructure can achieve the following: (i) reduced urban sprawl; (ii) altered driver behaviour in terms of route choice and trip lengths; (iii) better managed regional expansion; (iv) increased residential density and mixed-use areas which are supported by an efficient public transport system; (v) smaller road infrastructure budgets; and (vi) an improved social experience of urban living. The study has resonance for all cities where urban sprawl is seemingly unstoppable.

Keywords: compact cities, densification, road infrastructure planning, transportation modelling

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312 Brand Equity Tourism Destinations: An Application in Wine Regions Comparing Visitors' and Managers' Perspectives

Authors: M. Gomez, A. Molina

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The concept of brand equity in the wine tourism area is an interesting topic to explore the factors that determine it. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating wine tourism destinations brand equity, and understanding the impact that the denomination of origin (DO) brand image and the destination image have on brand equity. Managing and monitoring the branding of wine tourism destinations is crucial to attract tourist arrivals. The multiplicity of stakeholders involved in the branding process calls for research that, unlike previous studies, adopts a broader perspective and incorporates an internal and an external perspective. Therefore, this gap by comparing managers’ and visitors’ approaches to wine tourism destination brand equity has been addressed. A survey questionnaire for data collection purposes was used. The hypotheses were tested using winery managers and winery visitors, each leading a different position relative to the wine tourism destination brand equity. All the interviews were conducted face-to-face. The survey instrument included several scales related to DO brand image, destination image, and wine tourism destination brand equity. All items were measured on seven-point Likert scales. Partial least squares was used to analyze the accuracy of scales, the structural model, and multi-group analysis to identify the differences in the path coefficients and to test the hypotheses. The results show that the positive influence of DO brand image on wine tourism destination brand equity is stronger for wineries than for visitors, but there are no significant differences between the two groups. However, there are significant differences in the positive effect of destination brand image on both wine tourism destination brand equity and DO brand image. The results of this study are important for consultants, practitioners, and policy makers. The gap between managers and visitors calls for the development of a number of campaigns to enhance the image that visitors hold and, thus, increase tourist arrivals. Events such as wine gatherings and gastronomic symposiums held at universities and culinary schools and participation in business meetings can enhance the perceptions and in turn, the added value, brand equity of the wine tourism destinations. The images of destinations and DOs can help strengthen the brand equity of the wine tourism destinations, especially for visitors. Thus, the development and reinforcement of favorable, strong, and unique destination associations and DO associations are important to increase that value. Joint campaigns are advisable to enhance the images of destinations and DOs and, as a consequence, the value of the wine tourism destination brand.

Keywords: brand equity, managers, visitors, wine tourism

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311 The UNESCO Management Plan for Urban Heritage Sites: A Critical Review of Olinda and Porto, in Brazil and Portugal

Authors: Francine Morales Tavares, Jose Alberto Rio Fernandes

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The expanding concept of Heritage and the increased relevance of how heritage places relate to their surroundings is associated with an important shift in public heritage policies and how they consider the development of cities and communities, with an increasingly relevant role of management. Within the current discussions, management plans, mandatory since the year 2005 in areas classified by UNESCO as World Heritage, it is a tool for the reconciliation of cultural heritage demands with the needs of multiple users of a certain area, being especially critical in the case of urban areas with intense touristic pressure. Considering the transformations of the heritage policy management model, this paper discusses the practices on the integration of cultural heritage in urban policies through indicators which were selected from resource manual 'Managing Cultural World Heritage (2013)' and analyzed two case studies: The Management Plan of the Historic Centre of Porto (Portugal) and The Management Plan for the Historic Site of Olinda (Brazil). The empirical evidence concluded that for the historic centre of Porto the increase of tourism is the main aim driver in the management plan, with positive and negative aspects on the heritage management point of view, unlike Olinda, where the plan for the development of local urban policies was identified as essential. Plans also differ in form, content and process but coincide on being unaligned with committed local political leaders’ agendas, with the consequent misunderstandings between theory and practice, planning and management, and critically missing in the field integration of urban policies. Therefore, more debate about management plans, more efficient tools and also, appropriate methodologies to correlate cultural heritage and urban public policy are still lacking.

Keywords: world heritage, management plan, planning, urban policies

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310 Fixing the Identity Gap in Fashion: Magazines' Role in Consumption of Clothes

Authors: Kateryna Pilyarchuk

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A dress has, since times immemorial, been used to communicate the wearer’s identity. When a new trend is born, fashionistas buy it not only with the purpose to beautify themselves, but also to acquire the collective identity. Fashion has become a means of narrating one’s stance and status. Thus, when one spends money on a brand, one pays for some unmaterial components associated with it. This paper will present some ways in which fashion magazines promote consumerism by drawing on women’s craving for collective identity and need to fill in their identity gap by means of a purchase. By applying the method of critical discursive psychology, it will present layers of ideology and positions that become visible in framing of the message in U.S. Harper’s Bazaar. In this context, fashion decisions that are presented to its readers will be critically evaluated from the gender perspective. It will be demonstrated that what is presented as a postfeminist choice in the neoliberal society is still, to a considerable extent, oppressive and driven by the male gaze. As the findings show, the contemporary female identities in fashion are still built on the principles of traditional femininity. Magazines and fashion discourse train women that they should fear being left out of fashion and, by extension, out of the category of the sexually appealing (from the male perspective).

Keywords: collective identity, critical discursive psychology, fashion discourse, identity gap

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309 'Light up for All': Building Knowledge on Universal Design through Direct User Contact in Design Workshops

Authors: E. Ielegems, J. Herssens, J. Vanrie

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Designers require knowledge and data about a diversity of users throughout the design process to create inclusive design solutions which are usable, understandable and desirable by everyone. Besides understanding users’ needs and expectations, the ways in which users perceive and experience the built environment contain valuable knowledge for architects. Since users’ perceptions and experiences are mainly tacit by nature, they are much more difficult to express in words and therefore more difficult to externalise. Nevertheless, literature confirms the importance of articulating embodied knowledge from users throughout the design process. Hence, more insight is needed into the ways architects can build knowledge on Universal Design through direct user contact. In a project called ‘light up for all’ architecture students are asked to design a light switch and socket, elegant, usable and understandable to the greatest extent possible by everyone. Two workshops with user/experts are organised in the first stages of the design process in which students could gain insight into users’ experiences through direct contact. Three data collection techniques are used to analyse the teams’ design processes. First, students were asked to keep a design diary, reporting design activities, personal experiences, and thoughts about users throughout the design process. Second, one of the authors observed workshops taking field notes. Finally, focus groups are conducted with the design teams after the design process was finished. By means of analysing collected qualitative data, we first identify different design aspects that make the teams’ proposals more inclusive than standard design solutions. For this paper, we specifically focus on aspects that externalise embodied user knowledge from users’ experiences. Subsequently, we look at designers’ approaches to learn about these specific aspects throughout the design process. Results show that in some situations, designers perceive contradicting knowledge between observations and verbal conversations, which shows the value of direct user contact. Additionally, findings give indications on values and limitations of working with selected prototypes as ‘boundary objects’ when externalising users’ experiences. These insights may help researchers to better understand designers’ process of eliciting embodied user knowledge. This way, research can offer more effective support to architects, which may result in better incorporating users’ experiences so that the built environment gradually can become more inclusive for all.

Keywords: universal design, architecture, design process, embodied user knowledge

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308 The Impact of Political Events on National Archaeological Heritage and Tourism Industry: Egypt's Study Case after January 25th, 2011

Authors: Sabry El Azazy

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Abstract: Tourism plays an important role to support the national economy. Egypt was ranked as one of the most attractive touristic destinations worldwide. Tourism as a service sector affects the political events and unstable conditions. Within the revolution of January 25th, 2011, tourism became below standards, and the archeological heritage sites were subject to threat. Because of the political tension and social instability, Egypt's tourism sector has drastically dropped. Currently, Egypt is working on overcoming the crisis caused by political unrest. However, it is expected to take a long time to get back to where it was, especially in terms of regaining the confidence of travelers in the country's ability to guarantee and maintain security and stability. Recently, many great projects have been done such as; New Administrative Cairo Capital, New Suez Canal logistic project, New City of Al Alamin, New Grand Egyptian Museum, as well as other great projects that reflect positively on tourism industry and our archaeological heritage development. Methodology: The researcher used various methods to conduct this research, depending on different interviews with tourism and heritage specialists. Additionally, the researcher recorded notes and observations through time spent working in tourism sector within the political events of January 25th, 2011 that related to the research subject. In addition to work in tourism field, the researcher was a tourist guide and then lecturer of tourist guidance that allows to visit the different archaeological sites in Egypt. Objectives: The most important objectives of this research were throwing light on the importance of our great heritage and tourism industry that considers one of the most important resources of National Income. The researcher aims at presenting further studies in a field related to tourism and archaeology using previous experience. This study provides the ability to achieve the main goals and objectives successfully. Results: The major findings of this study are related to the fact that tourists usually target safe destinations alongside with the quality of services. Egypt has always relied on tourism as well as its archeological sights to raise the level of its economy, especially from the cultural tour visits to Cairo, Alexandria, Sinai, Luxor, Aswan, and others. The political events certainly affect national heritage and tourism industry. Tourism and archaeological heritage are two faces for one coin related to each other. Additionally, security and society's stability are the main core values of investment opportunities. Conclusions: Tourism plays an important role to support the various sectors in society. During the revolution of January 25th, 2011, tourism and other business sectors fell below standards Additionally, our archaeological heritage became subject to threat and theft, but the Egyptian people made themselves as a security belt around the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and other vital institutions in the country. As well, they divided themselves into groups to protect the archaeological and heritage sites.

Keywords: archaeology, archaeological heritage, attractions, national economy, political events, touristic destinations, tourism industry

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307 Tourism Management of the Heritage and Archaeological Sites in Egypt

Authors: Sabry A. El Azazy

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The archaeological heritage sites are one of the most important touristic attractions worldwide. Egypt has various archaeological sites and historical locations that are classified within the list of the archaeological heritage destinations in the world, such as Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Alexandria, and Sinai. This study focuses on how to manage the archaeological sites and provide them with all services according to the traveler's needs. Tourism management depends on strategic planning for supporting the national economy and sustainable development. Additionally, tourism management has to utilize highly effective standards of security, promotion, advertisement, sales, and marketing while taking into consideration the preservation of monuments. In Egypt, the archaeological heritage sites must be well-managed and protected, which would assist tourism management, especially in times of crisis. Recently, the monumental places and archeological heritage sites were affected by unstable conditions and were threatened. It is essential to focus on preserving our heritage. Moreover, more efforts and cooperation between the tourism organizations and ministry of archaeology have to be done in order to protect the archaeology and promote the tourism industry. Methodology: Qualitative methods have been used as the overall approach to this study. Interviews and observations have provided the researcher with the required in-depth insight to the research subject. The researcher was a lecturer of tourist guidance that allows visiting all historical sites in Egypt. Additionally, the researcher had the privilege to communicate with tourism specialists and attend meetings, conferences, and events that were focused on the research subject. Objectives: The main purpose of the research was gaining information in order to develop theoretical research on how to effectively benefit out of those historical sights both economically and culturally, and pursue further researches and scientific studies to be well-suited for tourism and hospitality sector. The researcher works hard to present further studies in a field related to tourism and archaeological heritage using previous experience. Pursing this course of study enables the researcher to acquire the necessary abilities and competencies to achieve the set goal successfully. Results: The professional tourism management focus on making Egypt one of the most important destinations in the world, and provide the heritage and archaeological sites with all services that will place those locations into the international map of tourism. Tourists interested in visiting Egypt and making tourism flourish supports and strengths Egypt's national economy and the local community, taking into consideration preserving our heritage and archaeology. Conclusions: Egypt has many tourism attractions represented in the heritage, archaeological sites, and touristic places. These places need more attention and efforts to be included in tourism programs and be opened for visitors from all over the world. These efforts will encourage both local and international tourism to see our great civilization and provide different touristic activities.

Keywords: archaeology, archaeological sites, heritage, ministry of archaeology, national economy, touristic attractions, tourism management, tourism organizations

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306 Examining Moderating Mechanisms of Alignment Practice and Community Response through the Self-Construal Perspective

Authors: Chyong-Ru Liu, Wen-Shiung Huang, Wan-Ching Tang, Shan-Pei Chen

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Two of the biggest challenges companies involved in sports and exercise information services face are how to strengthen participation in virtual sports/exercise communities and how to increase the ongoing participatoriness of those communities. In the past, relatively little research has explored mechanisms for strengthening alignment practice and community response from the perspective of self-construal, and as such this study seeks to explore the self-construal of virtual sports/exercise communities, the role it plays in the emotional commitment of forming communities, and the factor that can strengthen alignment practice. Moreover, which factor of the emotional commitment of forming virtual communities have the effect of strengthening interference in the process of transforming customer citizenship behaviors? This study collected 625 responses from the two leading websites in terms of fan numbers in the provision of information on road race and marathon events in Taiwan, with model testing conducted through linear structural equation modelling and the bootstrapping technique to test the proposed hypotheses. The results proved independent construal had a stronger positive direct effect on affective commitment to fellow customers than did interdependent construal, and the influences of affective commitment to fellow customers in enhancing customer citizenship behavior. Public self-consciousness moderates the relationships among independent self-construal and interdependent self-construal on effective commitment to fellow customers. Perceived playfulness moderates the relationships between effective commitment to fellow customers and customer citizenship behavior. The findings of this study provide significant insights for the researchers and related organizations. From the theoretical perspective, this is empirical research that investigated the self-construal theory and responses (i.e., affective commitment to fellow customers, customer citizenship behavior) in virtual sports/exercise communities. We further explore how to govern virtual sports/exercise community participants’ heterogeneity through public self-consciousness mechanism to align participants’ affective commitment. Moreover, perceived playfulness has the effect of strengthening effective commitment to fellow customers with customer citizenship behaviors. The results of this study can provide a foundation for the construction of future theories and can be provided to related organizations for reference in their planning of virtual communities.

Keywords: self-construal theory, public self-consciousness, affective commitment, customer citizenship behavior

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305 Moderating Role of Fast Food Restaurants Employees Prior Job Experience on the Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty

Authors: Mohammed Bala Banki

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This paper examines the relationship between employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction and loyalty in fast food restaurants in Nigeria and ascertains if prior job experience of employees before their present job moderate the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty. Data for this study were collected from matched pairs of employees and customers of fast restaurants in four Nigerian cities. A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used for the analysis to test the proposed relationships and hierarchical multiple regression was performed in SPSS 22 to test moderating effect. Findings suggest that there is a direct positive and significant relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction and customer satisfaction and loyalty while the path between employee satisfaction and customer loyalty is insignificant. Results also reveal that employee’s prior job experience significantly moderate the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty. Further analysis indicates that employees with more years of experience provide more fulfilling services to restaurants customers. This paper provides some theoretical and managerial implications for academia and practitioners.

Keywords: employee’s satisfaction, customer’s satisfaction, loyalty, employee’s prior job experience, fast food industry

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304 A Conceptual Framework to Study Cognitive-Affective Destination Images of Thailand among French Tourists

Authors: Ketwadee Madden

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Product or service image is among the vital factors that predict individuals’ choice of buying a product or services, goes to a place or attached to a person. Similarly, in the context of tourism, the destination image is a very important factor to which tourist considers before making their tour destination decisions. In light of this, the objective of this study is to conceptually investigate among French tourists, the determinants of Thailand’s tourism destination image. For this objective to be achieved, prior studies were reviewed, leading to the development of conceptual framework highlighting the determinants of destination image. In addition, this study develops some hypotheses that are to be empirically investigated. Aside these, based on the conceptual findings, suggestions on how to motivate European tourists to chose Thailand as their preferred tourism destination were made.

Keywords: cognitive destination image, affective destination image, motivations, risk perception, word of mouth

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303 The Dark Side of Tourism's Implications: A Structural Equation Modeling Study of the 2016 Earthquake in Central Italy

Authors: B. Kulaga, A. Cinti, F. J. Mazzocchini

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Despite the fact that growing academic attention on dark tourism is a fairly recent phenomenon, among the various reasons for travelling death-related ones, are very ancient. Furthermore, the darker side of human nature has always been fascinated and curious regarding death, or at least, man has always tried to learn lessons from death. This study proposes to describe the phenomenon of dark tourism related to the 2016 earthquake in Central Italy, deadly for 302 people and highly destructive for the rural areas of Lazio, Marche, and Umbria Regions. The primary objective is to examine the motivation-experience relationship in a dark tourism site, using the structural equation model, applied for the first time to a dark tourism research in 2016, in a study conducted after the Beichuan earthquake. The findings of the current study are derived from the calculations conducted on primary data compiled from 350 tourists in the areas mostly affected by the 2016 earthquake, including the town of Amatrice, near the epicenter, Castelluccio, Norcia, Ussita and Visso, through conducting a Likert scale survey. Furthermore, we use the structural equation model to examine the motivation behind dark travel and how this experience can influence the motivation and emotional reaction of tourists. Expected findings are in line with the previous study mentioned above, indicating that: not all tourists visit the thanatourism sites for dark tourism purpose, tourists’ emotional reactions influence more heavily the emotional tourist experience than cognitive experiences do, and curious visitors are likely to engage cognitively by learning about the incident or related issues.

Keywords: dark tourism, emotional reaction, experience, motivation, structural equation model

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302 Monitoring of Indoor Air Quality in Museums

Authors: Olympia Nisiforou

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The cultural heritage of each country represents a unique and irreplaceable witness of the past. Nevertheless, on many occasions, such heritage is extremely vulnerable to natural disasters and reckless behaviors. Even if such exhibits are now located in Museums, they still receive insufficient protection due to improper environmental conditions. These external changes can negatively affect the conditions of the exhibits and contribute to inefficient maintenance in time. Hence, it is imperative to develop an innovative, low-cost system, to monitor indoor air quality systematically, since conventional methods are quite expensive and time-consuming. The present study gives an insight into the indoor air quality of the National Byzantine Museum of Cyprus. In particular, systematic measurements of particulate matter, bio-aerosols, the concentration of targeted chemical pollutants (including Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), temperature, relative humidity, and lighting conditions as well as microbial counts have been performed using conventional techniques. Measurements showed that most of the monitored physiochemical parameters did not vary significantly within the various sampling locations. Seasonal fluctuations of ammonia were observed, showing higher concentrations in the summer and lower in winter. It was found that the outdoor environment does not significantly affect indoor air quality in terms of VOC and Nitrogen oxides (NOX). A cutting-edge portable Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) system (TORION T-9) was used to identify and measure the concentrations of specific Volatile and Semi-volatile Organic Compounds. A large number of different VOCs and SVOCs found such as Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethanol, Hexadecane, and Acetic acid, as well as some more complex compounds such as 3-ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-Isopropyl alcohol, 4,4'-biphenylene-bis-(3-aminobenzoate) and trifluoro-2,2-dimethylpropyl ester. Apart from the permanent indoor/outdoor sources (i.e., wooden frames, painted exhibits, carpets, ventilation system and outdoor air) of the above organic compounds, the concentration of some of them within the areas of the museum were found to increase when large groups of visitors were simultaneously present at a specific place within the museum. The high presence of Particulate Matter (PM), fungi and bacteria were found in the museum’s areas where carpets were present but low colonial counts were found in rooms where artworks are exhibited. Measurements mentioned above were used to validate an innovative low-cost air-quality monitoring system that has been developed within the present work. The developed system is able to monitor the average concentrations (on a bidaily basis) of several pollutants and presents several innovative features, including the prompt alerting in case of increased average concentrations of monitored pollutants, i.e., exceeding the limit values defined by the user.

Keywords: exibitions, indoor air quality , VOCs, pollution

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301 Examining the Design of a Scaled Audio Tactile Model for Enhancing Interpretation of Visually Impaired Visitors in Heritage Sites

Authors: A. Kavita Murugkar, B. Anurag Kashyap

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With the Rights for Persons with Disabilities Act (RPWD Act) 2016, the Indian government has made it mandatory for all establishments, including Heritage Sites, to be accessible for People with Disabilities. However, recent access audit surveys done under the Accessible India Campaign by Ministry of Culture indicate that there are very few accessibility measures provided in the Heritage sites for people with disabilities. Though there are some measures for the mobility impaired, surveys brought out that there are almost no provisions for people with vision impairment (PwVI) in heritage sites thus depriving them of a reasonable physical & intellectual access that facilitates an enjoyable experience and enriching interpretation of the Heritage Site. There is a growing need to develop multisensory interpretative tools that can help the PwVI in perceiving heritage sites in the absence of vision. The purpose of this research was to examine the usability of an audio-tactile model as a haptic and sound-based strategy for augmenting the perception and experience of PwVI in a heritage site. The first phase of the project was a multi-stage phenomenological experimental study with visually impaired users to investigate the design parameters for developing an audio-tactile model for PwVI. The findings from this phase included user preferences related to the physical design of the model such as the size, scale, materials, details, etc., and the information that it will carry such as braille, audio output, tactile text, etc. This was followed by the second phase in which a working prototype of an audio-tactile model is designed and developed for a heritage site based on the findings from the first phase of the study. A nationally listed heritage site from the author’s city was selected for making the model. The model was lastly tested by visually impaired users for final refinements and validation. The prototype developed empowers People with Vision Impairment to navigate independently in heritage sites. Such a model if installed in every heritage site, can serve as a technological guide for the Person with Vision Impairment, giving information of the architecture, details, planning & scale of the buildings, the entrances, location of important features, lifts, staircases, and available, accessible facilities. The model was constructed using 3D modeling and digital printing technology. Though designed for the Indian context, this assistive technology for the blind can be explored for wider applications across the globe. Such an accessible solution can change the otherwise “incomplete’’ perception of the disabled visitor, in this case, a visually impaired visitor and augment the quality of their experience in heritage sites.

Keywords: accessibility, architectural perception, audio tactile model , inclusive heritage, multi-sensory perception, visual impairment, visitor experience

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300 The Role of Continuing Professional Education in Interpretive Guiding in South Africa

Authors: Duduzile Dlamini-Boemah, Haretsebe Manwa, Lisebo Tseane-Gumbi

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The demands and expectations of twenty-first century tourists have changed, and they continue to have an impact on tour guiding in cultural and natural tourist attractions. The traditional communicative role of the tour guide as a mere presenter is not sufficient anymore; instead, there are expectations from the tourists of guides who provide effective interpretive guiding. It is always questionable if tour guides in South Africa are equipped with the skills for effective interpretation, yet limited research has been conducted to investigate the continuing professional education of tour guides in South Africa. Instead, much attention has been given to aspects of registration and certification of tour guides in South Africa. Concerns have been raised about tour guiding and have led to the development of a strategy by the Department of Tourism to professionalise tourists guiding that includes training. However, the necessity for tourism training in tour guiding in South Africa was raised as early as in the 1980s, the paper argues that there is a further need to emphasise continuing professional education in interpretive guiding in South Africa. In this study, continuing education and training are considered to involve the upgrading of the skills and knowledge of interpretation of those who are already working as tour guides at the cultural and natural attractions. The study is guided by the empowerment theory. The aim of this paper is to present issues of effective interpretive guiding and continuing professional education in interpretive guiding in South Africa. This study is based on the literature survey of secondary sources such as academic journal articles, government documents, and reports and books. The conclusions indicate that there is a need for training in interpretive delivery techniques in South Africa. The need for interpretive training in interpretive delivery techniques is attributed by the call to allow people to use indigenous knowledge, rather than formal education as a basis for becoming a field guide as well as affording the previously disadvantaged individuals to access training opportunities as tourist guides.

Keywords: continuing education, interpretive delivery skills, interpretive guiding, tour guide

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299 Notions of Criticality in Strategic Management of Hospitality Services in Nigeria

Authors: Chigozie P. Ugochukwu Okoro

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While the needs of the traveling public are becoming more evolving due to the ever-changing tourism ecosphere; there is a seeming inability to sustain competitive advantage through hospitality enterprise service quality differentials and effective service delivery. Contending with these evolving needs demands a re-assessment of the notions that drive service evolvement thoughts pattern and service delivery processes management in the hospitality enterprise. The intent of this study was to explicate the trends of the evolving needs of the traveling public that are critical to hospitality enterprise service management. The hypothetical study used customer satisfaction to dissect the strategic implication of perception, experience, and socio-cultural engagements in customization of hospitality enterprise services. The study found out that customer perception is cognitive and does not shape service customization. The study also elucidated that customer experience which can be evaluated, is critical in service structure determination and delivery. Socio-cultural engagement is intrinsic in driving service diversification. The study recommends tourists’ audit and cognitive insights as strategic actions for re-designing service efficiency and delivery in hospitality enterprise service management.

Keywords: hospitality enterprise services, strategic management, quality service delivery, notions of criticality

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298 Theatrical Architecture in Bologna at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century: The Renaissance of Modernissimo Cinema

Authors: Giorgia Predari, Riccardo Gulli

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The paper describes the history and the stylistic choices adopted in the construction of Palazzo Ronzani in Bologna, which was the first building to rise after the heavy demolitions carried out in the historical center of the city at the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1910, the local administration adopted a detailed plan to change the aspect of the city, as it was already happening in the main European capitals. In this context, starting from 1911, the architect and scenographer Gualtiero Pontoni designed for Alessandro Ronzani -the owner of a well-known Bolognese beer company- his Palazzo, which is listed among the first multifunctional buildings in Bologna, containing offices, commercial activities, and entertainment spaces. In an area of about 2000 m², the architect was able to propose a theatre with a capacity of 2000 seats at the basement, shops, a cafè-chantant and a restaurant on the ground floor, clubs, studios and commercial stores on the mezzanine and the first plan, and a hotel on the upper floors. The whole core of the building, at the underground levels, consisted of a reinforced concrete frame (one of the first examples of this type of construction in the city), which allowed the hall to have a free span of 11 x 12 meters, and a height of about 9 meters. Used until 2007 as a cinema, the hall has remained then in disuse for almost 10 years, but now an important functional restoration project with a strong architectural and scenographic value is taking place. It will bring the spaces back to the original geometries, in a historical and artistic condition inspired by the styles of the early Twentieth century.

Keywords: Modernissimo, Palazzo Ronzani, liberty, Bologna

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297 An Application of Content Analysis, SWOT Analysis, and the TOPSIS Method: A Case Study of the 'Tourism Ambassador' Program in Indonesia

Authors: Gilang Maulana Majid

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If a government program remains scientifically uncontested for a long time, it is likely that its effects will be far from expected as there is no concrete evaluation of the steps being taken. This article identifies how such a theory aptly describes the case of the 'tourism ambassador' program in Indonesia. Being set out as one of the tourism promotional means of many regional governments in Indonesia, this program is heavily criticized for being ineffective despite a large number of budgets being spent on an annual basis. Taking the program as a case study, this article applies content analysis, SWOT analysis, and TOPSIS as data analysis methods, with a total of 56 tourism ambassadors invited to become coders, respondents, and/or interviewees in this research. The study reveals the SWOT of the program, recognizes four strategies that can be taken to optimize the program's effects and prioritizes a strategy based on the preferences of the involved tourism ambassadors using TOPSIS. It is found that incorporation of technology such as the creation of an online platform is, among others, the most expected approach to be taken to solve the problems concerning tourism ambassador program. However, based on the costs and benefits of each strategy presented in the current study, each alternative appears to have trade-offs between one and another.

Keywords: Indonesia, optimization strategies, 'Tourism Ambassador' program, SWOT-TOPSIS

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296 Managing and Marketing a Modern Art Museum in a Small Town: A Case Study on Odunpazarı Modern Museum

Authors: Mehmet Sinan Erguven

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Modern art is relatively new but a popular area in Turkish art society. Modern art museums are mainly located in big cities like Istanbul and Ankara where cultural life is more dynamic. Odunpazarı Modern Museum (OMM) will open its doors on September 2019 and be the only modern art museum located in a small town in Turkey. OMM executives declare the mission of the museum as; art must go beyond the metropolises of the world, give a new lease of life to cities that make a difference with their cultural texture, and reach a greater audience through that expansion. So OMM will not only serve as a museum but a landmark for regenerating the city brand of Eskişehir like the Guggenheim in Bilbao. OMM is located in the Odunpazarı area, the heart of Eskişehir. Named after the historical timber market it once hosted, Odunpazarı is a nominated site for the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List, and is Eskişehir’s first area of settlement. This study focuses on the complex nature of opening a modern art museum in a small town. The management and marketing dynamics of OMM are discussed in the study. Content analysis technique is used on local and national news to display the perception differences before and after the opening of OMM. In depth interviews with the executives of the museum are conducted in order to enlighten the insights of opening a modern art museum in a small town. Early findings of the content analysis point out that, the comments on the national press are mostly positive. On the other hand, different views occur on the local press. The location OMM is constructed and grandness of the museum building are criticized by some of the local newspapers. OMM’s potential as a tourist attraction is agreed by most of the media. OMM executives stated the most challenging task as reaching the different target audiences on international, national and local levels. These early findings will be improved and compared shortly before and after the opening of the museum.

Keywords: management, marketing, Odunpazarı modern museum, small town

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295 The Impact of Civil Disobedience on Tourist and Local Residents in Cameroon: Case Study the North West Region

Authors: Zita Fomukong Andam

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Civil disobedience according to John Rawls (1971) is a public nonviolent and conscientious breach of laws undertaken with the aim of bringing about a change in government laws and policies. Thus individuals who engage themselves in such an act are aware and ready to accept the consequences of their actions. Cameroon more precisely the Northwest and the Southwest region which are the English part are considered as one of the societies facing this act of civil disobedience. It has been a tormenting issue in the country affecting its economy and the tourism sector. This is because these regions known as one of the best touristic sites of the country is not more considered as a destination to be visited by tourist because of its insecurities. Many commercial buildings have been burning down, leaving many young Cameroonians jobless. Education has been hindered, and youths are forced to relocate to nearby cities in order to continue their education. This crisis has created a lot of insecurity throughout the regions thus youths now have one common interest to travel abroad either to seek refuge or to continue their education and even search for jobs. The purpose of this research is to assess the issue of civil disobedience, trying to understand why it is affected only by a specific region in a country while the others are doing fine. A deep research discourse was conducted with randomly selected individuals aging between 15 to 40 years living both in the destination and abroad. Survey questionnaires and interviews were carried out as a method to collect data. The results show that this crisis has impacted the local residents psychologically and has injected a lot of fears into tourists and they are no more willing to visit the destination. In addition, it has brought a negative impact on the county’s economy since tourism is considered as the key sector in a country’s economy. On the other hand, the results showed that many local residents have remained jobless, others have lost family members, and the daily routine life has been affected. Understanding these results, the national government and international bodies might be able to propose possible and efficient solutions in order to attain stability and security in this region.

Keywords: civil disobedience, economic impact, local residents, tourist

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294 Thriving Private-Community Partnerships in Ecotourism: Perspectives from Fiji’s Upper Navua Conservation Area

Authors: Jeremy Schultz, Kelly Bricker

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Ecotourism has proven itself to be a forerunner in the advancement of environmental conservation all the while supporting cultural tradition, uniqueness, and pride among indigenous communities. Successful private-community partnerships associated with ecotourism operations are vital to the overall prosperity of both the businesses and the local communities. Such accomplishments can be seen through numerous livelihood goals including income, food security, health, reduced vulnerability, governance, and empowerment. Private-community partnerships also support global initiatives such as the sustainable development goals and sustainable development frameworks including those proposed by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (WTO). Understanding such partnerships assists not only large organizations such as the WTO, but it also benefits smaller ecotourism operators and entrepreneurs who are trying to achieve their sustainable tourism development goals. This study examined the partnership between an ecotourism company (Rivers Fiji) and two rural villages located in Fiji’s Upper Navua Conservation Area. Focus groups were conducted in each village. Observation journals were also used to record conversations outside of the focus groups. Data were thematically organized and analyzed to offer researcher interpretations and understandings. This research supported the notion that respectful and emboldening partnerships between communities and private enterprise are vital to the composition of successful ecotourism operations that support sustainable development protocol. Understanding these partnerships can assist in shaping future ecotourism development and re-molding existing businesses. This study has offered an example of a thriving partnership through community input and critical researcher analysis. Research has identified six contributing factors to successful ecotourism partnerships, and this study provides additional support to that framework.

Keywords: community partnerships, conservation areas, ecotourism, Fiji, sustainability

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293 Churn Prediction for Savings Bank Customers: A Machine Learning Approach

Authors: Prashant Verma

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Commercial banks are facing immense pressure, including financial disintermediation, interest rate volatility and digital ways of finance. Retaining an existing customer is 5 to 25 less expensive than acquiring a new one. This paper explores customer churn prediction, based on various statistical & machine learning models and uses under-sampling, to improve the predictive power of these models. The results show that out of the various machine learning models, Random Forest which predicts the churn with 78% accuracy, has been found to be the most powerful model for the scenario. Customer vintage, customer’s age, average balance, occupation code, population code, average withdrawal amount, and an average number of transactions were found to be the variables with high predictive power for the churn prediction model. The model can be deployed by the commercial banks in order to avoid the customer churn so that they may retain the funds, which are kept by savings bank (SB) customers. The article suggests a customized campaign to be initiated by commercial banks to avoid SB customer churn. Hence, by giving better customer satisfaction and experience, the commercial banks can limit the customer churn and maintain their deposits.

Keywords: savings bank, customer churn, customer retention, random forests, machine learning, under-sampling

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292 The Ephemeral Re-Use of Cultural Heritage: The Incorporation of the Festival Phenomenon Within Monuments and Archaeological Sites in Lebanon

Authors: Joe Kallas

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It is now widely accepted that the preservation of cultural heritage must go beyond simple restoration and renovation actions. While some historic monuments have been preserved for millennia, many of them, less important or simply neglected because of lack of money, have disappeared. As a result, the adaptation of monuments and archaeological sites to new functions allow them to 'survive'. Temporary activities or 'ephemeral' re-use, are increasingly recognized as a means of vitalization of deprived areas and enhancement of historic sites that became obsolete. They have the potential to increase economic and cultural value while making the best use of existing resources. However, there are often conservation and preservation issues related to the implementation of this type of re-use, which can also threaten the integrity and authenticity of archaeological sites and monuments if they have not been properly managed. This paper aims to get a better knowledge of the ephemeral re-use of heritage, and more specifically the subject of the incorporation of the festival phenomenon within the monuments and archaeological sites in Lebanon, a topic that is not yet studied enough. This paper tried to determine the elements that compose it, in order to analyze this phenomenon and to trace its good practices, by comparing international study cases to important national cases: the International Festival of Baalbek, the International Festival of Byblos and the International Festival of Beiteddine. Various factors have been studied and analyzed in order to best respond to the main problematic of this paper: 'How can we preserve the integrity of sites and monuments after the integration of an ephemeral function? And what are the preventive conservation measures to be taken when holding festivals in archaeological sites with fragile structures?' The impacts of the technical problems were first analyzed using various data and more particularly the effects of mass tourism, the integration of temporary installations, sound vibrations, the effects of unstudied lighting, until the mystification of heritage. Unfortunately, the DGA (General Direction of Antiquities in Lebanon) does not specify any frequency limit for the sound vibrations emitted by the speakers during musical festivals. In addition, there is no requirement from its part regarding the installations of the lighting systems in the historic monuments and no monitoring is done in situ, due to the lack of awareness of the impact that could be generated by such interventions, and due to the lack of materials and tools needed for the monitoring process. The study and analysis of the various data mentioned above led us to the elaboration of the main objective of this paper, which is the establishment of a list of recommendations. This list enables to define various preventive conservation measures to be taken during the holding of the festivals within the cultural heritage sites in Lebanon. We strongly hope that this paper will be an awareness document to start taking into consideration several factors previously neglected, in order to improve the conservation practices in the archaeological sites and monuments during the incorporation of the festival phenomenon.

Keywords: archaeology, authenticity, conservation, cultural heritage, festival, historic sites, integrity, monuments, tourism

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291 The Female Jihad: A Case Study of Jamaah Islamiyah’s Women in Indonesia

Authors: Milda Istiqomah

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The current trends demonstrate that the number of women involved in terrorism is steadily increasing. There are at least two types of roles that women assume in terrorism; the ‘visible role’ and ‘invisible role’. Both roles are very important to the sustainability of terrorism and terrorist organizations. The findings of this paper are based on the analysis of multiple case study from two terrorism verdicts in Indonesia, media reports and academic journals. This paper argues that women in Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) play an important role in both categories. They are involved in this organization by marital and kinship linkages which aim to secure the networks and regenerate the Jihadi ideology within JI. Finally, this paper states that the role of women in JI is significant due to its importance in delivering the idea of Jihad to younger generations.

Keywords: terrorism, women, jihadi movement, case study

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290 Analyzing Strategic Alliances of Museums: The Case of Girona (Spain)

Authors: Raquel Camprubí

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Cultural tourism has been postulated as relevant motivation for tourist over the world during the last decades. In this context, museums are the main attraction for cultural tourists who are seeking to connect with the history and culture of the visited place. From the point of view of an urban destination, museums and other cultural resources are essential to have a strong tourist supply at the destination, in order to be capable of catching attention and interest of cultural tourists. In particular, museums’ challenge is to be prepared to offer the best experience to their visitors without to forget their mission-based mainly on protection of its collection and other social goals. Thus, museums individually want to be competitive and have good positioning to achieve their strategic goals. The life cycle of the destination and the level of maturity of its tourism product influence the need of tourism agents to cooperate and collaborate among them, in order to rejuvenate their product and become more competitive as a destination. Additionally, prior studies have considered an approach of different models of a public and private partnership, and collaborative and cooperative relations developed among the agents of a tourism destination. However, there are no studies that pay special attention to museums and the strategic alliances developed to obtain mutual benefits. Considering this background, the purpose of this study is to analyze in what extent museums of a given urban destination have established strategic links and relations among them, in order to improve their competitive position at both individual and destination level. In order to achieve the aim of this study, the city of Girona (Spain) and the museums located in this city are taken as a case study. Data collection was conducted using in-depth interviews, in order to collect all the qualitative data related to nature, strengthen and purpose of the relational ties established among the museums of the city or other relevant tourism agents of the city. To conduct data analysis, a Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach was taken using UCINET software. Position of the agents in the network and structure of the network was analyzed, and qualitative data from interviews were used to interpret SNA results. Finding reveals the existence of strong ties among some of the museums of the city, particularly to create and promote joint products. Nevertheless, there were detected outsiders who have an individual strategy, without collaboration and cooperation with other museums or agents of the city. Results also show that some relational ties have an institutional origin, while others are the result of a long process of cooperation with common projects. Conclusions put in evidence that collaboration and cooperation of museums had been positive to increase the attractiveness of the museum and the city as a cultural destination. Future research and managerial implications are also mentioned.

Keywords: cultural tourism, competitiveness, museums, Social Network analysis

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289 Identification of Three Strategies to Enhance University Students’ Professional Identity, Using Hierarchical Regression Analysis

Authors: Alba Barbara-i-Molinero, Rosalia Cascon-Pereira, Ana Beatriz Hernandez

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Students’ transitions from high school to the university have been challenged by the lack of continuity between both contexts. This mismatch directly affects students by generating feelings of anxiety and uncertainty, which increases the dropout rates and reduces students’ academic success. This discontinuity emanates because ‘transitions concern a restructuring of what the person does and who the person perceives him or herself to be’. Hence, identity becomes essential in these transitions. Generally, identity is the answer to questions such as who am I? or who are we? This is integrated by personal identity, and as many social identities as groups, the individual feels he/she is a part. A case in point to construct a social identity is the identification with a profession. For this reason, a way to lighten the generated tension during transitions is applying strategies orientated to enhance students’ professional identity in their point of entry to the higher education institution. That would create a sense of continuity between high school and higher education contexts, increasing their Professional Identity Strength. To develop the strategies oriented to enhance students Professional Identity, it is important to analyze what influences it. There exist several influencing factors that influence Professional Identity (e.g., professional status, the recommendation of family and peers, the academic environment, or the chosen bachelor degree). There is a gap in the literature analyzing the impact of these factors on more than one bachelor degree. In this regards, our study takes an additional step with the aim of evaluating the influence of several factors on Professional Identity using a cohort of university students from multiple degrees between the ages of 17-19 years. To do so, we used hierarchical regression analyses to assess the impact of the following factors: External Motivation Conditionals (EMC), Educational Experience Conditionals (EEC) and Personal Motivational Conditional (PMP). After conducting the analyses, we found that the assessed factors influenced students’ professional identity differently according to their bachelor degree and discipline. For example, PMC and EMC positively affected science students, while architecture, law and economics and engineering students were just influenced by PMC. Basing on that influences, we proposed three different strategies aimed to enhance students’ professional identity, in the short and long term. These strategies are: to enhance students’ professional identity before the incorporation to university through campuses and icebreaker activities; to apply recruitment strategies aimed to provide realistic information of the bachelor degree; and to incorporate different activities, such as in-vitro, in situ and self-directed activities aimed to enhance longitudinally students’ professional identity from the university. From these results, theoretical contributions and practical implications arise. First, we contribute to the literature by identifying which factors influence students from different bachelor degrees since there is still no evidence. And, second, using as a benchmark the obtained results, we contribute from a practical perspective, by proposing several alternative strategies to increase students’ professional identity strength aiming to lighten their transition from high school to higher education.

Keywords: professional identity, higher education, educational strategies , students

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288 Case Study of the Impact of Sport Tourism Event on Local Residents in Cameroon: The African Cup of Nations

Authors: Zita Fomukong Andam

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The decision on where to host sport events does not depend on the national politicians or specific international sport event bodies but also involves the residents of the hosting country. Sport tourism is one of the fast growing industries in the world. Cameroonians consider sport as a point of unity and growth within the country. It has a huge variety of sporting activities like swimming, canoe racing, tug of war and most especially soccer well known as football. The football national team made an impact in 1990 at the FIFA world cup. They also won the African Nations Cup five times. Being the winner of the 2017 African Cup of Nations, they are to host the 2019 African cup of Nations. The purpose of this research is to analyse the impacts of sport tourism event in Cameroon and specifically examine how this event influences the residents. A deep research discourse conducted with randomly selected 300 inbound residents and 200 Cameroonian residents living abroad. Survey questionnaires, interviews and direct observations were carried out as a method of collecting data. The results showed that sport events brings a lot of prestige and honor to the country; generate revenues to the country’s economy and particularly to the local businesses. On the other hand, the results showed that the local residents lose their intimacy, privacy, and their daily life routine is affected. In addition to this, they face negative social inequalities and environmental impacts. Understanding these results the national government and international bodies might be able to contribute to future studies and propose efficient measures to maximize the positive benefits and minimize the negative benefits.

Keywords: sport Tourism, economic impact, resident altitude, african Cup of nations

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