Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2181

Search results for: voltage regulation

2181 Application of Fuzzy Logic in Voltage Regulation of Radial Feeder with Distributed Generators

Authors: Anubhav Shrivastava, Lakshya Bhat, Shivarudraswamy

Abstract:

Distributed Generation is the need of the hour. With current advancements in the DG technology, there are some major issues that need to be tackled in order to make this method of generation of energy more efficient and feasible. Among other problems, the control in voltage is the major issue that needs to be addressed. This paper focuses on control of voltage using reactive power control of DGs with the help of fuzzy logic. The membership functions have been defined accordingly and the control of the system is achieved. Finally, with the help of simulation results in Matlab, the control of voltage within the tolerance limit set (+/- 5%) is achieved. The voltage waveform graphs for the IEEE 14 bus system are obtained by using simple algorithm with MATLAB and then with fuzzy logic for 14 bus system. The goal of this project was to control the voltage within limits by controlling the reactive power of the DG using fuzzy logic.

Keywords: distributed generation, fuzzy logic, matlab, newton raphson, IEEE 14 bus, voltage regulation, radial network

Procedia PDF Downloads 526
2180 A Continuous Switching Technique for a Single Phase Bridgeless and Transformer-Less Active Rectifier with High Power Factor and Voltage Stabilization

Authors: Rahul Ganpat Mapari, D. G. Wakde

Abstract:

In this paper, a proposed approach to improve the power factor of single-phase rectifiers and to regulate the output voltage against the change in grid voltage and load is presented. This converter topology is evaluated on the basis of performance and its salient features like simplicity, low cost and high performance are discussed to analyze its applicability. The proposed control strategy is bridgeless, transformer-less and output current sensor-less and consists of only two Bi-directional IGBTs and two diodes. The voltage regulation is achieved by a simple voltage divider to communicate to a controller to control the duty cycles of PWM. A control technique and operational procedure are also developed, both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results clearly verify the theoretical analysis from the prototype connected to grid unity.

Keywords: Active Rectifier (AC-DC), power factor, single phase, voltage regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2179 Coordinated Voltage Control in a Radial Distribution System

Authors: Shivarudraswamy, Anubhav Shrivastava, Lakshya Bhat

Abstract:

Distributed generation has indeed become a major area of interest in recent years. Distributed Generation can address large number of loads in a power line and hence has better efficiency over the conventional methods. However there are certain drawbacks associated with it, increase in voltage being the major one. This paper addresses the voltage control at the buses for an IEEE 30 bus system by regulating reactive power. For carrying out the analysis, the suitable location for placing distributed generators (DG) is identified through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile is dipping. MATLAB programming is used to regulate the voltage at all buses within +/-5% of the base value even after the introduction of DG’s. Three methods for regulation of voltage are discussed. A sensitivity based analysis is later carried out to determine the priority among the various methods listed in the paper.

Keywords: distributed generators, distributed system, reactive power, voltage control

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
2178 Coordinated Voltage Control in Radial Distribution System with Distributed Generators Using Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: Anubhav Shrivastava Shivarudraswamy, Bhat Lakshya

Abstract:

Distributed generation has indeed become a major area of interest in recent years. Distributed generation can address a large number of loads in a power line and hence has better efficiency over the conventional methods. However, there are certain drawbacks associated with it, an increase in voltage being the major one. This paper addresses the voltage control at the buses for an IEEE 30 bus system by regulating reactive power. For carrying out the analysis, the suitable location for placing distributed generators (DG) is identified through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile is dipping. MATLAB programming is used to regulate the voltage at all buses within +/- 5% of the base value even after the introduction of DGs. Three methods for regulation of voltage are discussed. A sensitivity based analysis is then carried out to determine the priority among the various methods listed in the paper.

Keywords: distributed generators, distributed system, reactive power, voltage control, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 556
2177 Power Management Strategy for Solar-Wind-Diesel Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy System

Authors: Md. Aminul Islam, Adel Merabet, Rachid Beguenane, Hussein Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper presents a simulation and mathematical model of stand-alone solar-wind-diesel based hybrid energy system (HES). A power management system is designed for multiple energy resources in a stand-alone hybrid energy system. Both Solar photovoltaic and wind energy conversion system consists of maximum power point tracking (MPPT), voltage regulation, and basic power electronic interfaces. An additional diesel generator is included to support and improve the reliability of stand-alone system when renewable energy sources are not available. A power management strategy is introduced to distribute the generated power among resistive load banks. The frequency regulation is developed with conventional phase locked loop (PLL) system. The power management algorithm was applied in Matlab®/Simulink® to simulate the results.

Keywords: solar photovoltaic, wind energy, diesel engine, hybrid energy system, power management, frequency and voltage regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
2176 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3, and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, latch-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
2175 DG Power Plants Placement and Evaluation of its Effect on Improving Voltage Security Margin in Radial Distribution Networks

Authors: Atabak Faramarzpour, Mohsen Mohammadian

Abstract:

In this article, we introduce the stability of power system voltage and state DG power plants placement and its effect on improving voltage security margin in radial distribution networks. For this purpose, first, important definitions in voltage stability area such as small and big voltage disturbances, instability, and voltage collapse, and voltage security definitions are stated. Then, according to voltage collapse time, voltage stability is classified and each one's characteristics are stated.

Keywords: DG power plants, evaluation, voltage security, radial distribution networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 571
2174 A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage

Authors: Hee-Guk Chae, Bo-Bae Song, Kyoung-Il Do, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
2173 Simulated Microgravity Inhibits L-Type Calcium Channel Currents by Up-Regulation of miR-103 in Osteoblasts

Authors: Zhongyang Sun, Shu Zhang

Abstract:

In osteoblasts, L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels (LTCCs), especially the Cav1.2 LTCCs, play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. Several lines of evidence have revealed that the density of bone is increased and the resorption of bone is decreased when these calcium channels in osteoblasts are activated. And numerous studies have shown that mechanical loading promotes bone formation in the modeling skeleton, whereas removal of this stimulus in microgravity results in a reduction in bone mass. However, the effect of microgravity on LTCCs in osteoblasts is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether microgravity exerts influence on LTCCs in osteoblasts and the possible mechanisms underlying. In this study, we demonstrate that simulated microgravity substantially inhibits LTCCs in osteoblast by suppressing the expression of Cav1.2. Then we show that the up-regulation of miR-103 is involved in the down-regulation of Cav1.2 expression and inhibition of LTCCs by simulated microgravity in osteoblasts. Our study provides a novel mechanism of simulated microgravity-induced adverse effects on osteoblasts, offering a new avenue to further investigate the bone loss caused by microgravity.

Keywords: L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels, Cav1.2, osteoblasts, microgravity

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2172 A Study on Unidirectional Analog Output Voltage Inverter for Capacitive Load

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Nam-HeeByeon, Jung-Seop Lee, Tae-Sam Kang

Abstract:

For Common R or R-L load to apply arbitrary voltage, the bridge traditional inverters don’t have any difficulties by PWM method. However for driving some piezoelectric actuator, arbitrary voltage not a pulse but a steady voltage should be applied. Piezoelectric load is considered as R-C load and its voltage does not decrease even though the applied voltage decreases. Therefore it needs some special inverter with circuit that can discharge the capacitive energy. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, it becomes more difficult problem. In this paper, a charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator is proposed. The circuit has charging and discharging switches for increasing and decreasing output voltage. With the proposed simple circuit, the load voltage can have any unidirectional level with tens of bandwidth because the load voltage can be adjusted by switching the charging and discharging switch appropriately. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, analog output voltage, sinusoidal drive, piezoelectric load, discharging circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
2171 A Single Loop Repetitive Controller for a Four Legs Matrix Converter Unit

Authors: Wesam Rohouma

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of repetitive controller to regulate the output voltage of three phase four leg matric converter for an Aircraft Ground Power Supply Unit. The proposed controller improve the steady state error and provide good regulation during different loading. Simulation results of 7.5 KW converter are presented to verify the operation of the proposed controller.

Keywords: matrix converter, Power electronics, controller, regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
2170 SCR-Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for IO and Power Clamp

Authors: Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Han Hee Cho, Sang Woon Cho, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a novel SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection device for I/O and power clamp. The proposed device has a higher holding voltage characteristic than conventional SCR. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity under normal operating conditions as well as superior full chip ESD protection. The proposed device was analyzed to figure out electrical characteristics and tolerance robustness in term of individual design parameters (D1, D2, D3). They are investigated by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As a result of simulation, holding voltage increased with different design parameters. The holding voltage of the proposed device changes from 3.3V to 7.9V. Also, N-Stack structure ESD device with the high holding voltage is proposed. In the simulation results, 2-stack has holding voltage of 6.8V and 3-stack has holding voltage of 10.5V. The simulation results show that holding voltage of stacking structure can be larger than the operation voltage of high-voltage application.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, stack, power clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
2169 The Impact of Self-Regulation Couple Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Emotional Abuse in Turbulent Couples

Authors: M. Kargar., S. A. Kimiaei, A. Mashhadie

Abstract:

This paper is a quasi-experimental study investigating the effect of self-regulation couple therapy on cognitive emotion regulation and emotional abuse in turbulent couples. Of the couples consulting the counseling and psychotherapy centers of Social Welfare and Education Office of Mashahd, ten couples were randomly selected through a stratified sampling method and were equally assigned to experimental and waiting list control groups. After completing the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ) and emotional abuse scale (EAS), the results showed that self-regulation couple therapy can increase the participants’ adaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation strategies, reduce their maladaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation, and decrease their emotional abuse.

Keywords: self-regulation couple therapy, cognitive emotion regulation, emotional abuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
2168 Design and Development of Compact 1KW Floating Battery Discharge Regulator

Authors: A. Sreedevi, G. Anantaramu

Abstract:

The present space research organizations are striving towards the development of lighter, smaller, more efficient, low cost, and highly reliable power supply. Switch mode power supplies (SMPS) overcome the demerits of linear power supplies such as low efficiency, difficulties in thermal management, and in boosting the output voltage. Space applications require a constant DC voltage to supply its load. As the load varies, the battery terminal voltage tends to vary accordingly. To avoid this variation in the load terminal voltage, a DC-DC regulator is required. The conventional regulator for space applications is isolated boost topology. The proposed topology uses an interleaved push-pull converter with a current doubler secondary to reduce the EMI issues and increase efficiency. The proposed topology uses a floating technique where the converter derives power from the battery and generates only the voltage that is required to fill the gap between the bus and the battery voltage. The direct voltage sense and current loop provide tight regulation of output and better stability. Converter is designed with 50 kHz switching frequency using UC 1825 PWM controller employing both voltage and peak current mode control. Experimental tests have been carried out on the converter under different input and load conditions to validate the design. The experimental results showed that the efficiency was greater than 91%. Stability analysis is done using venable stability analyzer.

Keywords: push pull converter, current doubler, converter, PWM control

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
2167 STATCOM’s Contribution to the Improvement of Voltage Plan and Power Flow in an Electrical Transmission Network

Authors: M. Adjabi, A. Amiar, P. O. Logerais

Abstract:

Flexible Alternative Current Systems Transmission (FACTS) are used since nearly four decades and present very good dynamic performances. The purpose of this work is to study the behavior of a system where Static Compensator (STATCOM) is located at the midpoint of a transmission line which is the idea of the project functioning in disturbed modes with various levels of load. The studied model and starting from the analysis of various alternatives will lead to the checking of the aptitude of the STATCOM to maintain the voltage plan and to improve the power flow in electro-energetic system which is the east region of Algerian 400 kV transmission network. The steady state performance of STATCOM’s controller is analyzed through computer simulations with Matlab/Simulink program. The simulation results have demonstrated that STATCOM can be effectively applied in power transmission systems to solve the problems of poor dynamic performance and voltage regulation.

Keywords: STATCOM, reactive power, power flow, voltage plan, Algerian network

Procedia PDF Downloads 509
2166 STATCOM's Contribution to the Improvement of Voltage Plan and Power Flow in an Electrical Transmission Network

Authors: M. Adjabi, A. Amiar, P. O. Logerais

Abstract:

Flexible Alternative Current Systems Transmission (FACTS) are used since nearly four decades and present very good dynamic performances. The purpose of this work is to study the behavior of a system where Static Compensator (STATCOM) is located at the midpoint of a transmission line which is the idea of the project functioning in disturbed modes with various levels of load. The studied model and starting from the analysis of various alternatives will lead to the checking of the aptitude of the STATCOM to maintain the voltage plan and to improve the power flow in electro-energetic system which is the east region of Algerian 400 kV transmission network. The steady state performance of STATCOM’s controller is analyzed through computer simulations with Matlab/Simulink program. The simulation results have demonstrated that STATCOM can be effectively applied in power transmission systems to solve the problems of poor dynamic performance and voltage regulation.

Keywords: STATCOM, reactive power, power flow, voltage plan, Algerian network

Procedia PDF Downloads 504
2165 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: electro-static discharge (ESD), silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), holding voltage, protection circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
2164 Power Supply Feedback Regulation Loop Design Using Cadence PSpice Tool: Determining Converter Stability by Simulation

Authors: Debabrata Das

Abstract:

This paper explains how to design a regulation loop for a power supply circuit. It also discusses the need of a regulation loop and the improvement of a circuit with regulation loop. A sample design is used to demonstrate how to use PSpice to design feedback loop to control output voltage of a power supply and how to check if the power supply is stable or oscillatory. A sample design is made using a specific Integrated Circuit (IC) available in the PSpice library. A designer can experiment feedback loop design using Cadence Pspice tool. PSpice is easy to use, reliable, and convenient. To test a feedback loop, generally, engineers use trial and error method with the hardware which takes a lot of time and manpower. Moreover, it is expensive because component and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) may go bad. PSpice can be used by designers to test their loop designs without using hardware circuits. A designer can save time, cost, manpower and simulate his/her power supply circuit accurately before making a real hardware using this software package.

Keywords: power electronics, feedback loop, regulation, stability, pole, zero, oscillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2163 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
2162 Analog Voltage Inverter Drive for Capacitive Load with Adaptive Gain Control

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Yong-Ho Cho, Ki-Seok Kim, Tae-Sam Kang

Abstract:

Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications, arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: analog voltage inverter, capacitive load, gain control, dc-dc converter, piezoelectric, voltage waveform

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
2161 Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting Friendly Self-Clocked Digital Low Drop-Out for System-On-Chip Internet of Things

Authors: Christos Konstantopoulos, Thomas Ussmueller

Abstract:

Digital low drop-out regulators, in contrast to analog counterparts, provide an architecture of sub-1 V regulation with low power consumption, high power efficiency, and system integration. Towards an optimized integration in the ultra-low-power system-on-chip Internet of Things architecture that is operated through a radio frequency energy harvesting scheme, the D-LDO regulator should constitute the main regulator that operates the master-clock and rest loads of the SoC. In this context, we present a D-LDO with linear search coarse regulation and asynchronous fine regulation, which incorporates an in-regulator clock generation unit that provides an autonomous, self-start-up, and power-efficient D-LDO design. In contrast to contemporary D-LDO designs that employ ring-oscillator architecture which start-up time is dependent on the frequency, this work presents a fast start-up burst oscillator based on a high-gain stage with wake-up time independent of coarse regulation frequency. The design is implemented in a 55-nm Global Foundries CMOS process. With the purpose to validate the self-start-up capability of the presented D-LDO in the presence of ultra-low input power, an on-chip test-bench with an RF rectifier is implemented as well, which provides the RF to DC operation and feeds the D-LDO. Power efficiency and load regulation curves of the D-LDO are presented as extracted from the RF to regulated DC operation. The D-LDO regulator presents 83.6 % power efficiency during the RF to DC operation with a 3.65 uA load current and voltage regulator referred input power of -27 dBm. It succeeds 486 nA maximum quiescent current with CL 75 pF, the maximum current efficiency of 99.2%, and 1.16x power efficiency improvement compared to analog voltage regulator counterpart oriented to SoC IoT loads. Complementary, the transient performance of the D-LDO is evaluated under the transient droop test, and the achieved figure-of-merit is compared with state-of-art implementations.

Keywords: D-LDO, Internet of Things, RF energy harvesting, voltage regulators

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2160 Comparative Study of Line Voltage Stability Indices for Voltage Collapse Forecasting in Power Transmission System

Authors: H. H. Goh, Q. S. Chua, S. W. Lee, B. C. Kok, K. C. Goh, K. T. K. Teo

Abstract:

At present, the evaluation of voltage stability assessment experiences sizeable anxiety in the safe operation of power systems. This is due to the complications of a strain power system. With the snowballing of power demand by the consumers and also the restricted amount of power sources, therefore, the system has to perform at its maximum proficiency. Consequently, the noteworthy to discover the maximum ability boundary prior to voltage collapse should be undertaken. A preliminary warning can be perceived to evade the interruption of power system’s capacity. The effectiveness of line voltage stability indices (LVSI) is differentiated in this paper. The main purpose of the indices is used to predict the proximity of voltage instability of the electric power system. On the other hand, the indices are also able to decide the weakest load buses which are close to voltage collapse in the power system. The line stability indices are assessed using the IEEE 14 bus test system to validate its practicability. Results demonstrated that the implemented indices are practically relevant in predicting the manifestation of voltage collapse in the system. Therefore, essential actions can be taken to dodge the incident from arising.

Keywords: critical line, line outage, line voltage stability indices (LVSI), maximum loadability, voltage collapse, voltage instability, voltage stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
2159 New Series Input Parallel Output LLC DC/DC Converter with the Input Voltage Balancing Capacitor for the Electric System of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Kang Hyun Yi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new parallel output LLC DC/DC converter for electric vehicle. The electric vehicle has two batteries. One is a high voltage battery for the powertrain of the vehicle and the other is a low voltage battery for the vehicle electric system. The low voltage is charged from the high voltage battery and the high voltage input and the high current output DC/DC converter is needed. Therefore, the new LLC converter with the input voltage compensation is proposed for the high voltage input and the low voltage output DC/DC converter. The proposed circuit has two LLC converters with the series input voltage from the battery for the powertrain and the parallel output low battery voltage for the vehicle electric system because the battery voltage for the powertrain and the electric power for the vehicle become high. Also, the input series voltage compensation capacitor is used for balancing the input current in the two LLC converters. The proposed converter has an equal electric stress of the semiconductor parts and the reactive components, high efficiency and good heat dissipation.

Keywords: electric vehicle, LLC DC/DC converter, input voltage balancing, parallel output

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
2158 Single-Inductor Multi-Output Converters with Four-Level Output Voltages

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Murong Li, Feng Zhao, Shu Wu, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an electrolytic capacitor-less transformer-less AC-DC LED driver with a current ripple canceller. The proposed LED driver includes a diode bridge, a buck-boost converter, a negative feedback controller and a current ripple cancellation circuit. The current ripple canceller works as a bi-directional current converter using a sub-inductor, a sub-capacitor and two switches for controlling current flow. LED voltage is controlled in order to regulate LED current by the negative feedback controller using a current sense resistor. There are two capacitors with capacitance of 5 uF. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for our proposed circuit. In addition, we show the line regulation for input voltage variation from 85V to 130V. The output voltage ripple is 2V and the LED current ripple is 65 mA which is less than 20% of the average of LED current of 350 mA.

Keywords: DC-DC buck converter, four-level output voltage, single inductor multi output (SIMO), switching converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
2157 Voltage Stability Assessment and Enhancement Using STATCOM -A Case Study

Authors: Puneet Chawla, Balwinder Singh

Abstract:

Recently, increased attention has been devoted to the voltage instability phenomenon in power systems. Many techniques have been proposed in the literature for evaluating and predicting voltage stability using steady state analysis methods. In this paper, P-V and Q-V curves have been generated for a 57 bus Patiala Rajpura circle of India. The power-flow program is developed in MATLAB using Newton-Raphson method. Using Q-V curves, the weakest bus of the power system and the maximum reactive power change permissible on that bus is calculated. STATCOMs are placed on the weakest bus to improve the voltage and hence voltage stability and also the power transmission capability of the line.

Keywords: voltage stability, reactive power, power flow, weakest bus, STATCOM

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
2156 Voltage and Frequency Regulation Using the Third-Party Mid-Size Battery

Authors: Roghieh A. Biroon, Zoleikha Abdollahi

Abstract:

The recent growth of renewables, e.g., solar panels, batteries, and electric vehicles (EVs) in residential and small commercial sectors, has potential impacts on the stability and operation of power grids. Considering approximately 50 percent share of the residential and the commercial sectors in the electricity demand market, the significance of these impacts, and the necessity of addressing them are more highlighted. Utilities and power system operators should manage the renewable electricity sources integration with power systems in such a way to extract the most possible advantages for the power systems. The most common effect of high penetration level of the renewables is the reverse power flow in the distribution feeders when the customers generate more power than their needs. The reverse power flow causes voltage rise and thermal issues in the power grids. To overcome the voltage rise issues in the distribution system, several techniques have been proposed including reducing transformers short circuit resistance and feeder impedance, installing autotransformers/voltage regulators along the line, absorbing the reactive power by distributed generators (DGs), and limiting the PV and battery sizes. In this study, we consider a medium-scale battery energy storage to manage the power energy and address the aforementioned issues on voltage deviation and power loss increase. We propose an optimization algorithm to find the optimum size and location for the battery. The optimization for the battery location and size is so that the battery maintains the feeder voltage deviation and power loss at a certain desired level. Moreover, the proposed optimization algorithm controls the charging/discharging profile of the battery to absorb the negative power flow from residential and commercial customers in the feeder during the peak time and sell the power back to the system during the off-peak time. The proposed battery regulates the voltage problem in the distribution system while it also can play frequency regulation role in islanded microgrids. This battery can be regulated and controlled by the utilities or a third-party ancillary service provider for the utilities to reduce the power system loss and regulate the distribution feeder voltage and frequency in standard level.

Keywords: ancillary services, battery, distribution system and optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
2155 Internal Node Stabilization for Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Multi-Channel Systems

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer by the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a voltage sense amplifier. Due to its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transition, the input sides are inevitably disturbed. It can possible disturb the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization technique is proposed by utilizing an additional biasing circuit. It achieves 47% and 43% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: voltage sense amplifier, voltage transition, node stabilization, biasing circuits

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
2154 Low Trigger Voltage Silicon Controlled Rectifier Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for High Voltage Applications

Authors: Kyoung-Il Do, Jun-Geol Park, Hee-Guk Chae, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

A SCR stacking structure is proposed to have improved Latch-up immunity. In comparison with conventional SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), the proposed Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit has a lower trigger characteristic by using the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Trigger) structure. Also the proposed ESD protection circuit has improved Holding Voltage Characteristic by using N-stack technique. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity in operating conditions. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD. It has a trigger voltage of 8.9V and a holding voltage of 1.8V in a single structure. And when applying the stack technique, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 3.8V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 5.1 V.

Keywords: electrostatic discharge (ESD), low voltage trigger silicon controlled rectifier (LVTSCR), MVTSCR, power clamp, silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), latch-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2153 Voltage and Current Control of Microgrid in Grid Connected and Islanded Modes

Authors: Megha Chavda, Parth Thummar, Rahul Ghetia

Abstract:

This paper presents the voltage and current control of microgrid accompanied by the synchronization of microgrid with the main utility grid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) satisfy the wide-spread power demand of consumer by behaving as a micro source for a low voltage (LV) grid or microgrid. Synchronization of the microgrid with the main utility grid is done using PLL and PWM gate pulse generation technique is used for the Voltage Source Converter. Potential Function method achieves the voltage and current control of this microgrid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. A low voltage grid consisting of three distributed generators (DG) is considered for the study and is simulated in time-domain using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results depict the appropriateness of voltage and current control of microgrid and synchronization of microgrid with the medium voltage (MV) grid.

Keywords: microgrid, distributed energy resources, voltage and current control, voltage source converter, pulse width modulation, phase locked loop

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
2152 Transient Enhanced LDO Voltage Regulator with Improved Feed Forward Path Compensation

Authors: A. Suresh, Sreehari Rao Patri, K. S. R. Krishnaprasad

Abstract:

An ultra low power capacitor less low-dropout voltage regulator with improved transient response using gain enhanced feed forward path compensation is presented in this paper. It is based on a cascade of a voltage amplifier and a transconductor stage in the feed forward path with regular error amplifier to form a composite gain-enhanced feed forward stage. It broadens the gain bandwidth and thus improves the transient response without substantial increase in power consumption. The proposed LDO, designed for a maximum output current of 100 mA in UMC 180 nm, requires a quiescent current of 69 µA. An undershoot of 153.79mV for a load current changes from 0mA to 100mA and an overshoot of 196.24mV for current change of 100mA to 0mA. The settling time is approximately 1.1 µs for the output voltage undershoot case. The load regulation is of 2.77 µV/mA at load current of 100mA. Reference voltage is generated by using an accurate band gap reference circuit of 0.8V.The costly features of SOC such as total chip area and power consumption is drastically reduced by the use of only a total compensation capacitance of 6pF while consuming power consumption of 0.096 mW.

Keywords: capacitor-less LDO, frequency compensation, transient response, latch, self-biased differential amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 377