Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 120

Search results for: unconventional gas

120 Unconventional Hydrocarbon Management Strategy

Authors: Edi Artono, Budi Tamtomo, Gema Wahyudi Purnama

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The world energy demand increasing extreamly high time by time, including domestic demand. That is impossible to avoid because energy a country demand proportional to surge in the number of residents, economic growth and addition of industrial sector. Domestic Oil and gas conventional reserves depleted naturally while production outcome from reservoir also depleted time to time. In the other hand, new reserve did not discover significantly to replace it all. Many people are investigating to looking for new alternative energy to answer the challenge. There are several option to solve energy fossil needed problem using Unconventional Hydrocarbon. There are four aspects to consider as a management reference in order that Unconventional Hydrocarbon business can work properly, divided to: 1. Legal aspect, 2. Environmental aspect, 3. Technical aspect and 4. Economy aspect. The economic aspect as the key to whether or not a project can be implemented or not in Oil and Gas business scheme, so do Unconventional Hydorcarbon business scheme. The support of regulation are needed to buttress Unconventional Hydorcarbon business grow up and make benefits contribute to Government.

Keywords: alternative energy, unconventional hydrocarbon, regulation support, management strategy

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119 Identification of Shocks from Unconventional Monetary Policy Measures

Authors: Margarita Grushanina

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After several prominent central banks including European Central Bank (ECB), Federal Reserve System (Fed), Bank of Japan and Bank of England employed unconventional monetary policies in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008-2009 the problem of identification of the effects from such policies became of great interest. One of the main difficulties in identification of shocks from unconventional monetary policy measures in structural VAR analysis is that they often are anticipated, which leads to a non-fundamental MA representation of the VAR model. Moreover, the unconventional monetary policy actions may indirectly transmit to markets information about the future stance of the interest rate, which raises a question of the plausibility of the assumption of orthogonality between shocks from unconventional and conventional policy measures. This paper offers a method of identification that takes into account the abovementioned issues. The author uses factor-augmented VARs to increase the information set and identification through heteroskedasticity of error terms and rank restrictions on the errors’ second moments’ matrix to deal with the cross-correlation of the structural shocks.

Keywords: factor-augmented VARs, identification through heteroskedasticity, monetary policy, structural VARs

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
118 Application of Unconventional Materials for ‘Statement Jewellery’

Authors: Shaleni Bajpai, V. Niveditha

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A fashion accessory is a product which used to give secondary way to the wearer’s outfit. The term came into use in the 19th century and was specifically chosen to complement the wearer’s look. The aim of project was to introduce the unconventional materials for statement jewellery. The materials used for statement jewellery were waste Cd’s, and scrap fabric. These materials were amalgamated with the traditional raw materials such as beads, sequins, charms and chains to form unique jewellery sets. The sets were divided into two categories based on the type of raw material used i.e. Category 1: Clef-Cd Jewellery, Category 2: Crumb-Fabric Jewellery. Each Jewellery set consisted of a necklace, a pair of earrings, a ring and a bracelet.

Keywords: statement jewellery, unconventional, crumb fabric, Cd’s

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
117 Technology Valuation of Unconventional Gas R&D Project Using Real Option Approach

Authors: Young Yoon, Jinsoo Kim

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The adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT) in all industry is growing under industry 4.0. Many oil companies also are increasingly adopting ICT to improve the efficiency of existing operations, take more accurate and quicker decision making and reduce entire cost by optimization. It is true that ICT is playing an important role in the process of unconventional oil and gas development and companies must take advantage of ICT to gain competitive advantage. In this study, real option approach has been applied to Unconventional gas R&D project to evaluate ICT of them. Many unconventional gas reserves such as shale gas and coal-bed methane(CBM) has developed due to technological improvement and high energy price. There are many uncertainties in unconventional development on the three stage(Exploration, Development, Production). The traditional quantitative benefits-cost method, such as net present value(NPV) is not sufficient for capturing ICT value. We attempted to evaluate the ICT valuation by applying the compound option model; the model is applied to real CBM project case, showing how it consider uncertainties. Variables are treated as uncertain and a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to consider variables effect. Acknowledgement—This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20152510101880) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-205S1A3A2046684).

Keywords: information and communication technologies, R&D, real option, unconventional gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
116 Impact of Unconventional Waters on Spirulina Production under Greenhouse Condition in Ouargla

Authors: Afaf Djaghoubi, Mustapha Daddi Bouhoun, Jr., Ali Seggai

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The study of the habitat of Spirulina is the key to ensure the smooth running of its culture outside of its natural habitat. Our experimental work in the Ouargla basin which aims to study the Spirulina productivity cultivated under greenhouse in unconventional waters enriched and non-enriched, drainage and wastewater treated were used in the experiment. For this, we proceeded to measure the biomass concentration by the DO625. The high biomass concentration and productivity amount were in treated wastewater enriched with 2.49±1.09 and 0.12±0.57 respectively, while The high amount in drainage water were in medium enriched with 2.19 ± 0.85 g/l and 0.08±0.52 g/l/d respectively. In spite of the enrichment and the good productivity of these waters, the chemical and microbiological qualities remain to study for a better valuation.

Keywords: Algeria, Ouargla, production, Spirulina, unconventional water

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
115 Analysis of Production Forecasting in Unconventional Gas Resources Development Using Machine Learning and Data-Driven Approach

Authors: Dongkwon Han, Sangho Kim, Sunil Kwon

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Unconventional gas resources have dramatically changed the future energy landscape. Unlike conventional gas resources, the key challenges in unconventional gas have been the requirement that applies to advanced approaches for production forecasting due to uncertainty and complexity of fluid flow. In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) model which integrates machine learning and data-driven approach was developed to predict productivity in shale gas. The database of 129 wells of Eagle Ford shale basin used for testing and training of the ANN model. The Input data related to hydraulic fracturing, well completion and productivity of shale gas were selected and the output data is a cumulative production. The performance of the ANN using all data sets, clustering and variables importance (VI) models were compared in the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). ANN model using all data sets, clustering, and VI were obtained as 44.22%, 10.08% (cluster 1), 5.26% (cluster 2), 6.35%(cluster 3), and 32.23% (ANN VI), 23.19% (SVM VI), respectively. The results showed that the pre-trained ANN model provides more accurate results than the ANN model using all data sets.

Keywords: unconventional gas, artificial neural network, machine learning, clustering, variables importance

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114 Defining Unconventional Hydrocarbon Parameter Using Shale Play Concept

Authors: Rudi Ryacudu, Edi Artono, Gema Wahyudi Purnama

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Oil and gas consumption in Indonesia is currently on the rise due to its nation economic improvement. Unfortunately, Indonesia’s domestic oil production cannot meet it’s own consumption and Indonesia has lost its status as Oil and Gas exporter. Even worse, our conventional oil and gas reserve is declining. Unwilling to give up, the government of Indonesia has taken measures to invite investors to invest in domestic oil and gas exploration to find new potential reserve and ultimately increase production. Yet, it has not bear any fruit. Indonesia has taken steps now to explore new unconventional oil and gas play including Shale Gas, Shale Oil and Tight Sands to increase domestic production. These new plays require definite parameters to differentiate each concept. The purpose of this paper is to provide ways in defining unconventional hydrocarbon reservoir parameters in Shale Gas, Shale Oil and Tight Sands. The parameters would serve as an initial baseline for users to perform analysis of unconventional hydrocarbon plays. Some of the on going concerns or question to be answered in regards to unconventional hydrocarbon plays includes: 1. The TOC number, 2. Has it been well “cooked” and become a hydrocarbon, 3. What are the permeability and the porosity values, 4. Does it need a stimulation, 5. Does it has pores, and 6. Does it have sufficient thickness. In contrast with the common oil and gas conventional play, Shale Play assumes that hydrocarbon is retained and trapped in area with very low permeability. In most places in Indonesia, hydrocarbon migrates from source rock to reservoir. From this case, we could derive a theory that Kitchen and Source Rock are located right below the reservoir. It is the starting point for user or engineer to construct basin definition in relation with the tectonic play and depositional environment. Shale Play concept requires definition of characteristic, description and reservoir identification to discover reservoir that is technically and economically possible to develop. These are the steps users and engineers has to do to perform Shale Play: a. Calculate TOC and perform mineralogy analysis using water saturation and porosity value. b. Reconstruct basin that accumulate hydrocarbon c. Brittlenes Index calculated form petrophysical and distributed based on seismic multi attributes d. Integrated natural fracture analysis e. Best location to place a well.

Keywords: unconventional hydrocarbon, shale gas, shale oil tight sand reservoir parameters, shale play

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113 Microseismics: Application in Hydrocarbon Reservoir Management

Authors: Rahul Kumar Singh, Apurva Sharma, Dilip Kumar Srivastava

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Tilting of our interest towards unconventional exploitation of hydrocarbons has raised a serious concern to environmentalists. Emerging technologies like horizontal/multi-lateral drilling with subsequent hydraulic fracturing or fracking etc., for exploitation of different conventional/unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs, are related to creating micro-level seismic events below the surface of the earth. Monitoring of these micro-level seismic events is not possible by the conventional methodology of the seismic method. So, to tackle this issue, a new technology that is microseismic is very much in discussions around the globe. Multiple researches are being carried out these days around the globe in order to prove microseismic as a new essential in the E & P industry, especially for unconventional reservoir management. Microseismic monitoring is now used for reservoir surveillance, and the best application is checking the integrity of the caprock and containment of fluid in it. In general, in whatever terms we want to use micro-seismic related events monitoring and understanding the effectiveness of stimulation, this technology offers a lot of value in terms of insight into the subsurface characteristics and processes, and this makes it really a good geophysical method to be used in future.

Keywords: microseismic, monitoring, hydraulic fracturing or fracking, reservoir surveillance, seismic hazards

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
112 Applying Big Data Analysis to Efficiently Exploit the Vast Unconventional Tight Oil Reserves

Authors: Shengnan Chen, Shuhua Wang

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Successful production of hydrocarbon from unconventional tight oil reserves has changed the energy landscape in North America. The oil contained within these reservoirs typically will not flow to the wellbore at economic rates without assistance from advanced horizontal well and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Efficient and economic development of these reserves is a priority of society, government, and industry, especially under the current low oil prices. Meanwhile, society needs technological and process innovations to enhance oil recovery while concurrently reducing environmental impacts. Recently, big data analysis and artificial intelligence become very popular, developing data-driven insights for better designs and decisions in various engineering disciplines. However, the application of data mining in petroleum engineering is still in its infancy. The objective of this research aims to apply intelligent data analysis and data-driven models to exploit unconventional oil reserves both efficiently and economically. More specifically, a comprehensive database including the reservoir geological data, reservoir geophysical data, well completion data and production data for thousands of wells is firstly established to discover the valuable insights and knowledge related to tight oil reserves development. Several data analysis methods are introduced to analysis such a huge dataset. For example, K-means clustering is used to partition all observations into clusters; principle component analysis is applied to emphasize the variation and bring out strong patterns in the dataset, making the big data easy to explore and visualize; exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used to identify the complex interrelationships between well completion data and well production data. Different data mining techniques, such as artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, and machine learning technique are then summarized, and appropriate ones are selected to analyze the database based on the prediction accuracy, model robustness, and reproducibility. Advanced knowledge and patterned are finally recognized and integrated into a modified self-adaptive differential evolution optimization workflow to enhance the oil recovery and maximize the net present value (NPV) of the unconventional oil resources. This research will advance the knowledge in the development of unconventional oil reserves and bridge the gap between the big data and performance optimizations in these formations. The newly developed data-driven optimization workflow is a powerful approach to guide field operation, which leads to better designs, higher oil recovery and economic return of future wells in the unconventional oil reserves.

Keywords: big data, artificial intelligence, enhance oil recovery, unconventional oil reserves

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111 Aseismic Stiffening of Architectural Buildings as Preventive Restoration Using Unconventional Materials

Authors: Jefto Terzovic, Ana Kontic, Isidora Ilic

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In the proposed design concept, laminated glass and laminated plexiglass, as ”unconventional materials”, are considered as a filling in a steel frame on which they overlap by the intermediate rubber layer, thereby forming a composite assembly. In this way vertical elements of stiffening are formed, capable for reception of seismic force and integrated into the structural system of the building. The applicability of such a system was verified by experiments in laboratory conditions where the experimental models based on laminated glass and laminated plexiglass had been exposed to the cyclic loads that simulate the seismic force. In this way the load capacity of composite assemblies was tested for the effects of dynamic load that was parallel to assembly plane. Thus, the stress intensity to which composite systems might be exposed was determined as well as the range of the structure stiffening referring to the expressed deformation along with the advantages of a particular type of filling compared to the other one. Using specialized software whose operation is based on the finite element method, a computer model of the structure was created and processed in the case study; the same computer model was used for analyzing the problem in the first phase of the design process. The stiffening system based on composite assemblies tested in laboratories is implemented in the computer model. The results of the modal analysis and seismic calculation from the computer model with stiffeners applied showed an efficacy of such a solution, thus rounding the design procedures for aseismic stiffening by using unconventional materials.

Keywords: laminated glass, laminated plexiglass, aseismic stiffening, experiment, laboratory testing, computer model, finite element method

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110 Evaluation of Shale Gas Resource Potential of the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

Authors: Ovye Yohanna Musah

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Shale formations of the Middle Benue Trough in North Central Nigeria present a variety of opportunities for the exploration, development and exploitation of unconventional natural gas. Prospective formations range in age from Albian through Coniacian; they include the Asu River Group, Awe, Ezeaku and the Awgu formations, however, the Keana and Lafia formations are thought to be of lesser importance. The Awgu formation presents the best prospect when compared to the Barnett Shales of Fort Worth Basin in Texa, United States with regards to the organic matter maturition, TOC content of formation and shale thicknesses which are key attributes that aid in determining the economic viability of any shale gas play. The vitrinite reflectance value from Rock Eval pyrolysis for Awe and Awgu formations are 0.89—1.34(%) and 0.83—1.13(%) respectively and are good and sufficiently mature to generate gas from the Benue Trough. The TOC value are good for Awgu formation which is 0.83—6.54(%) and closest to that of the Barnett at 1—4.5(%). Asu River and Ezeaku are less viable. Furthermore, the High to Medium Volatile bituminous coals found in the Awgu formation are characterized by high TOC contents which may enhance gas generation and this is good for further examination and possible development.

Keywords: shale gas, resource, unconventional, benue, TOC

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109 Unconventional Composite Inorganic Membrane Fabrication for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

Authors: Ngozi Nwogu, Godson Osueke, Mamdud Hossain, Edward Gobina

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An unconventional composite inorganic ceramic membrane capable in carbon dioxide emission decline was fabricated and tested at laboratory scale to develop in conformism to various environmental guidelines to mitigate the effect of global warming. A review of the existing membrane technologies for carbon capture including the relevant gas transport mechanisms are presented and discussed. Single gas separation experiments using silica modified ceramic membrane with internal diameter 20mm, outside diameter 25mm and length of 368mm deposited on a macro porous supported reactor.was carried out to investigate individual gas permeation behaviours at different pressures and membrane efficiency after a dip coating method. Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Argon, Oxygen and Methane pure gases were used to investigate their individual permeation rates at various pressures. Results show that the gas flow rate increases with pressure drop. However at above a pressure of 3bar, CO2 permeability ratio to than the other gases indicated control of a more selective surface adsorptive transport mechanism.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, composite membranes, permeability, transport mechanisms

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108 Medical versus Non-Medical Students' Opinions about Academic Stress Management Using Unconventional Therapies

Authors: Ramona-Niculina Jurcau, Ioana-Marieta Jurcau, Dong Hun Kwak, Nicolae-Alexandru Colceriu

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Background: Stress management (SM) is a topic of great academic interest and equally a task to accomplish. In addition, it is recognized the beneficial role of unconventional therapies (UCT) in stress modulation. Aims: The aim was to evaluate medical (MS) versus non-medical students’ (NMS) opinions about academic stress management (ASM) using UCT. Methods: MS (n=103, third year males and females) and NMS (n=112, males and females, from humanities faculties, different years of study), out of their academic program, voluntarily answered to a questionnaire concerning: a) Classification of the four most important academic stress factors; b) The extent to which their daily life influences academic stress; c) The most important SM methods they know; d) Which of these methods they are applying; e) the UCT they know or about which they have heard; f) Which of these they know to have stress modulation effects; g) Which of these UCT, participants are using or would like to use for modulating stress; and if participants use UTC for their own choose or following a specialist consultation in those therapies (SCT); h) If they heard about the following UCT and what opinion they have (using visual analogue scale) about their use (following CST) for the ASM: Phytotherapy (PT), apitherapy (AT), homeopathy (H), ayurvedic medicine (AM), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), music therapy (MT), color therapy (CT), forest therapy (FT). Results: Among the four most important academic stress factors, for MS more than for NMS, are: busy schedule, large amount of information taught; high level of performance required, reduced time for relaxing. The most important methods for SM that MS and NMS know, hierarchically are: listen to music, meeting friends, playing sport, hiking, sleep, regularly breaks, seeing positive side, faith; of which, NMS more than MS, are partially applying to themselves. UCT about which MS and less NMS have heard, are phytotherapy, apitherapy, acupuncture, reiki. Of these UTC, participants know to have stress modulation effects: some plants, bee’s products and music; they use or would like to use for ASM (the majority without SCT) certain teas, honey and music. Most of MS and only some NMS heard about PT, AT, TCM, MT and much less about H, AM, CT, TT. NMS more than MS, would use these UCT, following CST. Conclusions: 1) Academic stress is similarly reflected in MS and NMS opinions. 2) MS and NMS apply similar but very few UCT for stress modulation. 3) Information that MS and NMS have about UCT and their ASM application is reduced. 4) It is remarkable that MS and especially NMS, are open to UCT use for ASM, following an SCT.

Keywords: academic stress, stress management, stress modulation, medical students, non-medical students, unconventional therapies

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107 Gas Injection Transport Mechanism for Shale Oil Recovery

Authors: Chinedu Ejike

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The United States is now energy self-sufficient due to the production of shale oil reserves. With more than half of it being tapped daily in the United States, these unconventional reserves are massive and provide immense potential for future energy demands. Drilling horizontal wells and fracking are the primary methods for developing these reserves. Regrettably, recovery efficiency is rarely greater than 10%. As a result, optimizing recuperation offers a significant benefit. Huff and puff gas flooding and cyclic gas injection have all been demonstrated to be more successful than tapping the remaining oil in place. Methane, nitrogen, and carbon (IV) oxide, among other high-pressure gases, can be injected. Operators use Darcy's law to assess a reservoir's productive capacity, but they are unaware that the law may not apply to shale oil reserves. This is due to the fact that, unlike pressure differences alone, diffusion, concentration, and gas selection all play a role in the flow of gas injected into the wellbore. The reservoir drainage and oil sweep efficiency rates are determined by the transport method. This research assesses the parameters that influence the gas injection transport mechanism. Understanding the process causing these factors could accelerate recovery by two to three times, according to peer-reviewed studies and effective field testing.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, gas injection, shale oil, transport mechanism, unconventional reserve

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
106 Mature Field Rejuvenation Using Hydraulic Fracturing: A Case Study of Tight Mature Oilfield with Reveal Simulator

Authors: Amir Gharavi, Mohamed Hassan, Amjad Shah

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The main characteristics of unconventional reservoirs include low-to ultra low permeability and low-to-moderate porosity. As a result, hydrocarbon production from these reservoirs requires different extraction technologies than from conventional resources. An unconventional reservoir must be stimulated to produce hydrocarbons at an acceptable flow rate to recover commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. Permeability for unconventional reservoirs is mostly below 0.1 mD, and reservoirs with permeability above 0.1 mD are generally considered to be conventional. The hydrocarbon held in these formations naturally will not move towards producing wells at economic rates without aid from hydraulic fracturing which is the only technique to assess these tight reservoir productions. Horizontal well with multi-stage fracking is the key technique to maximize stimulated reservoir volume and achieve commercial production. The main objective of this research paper is to investigate development options for a tight mature oilfield. This includes multistage hydraulic fracturing and spacing by building of reservoir models in the Reveal simulator to model potential development options based on sidetracking the existing vertical well. To simulate potential options, reservoir models have been built in the Reveal. An existing Petrel geological model was used to build the static parts of these models. A FBHP limit of 40bars was assumed to take into account pump operating limits and to maintain the reservoir pressure above the bubble point. 300m, 600m and 900m lateral length wells were modelled, in conjunction with 4, 6 and 8 stages of fracs. Simulation results indicate that higher initial recoveries and peak oil rates are obtained with longer well lengths and also with more fracs and spacing. For a 25year forecast, the ultimate recovery ranging from 0.4% to 2.56% for 300m and 1000m laterals respectively. The 900m lateral with 8 fracs 100m spacing gave the highest peak rate of 120m3/day, with the 600m and 300m cases giving initial peak rates of 110m3/day. Similarly, recovery factor for the 900m lateral with 8 fracs and 100m spacing was the highest at 2.65% after 25 years. The corresponding values for the 300m and 600m laterals were 2.37% and 2.42%. Therefore, the study suggests that longer laterals with 8 fracs and 100m spacing provided the optimal recovery, and this design is recommended as the basis for further study.

Keywords: unconventional, resource, hydraulic, fracturing

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105 Research on Low interfacial Tension Viscoelastic Fluid Oil Displacement System in Unconventional Reservoir

Authors: Long Long Chen, Xinwei Liao, Shanfa Tang, Shaojing Jiang, Ruijia Tang, Rui Wang, Shu Yun Feng, Si Yao Wang

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Unconventional oil reservoirs have the characteristics of strong heterogeneity and poor injectability, and traditional chemical flooding technology is not effective in such reservoirs; polymer flooding in the production of heavy oil reservoirs is difficult to handle produced fluid and easy to block oil wells, etc. Therefore, a viscoelastic fluid flooding system with good adaptability, low interfacial tension, plugging, and diverting capabilities was studied. The viscosity, viscoelasticity, surface/interfacial activity, wettability, emulsification, and oil displacement performance of the anionic Gemini surfactant flooding system were studied, and the adaptability of the system to the reservoir environment was evaluated. The oil displacement effect of the system in low-permeability and high-permeability (heavy oil) reservoirs was investigated, and the mechanism of the system to enhance water flooding recovery was discussed. The results show that the system has temperature resistance and viscosity increasing performance (65℃, 4.12mPa•s), shear resistance and viscoelasticity; at a lower concentration (0.5%), the oil-water interfacial tension can be reduced to ultra-low (10-3mN/m); has good emulsifying ability for heavy oil, and is easy to break demulsification (4.5min); has good adaptability to reservoirs with high salinity (30000mg/L). Oil flooding experiments show that this system can increase the water flooding recovery rate of low-permeability homogeneous and heterogeneous cores by 13% and 15%, respectively, and can increase the water-flooding recovery rate of high-permeability heavy oil reservoirs by 40%. The anionic Gemini surfactant flooding system studied in this paper is a viscoelastic fluid, has good emulsifying and oil washing ability, can effectively improve sweep efficiency, reduce injection pressure, and has broad application in unconventional reservoirs to enhance oil recovery prospect.

Keywords: oil displacement system, recovery factor, rheology, interfacial activity, environmental adaptability

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104 Exploration of Hydrocarbon Unconventional Accumulations in the Argillaceous Formation of the Autochthonous Miocene Succession in the Carpathian Foredeep

Authors: Wojciech Górecki, Anna Sowiżdżał, Grzegorz Machowski, Tomasz Maćkowski, Bartosz Papiernik, Michał Stefaniuk

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The article shows results of the project which aims at evaluating possibilities of effective development and exploitation of natural gas from argillaceous series of the Autochthonous Miocene in the Carpathian Foredeep. To achieve the objective, the research team develop a world-trend based but unique methodology of processing and interpretation, adjusted to data, local variations and petroleum characteristics of the area. In order to determine the zones in which maximum volumes of hydrocarbons might have been generated and preserved as shale gas reservoirs, as well as to identify the most preferable well sites where largest gas accumulations are anticipated a number of task were accomplished. Evaluation of petrophysical properties and hydrocarbon saturation of the Miocene complex is based on laboratory measurements as well as interpretation of well-logs and archival data. The studies apply mercury porosimetry (MICP), micro CT and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (using the Rock Core Analyzer). For prospective location (e.g. central part of Carpathian Foredeep – Brzesko-Wojnicz area) reprocessing and reinterpretation of detailed seismic survey data with the use of integrated geophysical investigations has been made. Construction of quantitative, structural and parametric models for selected areas of the Carpathian Foredeep is performed on the basis of integrated, detailed 3D computer models. Modeling are carried on with the Schlumberger’s Petrel software. Finally, prospective zones are spatially contoured in a form of regional 3D grid, which will be framework for generation modelling and comprehensive parametric mapping, allowing for spatial identification of the most prospective zones of unconventional gas accumulation in the Carpathian Foredeep. Preliminary results of research works indicate a potentially prospective area for occurrence of unconventional gas accumulations in the Polish part of Carpathian Foredeep.

Keywords: autochthonous Miocene, Carpathian foredeep, Poland, shale gas

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103 Recommended Practice for Experimental Evaluation of the Seepage Sensitivity Damage of Coalbed Methane Reservoirs

Authors: Hao Liu, Lihui Zheng, Chinedu J. Okere, Chao Wang, Xiangchun Wang, Peng Zhang

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The coalbed methane (CBM) extraction industry (an unconventional energy source) is yet to promulgated an established standard code of practice for the experimental evaluation of sensitivity damage of coal samples. The existing experimental process of previous researches mainly followed the industry standard for conventional oil and gas reservoirs (CIS). However, the existing evaluation method ignores certain critical differences between CBM reservoirs and conventional reservoirs, which could inevitably result in an inaccurate evaluation of sensitivity damage and, eventually, poor decisions regarding the formulation of formation damage prevention measures. In this study, we propose improved experimental guidelines for evaluating seepage sensitivity damage of CBM reservoirs by leveraging on the shortcomings of the existing methods. The proposed method was established via a theoretical analysis of the main drawbacks of the existing methods and validated through comparative experiments. The results show that the proposed evaluation technique provided reliable experimental results that can better reflect actual reservoir conditions and correctly guide future development of CBM reservoirs. This study is pioneering the research on the optimization of experimental parameters for efficient exploration and development of CBM reservoirs.

Keywords: coalbed methane, formation damage, permeability, unconventional energy source

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
102 Estimating CO₂ Storage Capacity under Geological Uncertainty Using 3D Geological Modeling of Unconventional Reservoir Rocks in Block nv32, Shenvsi Oilfield, China

Authors: Ayman Mutahar Alrassas, Shaoran Ren, Renyuan Ren, Hung Vo Thanh, Mohammed Hail Hakimi, Zhenliang Guan

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The significant effect of CO₂ on global climate and the environment has gained more concern worldwide. Enhance oil recovery (EOR) associated with sequestration of CO₂ particularly into the depleted oil reservoir is considered the viable approach under financial limitations since it improves the oil recovery from the existing oil reservoir and boosts the relation between global-scale of CO₂ capture and geological sequestration. Consequently, practical measurements are required to attain large-scale CO₂ emission reduction. This paper presents an integrated modeling workflow to construct an accurate 3D reservoir geological model to estimate the storage capacity of CO₂ under geological uncertainty in an unconventional oil reservoir of the Paleogene Shahejie Formation (Es1) in the block Nv32, Shenvsi oilfield, China. In this regard, geophysical data, including well logs of twenty-two well locations and seismic data, were combined with geological and engineering data and used to construct a 3D reservoir geological modeling. The geological modeling focused on four tight reservoir units of the Shahejie Formation (Es1-x1, Es1-x2, Es1-x3, and Es1-x4). The validated 3D reservoir models were subsequently used to calculate the theoretical CO₂ storage capacity in the block Nv32, Shenvsi oilfield. Well logs were utilized to predict petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability, and lithofacies and indicate that the Es1 reservoir units are mainly sandstone, shale, and limestone with a proportion of 38.09%, 32.42%, and 29.49, respectively. Well log-based petrophysical results also show that the Es1 reservoir units generally exhibit 2–36% porosity, 0.017 mD to 974.8 mD permeability, and moderate to good net to gross ratios. These estimated values of porosity, permeability, lithofacies, and net to gross were up-scaled and distributed laterally using Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) and Simulation Sequential Indicator (SIS) methods to generate 3D reservoir geological models. The reservoir geological models show there are lateral heterogeneities of the reservoir properties and lithofacies, and the best reservoir rocks exist in the Es1-x4, Es1-x3, and Es1-x2 units, respectively. In addition, the reservoir volumetric of the Es1 units in block Nv32 was also estimated based on the petrophysical property models and fund to be between 0.554368

Keywords: CO₂ storage capacity, 3D geological model, geological uncertainty, unconventional oil reservoir, block Nv32

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101 Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Sun Lu, Syed Jamal-Ud-Din, Xinzhe Zhao

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A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.

Keywords: tight reservoirs, cyclic O₂ injection, asphaltene, solubility, reservoir simulation

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100 The Aesthetic Manifestations of Nothingness in Contemporary Visual Arts Practice

Authors: Robyn Therese Munnick

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This paper aims to report on a qualitative practice-based research study which explores the notion of nothingness and how it (nothingness) is the conceptual and theoretical foundation for artistic practice. Furthermore, this study explicates how the artist used their mother’s battle with cancer and the subsequent void it created as source material for the artistic expression of nothingness. The diagnosis which was followed by a physical and emotional absence of the matriarch of the artist family led to an emotional trauma that triggered a feeling of nothingness within the artist. The overarching problem in the study is thus: how this ‘nothingness’ could be expressed in visual art? Nothingness, as a product of expectation, is a notion which refers to where something used to be, should be or isn’t anymore, which attempts to grasp what is there by not being there. In attempting to express nothingness, the research aims to build on an exploration of various materials and modes utilized in order to underpin the research objectives. The primary mode of delivery for the art-making process is painting. However, through strengthening the messages and meaning of the hypothesis of nothingness within the art and research, the use of further modes and materials became pivotal. This involves the use of unconventional contrasting modes within a painting such as the cloth doily, thread, tubing, ceramics, food colour, spray paint, polyvinyl acetate paint, plaster, wooden boxes and fragments thereof. These materials and modes were vital in visualising and aestheticising the conceptual underpinnings of the research. As a result, this strengthened and emancipated the art from the traditional bounds of pure painting. Methods of data gathering took the form of artefacts, document analysis, and field notes in the form of photographic journaling. Ultimately the body of work and research validates that the idea of nothingness can be artistically explored.

Keywords: conceptual, nothingness, modes, unconventional

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99 Influence of Confinement on Phase Behavior in Unconventional Gas Condensate Reservoirs

Authors: Szymon Kuczynski

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Poland is characterized by the presence of numerous sedimentary basins and hydrocarbon provinces. Since 2006 exploration for hydrocarbons in Poland become gradually more focus on new unconventional targets, particularly on the shale gas potential of the Upper Ordovician and Lower Silurian in the Baltic-Podlasie-Lublin Basin. The first forecast prepared by US Energy Information Administration in 2011 indicated to 5.3 Tcm of natural gas. In 2012, Polish Geological Institute presented its own forecast which estimated maximum reserves on 1.92 Tcm. The difference in the estimates was caused by problems with calculations of the initial amount of adsorbed, as well as free, gas trapped in shale rocks (GIIP - Gas Initially in Place). This value is dependent from sorption capacity, gas saturation and mutual interactions between gas, water, and rock. Determination of the reservoir type in the initial exploration phase brings essential knowledge, which has an impact on decisions related to the production. The study of porosity impact for phase envelope shift eliminates errors and improves production profitability. Confinement phenomenon affects flow characteristics, fluid properties, and phase equilibrium. The thermodynamic behavior of confined fluids in porous media is subject to the basic considerations for industrial applications such as hydrocarbons production. In particular the knowledge of the phase equilibrium and the critical properties of the contained fluid is essential for the design and optimization of such process. In pores with a small diameter (nanopores), the effect of the wall interaction with the fluid particles becomes significant and occurs in shale formations. Nano pore size is similar to the fluid particles’ diameter and the area of particles which flow without interaction with pore wall is almost equal to the area where this phenomenon occurs. The molecular simulation studies have shown an effect of confinement to the pseudo critical properties. Therefore, the critical parameters pressure and temperature and the flow characteristics of hydrocarbons in terms of nano-scale are under the strong influence of fluid particles with the pore wall. It can be concluded that the impact of a single pore size is crucial when it comes to the nanoscale because there is possible the above-described effect. Nano- porosity makes it difficult to predict the flow of reservoir fluid. Research are conducted to explain the mechanisms of fluid flow in the nanopores and gas extraction from porous media by desorption.

Keywords: adsorption, capillary condensation, phase envelope, nanopores, unconventional natural gas

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98 Features of Fossil Fuels Generation from Bazhenov Formation Source Rocks by Hydropyrolysis

Authors: Anton G. Kalmykov, Andrew Yu. Bychkov, Georgy A. Kalmykov

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Nowadays, most oil reserves in Russia and all over the world are hard to recover. That is the reason oil companies are searching for new sources for hydrocarbon production. One of the sources might be high-carbon formations with unconventional reservoirs. Bazhenov formation is a huge source rock formation located in West Siberia, which contains unconventional reservoirs on some of the areas. These reservoirs are formed by secondary processes with low predicting ratio. Only one of five wells is drilled through unconventional reservoirs, in others kerogen has low thermal maturity, and they are of low petroliferous. Therefore, there was a request for tertiary methods for in-situ cracking of kerogen and production of oil. Laboratory experiments of Bazhenov formation rock hydrous pyrolysis were used to investigate features of the oil generation process. Experiments on Bazhenov rocks with a different mineral composition (silica concentration from 15 to 90 wt.%, clays – 5-50 wt.%, carbonates – 0-30 wt.%, kerogen – 1-25 wt.%) and thermal maturity (from immature to late oil window kerogen) were performed in a retort under reservoir conditions. Rock samples of 50 g weight were placed in retort, covered with water and heated to the different temperature varied from 250 to 400°C with the durability of the experiments from several hours to one week. After the experiments, the retort was cooled to room temperature; generated hydrocarbons were extracted with hexane, then separated from the solvent and weighted. The molecular composition of this synthesized oil was then investigated via GC-MS chromatography Characteristics of rock samples after the heating was measured via the Rock-Eval method. It was found, that the amount of synthesized oil and its composition depending on the experimental conditions and composition of rocks. The highest amount of oil was produced at a temperature of 350°C after 12 hours of heating and was up to 12 wt.% of initial organic matter content in the rocks. At the higher temperatures and within longer heating time secondary cracking of generated hydrocarbons occurs, the mass of produced oil is lowering, and the composition contains more hydrocarbons that need to be recovered by catalytical processes. If the temperature is lower than 300°C, the amount of produced oil is too low for the process to be economically effective. It was also found that silica and clay minerals work as catalysts. Selection of heating conditions allows producing synthesized oil with specified composition. Kerogen investigations after heating have shown that thermal maturity increases, but the yield is only up to 35% of the maximum amount of synthetic oil. This yield is the result of gaseous hydrocarbons formation due to secondary cracking and aromatization and coaling of kerogen. Future investigations will allow the increase in the yield of synthetic oil. The results are in a good agreement with theoretical data on kerogen maturation during oil production. Evaluated trends could be tooled up for in-situ oil generation by shale rocks thermal action.

Keywords: Bazhenov formation, fossil fuels, hydropyrolysis, synthetic oil

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97 Effect of Wettability Alteration on Production Performance in Unconventional Tight Oil Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Xinzhe Zhao

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In tight oil reservoirs, wettability alteration has generally been considered as an effective way to remove fracturing fluid retention on the surface of the fracture and consequently improved oil production. However, there is a lack of a reliable productivity prediction model to show the relationship between the wettability and oil production in tight oil well. In this paper, a new oil productivity prediction model of immiscible oil-water flow and miscible CO₂-oil flow accounting for wettability is developed. This mathematical model is established by considering two different length scales: nonporous network and propped fractures. CO₂ flow diffuses in the nonporous network and high velocity non-Darcy flow in propped fractures are considered by taking into account the effect of wettability alteration on capillary pressure and relative permeability. A laboratory experiment is also conducted here to validate this model. Laboratory experiments have been designed to compare the water saturation profiles for different contact angle, revealing the fluid retention in rock pores that affects capillary force and relative permeability. Four kinds of brines with different concentrations are selected here to create different contact angles. In water-wet porous media, as the system becomes more oil-wet, water saturation decreases. As a result, oil relative permeability increases. On the other hand, capillary pressure which is the resistance for the oil flow increases as well. The oil production change due to wettability alteration is the result of the comprehensive changes of oil relative permeability and capillary pressure. The results indicate that wettability is a key factor for fracturing fluid retention removal and oil enhancement in tight reservoirs. By incorporating laboratory test into a mathematical model, this work shows the relationship between wettability and oil production is not a simple linear pattern but a parabolic one. Additionally, it can be used for a better understanding of optimization design of fracturing fluids.

Keywords: wettability, relative permeability, fluid retention, oil production, unconventional and tight reservoirs

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96 Experimental Study on Thermomechanical Properties of New-Generation ODS Alloys

Authors: O. Khalaj, B. Mašek, H. Jirková, J. Svoboda

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By using a combination of new technologies together with an unconventional use of different types of materials, specific mechanical properties and structures of the material can be achieved. Some possibilities are enabled by a combination of powder metallurgy in the preparation of a metal matrix with dispersed stable particles achieved by mechanical alloying and hot consolidation. This paper explains the thermomechanical properties of new generation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened alloys (ODS) within three ranges of temperature with specified deformation profiles. The results show that the mechanical properties of new ODS alloys are significantly affected by the thermomechanical treatment.

Keywords: hot forming, ODS, alloys, thermomechanical, Fe-Al, Al2O3

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95 Analysis of Structural and Photocatalytical Properties of Anatase, Rutile and Mixed Phase TiO2 Films Deposited by Pulsed-Direct Current and Radio Frequency Magnetron Co-Sputtering

Authors: S. Varnagiris, M. Urbonavicius, S. Tuckute, M. Lelis, K. Bockute

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Amongst many water purification techniques, TiO2 photocatalysis is recognized as one of the most promising sustainable methods. It is known that for photocatalytical applications anatase is the most suitable TiO2 phase, however heterojunction of anatase/rutile phases could improve the photocatalytical activity of TiO2 even further. Despite the relative simplicity of TiO2 different synthesis methods lead to the highly dispersed crystal phases and photocatalytic activity of the corresponding samples. Accordingly, suggestions and investigations of various innovative methods of TiO2 synthesis are still needed. In this work structural and photocatalytical properties of TiO2 films deposited by the unconventional method of simultaneous co-sputtering from two magnetrons powered by pulsed-Direct Current (pDC) and Radio Frequency (RF) power sources with negative bias voltage have been studied. More specifically, TiO2 film thickness, microstructure, surface roughness, crystal structure, optical transmittance and photocatalytical properties were investigated by profilometer, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively. The proposed unconventional two magnetron co-sputtering based TiO2 film formation method showed very promising results for crystalline TiO2 film formation while keeping process temperatures below 100 °C. XRD analysis revealed that by using proper combination of power source type and bias voltage various TiO2 phases (amorphous, anatase, rutile or their mixture) can be synthesized selectively. Moreover, strong dependency between power source type and surface roughness, as well as between the bias voltage and band gap value of TiO2 films was observed. Interestingly, TiO2 films deposited by two magnetron co-sputtering without bias voltage had one of the highest band gap values between the investigated films but its photocatalytic activity was superior compared to all other samples. It is suggested that this is due to the dominating nanocrystalline anatase phase with various exposed surfaces including photocatalytically the most active {001}.

Keywords: films, magnetron co-sputtering, photocatalysis, TiO₂

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94 English is Not Going to the Dog (E): Rising Fame of Doge Speak

Authors: Beata, Bury

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Doge speak is an Internet variety with its own linguistic patterns and regularities. Doge meme contains some unconventional grammar rules which make it recognizable. With the use of doge corpus, certain characteristics of doge speak as well as reasons for its popularity are analyzed. The study concludes that doge memes can be applied to a variety of situations, for instance advertising or fashion industry. Doge users play with language and create surprising linguistic combinations. To sum up, doge meme making is a multiperson task. Doge users predict and comment on the world with the use of doge memes.

Keywords: dogespeak, internet language, language play, meme

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93 Microfacies and Sedimentary Environment of Potentially Hydrocarbon-Bearing Ordovician and Silurian Deposits of Selected Boreholes in the Baltic Syneclise (NE Poland)

Authors: Katarzyna Sobczak

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Over the last few years extensive research on the Lower Palaeozic of the Baltic region has been carried out, associated with growing interest in the unconventional hydrocarbon resources of the area. The present study contributes to this investigation by providing relevant microfacies analysis of Ordovician and Silurian carbonate and clastic deposits of the Polish part of the Baltic Syneclise, using data from the Kętrzyn IG-1, Henrykowo 1 and Babiak 1 boreholes. The analytical data, encompassing sedimentological, palaeontological, and petrographic indicators enables the interpretation of the sedimentary environments and their control factors. The main microfacies types distinguished within the studied interval are: bioclastic wackestone, bioclastic packstone, carbonate-rich mudstone, marlstone, nodular limestone and bituminous claystone. The Ordovician is represented by redeposited carbonate rocks formed in a relatively high-energy environment (middle shelf setting). The Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian rocks of the studied basin represent sedimentary succession formed during a distinctive marine transgression. Considering the sedimentological and petrological data from the Silurian, a low-energy sedimentary environment (offshore setting) with intermittent high-energy events (tempestites) can be inferred for the sedimentary basin of NE Poland. Slow sedimentation of carbonate ooze and fine-grained siliciclastic rocks, formed under oxygen-deficient conditions of the seabed, favoured organic matter preservation. The presence of the storm beds suggests an episodic nature of seabed oxygenation. A significant part of the analysed depositional successions shows characteristics indicative of deposition from gravity flows, but lacks evidence of its turbidity origins. There is, however, evidence for storms acting as a mechanism of flow activation. The discussed Ordovician-Silurian transition of depositional environments in the Baltic area fits well to the global environmental changes encompassing the Upper Ordovician and the Lower Silurian.

Keywords: Baltic Syneclise, microfacies analysis, Ordovician, Silurian, unconventional hydrocarbons

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92 Flowback Fluids Treatment Technology with Water Recycling and Valuable Metals Recovery

Authors: Monika Konieczyńska, Joanna Fajfer, Olga Lipińska

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In Poland works related to the exploration and prospection of unconventional hydrocarbons (natural gas accumulated in the Silurian shale formations) started in 2007, based on the experience of the other countries that have created new possibilities for the use of existing hydrocarbons resources. The highly water-consuming process of hydraulic fracturing is required for the exploitation of shale gas which implies a need to ensure large volume of water available. As a result considerable amount of mining waste is generated, particularly liquid waste, i.e. flowback fluid with variable chemical composition. The chemical composition of the flowback fluid depends on the composition of the fracturing fluid and the chemistry of the fractured geological formations. Typically, flowback fluid is highly salinated, can be enriched in heavy metals, including rare earth elements, naturally occurring radioactive materials and organic compounds. The generated fluids considered as the extractive waste should be properly managed in the recovery or disposal facility. Problematic issue is both high hydration of waste as well as their variable chemical composition. Also the limited capacity of currently operating facilities is a growing problem. Based on the estimates, currently operating facilities will not be sufficient for the need of waste disposal when extraction of unconventional hydrocarbons starts. Further more, the content of metals in flowback fluids including rare earth elements is a considerable incentive to develop technology of metals recovery. Also recycling is a key factor in terms of selection of treatment process, which should provide that the thresholds required for reuse are met. The paper will present the study of the flowback fluids chemical composition, based on samples from hydraulic fracturing processes performed in Poland. The scheme of flowback fluid cleaning and recovering technology will be reviewed along with a discussion of the results and an assessment of environmental impact, including all generated by-products. The presented technology is innovative due to the metal recovery, as well as purified water supply for hydraulic fracturing process, which is significant contribution to reducing water consumption.

Keywords: environmental impact, flowback fluid, management of special waste streams, metals recovery, shale gas

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91 Analyzing the Oil and Gas Exploration Opportunities in Poland: Five Prospective Areas Selected and Dedicated to the Tender

Authors: Krystian Wójcik, Sara Wróblewska, Marcin Łojek, Katarzyna Sobień

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Polish Geological Survey selected five of the most prospective areas for oil and gas exploration in Poland. They are dedicated to the 6th international tender round for hydrocarbon concessions, planned in 2022. The main exploration target of these areas is related to conventional and unconventional accumulations of gas and oil in the Carpathian basement, Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (Block 413 – 414), as well as in the Carboniferous, Rotliegend, Main Dolomite (Block 208, Cybinka – Torzym, Zielona Góra West), and in the Mesozoic of the Polish Lowlands (Koło).

Keywords: concession policy, international tender, oil and gas exploration horizons, prospective areas

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