Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18065

Search results for: theoretical capacity model

18065 Model of the Increasing the Capacity of the Train and Railway Track by Using the New Type of Wagon

Authors: Martin Kendra, Jaroslav Mašek, Juraj Čamaj, Martin Búda


The paper deals with possibilities of increase train capacity by using a new type of railway wagon. In the first part is created a mathematical model to calculate the capacity of the train. The model is based on the main limiting parameters of the train - maximum number of axles per train, the maximum gross weight of the train, the maximum length of train and number of TEUs per one wagon. In the second part is the model applied to four different model trains with different composition of the train set and three different average weights of TEU and a train consisting of a new type of wagons. The result is to identify where the carrying capacity of the original trains is higher, respectively less than a capacity of the train consisting of a new type of wagons.

Keywords: loading units, theoretical capacity model, train capacity, wagon for intermodal transport

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18064 An Integrated Mathematical Approach to Measure the Capacity of MMTS

Authors: Bayan Bevrani, Robert L. Burdett, Prasad K. D. V. Yarlagadda


This article focuses upon multi-modal transportation systems (MMTS) and the issues surrounding the determination of system capacity. For that purpose a multi-objective framework is advocated that integrates all the different modes and many different competing capacity objectives. This framework is analytical in nature and facilitates a variety of capacity querying and capacity expansion planning.

Keywords: analytical model, capacity analysis, capacity query, multi-modal transportation system (MMTS)

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18063 Modification of a Human Powered Lawn Mower

Authors: Akinwale S. O., Koya O. A.


The need to provide ecologically-friendly and effective lawn mowing solution is crucial for the well-being of humans. This study involved the modification of a human-powered lawn mower designed to cut tall grasses in residential areas. This study designed and fabricated a reel-type mower blade system and a pedal-powered test rig for the blade system. It also evaluated the performance of the machine. The machine was tested on some overgrown grass plots at College of Education Staff School Ilesa. Parameters such as theoretical field capacity, field efficiency and effective field capacity were determined from the data gathered. The quality of cut achieved by the unit was also documented. Test results showed that the fabricated cutting system produced a theoretical field capacity of 0.11 ha/h and an effective field capacity of 0.08ha/h. Moreover, the unit’s cutting system showed a substantial improvement over existing reel mower designs in its ability to cut on both the forward and reverse phases of its motion. This study established that the blade system described herein has the capacity to cut tall grasses. Hence, this device can therefore eliminate the need for powered mowers entirely on small residential lawns.

Keywords: effective field capacity, field efficiency, theoretical field capacity, quality of cut

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18062 Theoretical Bearing Capacity of Modified Kacapuri Foundation

Authors: Muhammad Afief Maruf


Kacapuri foundation is the traditional shallow foundation of building which has been used since long by traditional communities in Borneo, Indonesia. Kacapuri foundation is a foundation that uses a combination of ironwood (eusideroxylon zwageri) as a column and truss and softwood (Melaleuca leucadendra syn. M. leucadendron) as a raft. In today's modern era, ironwood happened to be a rare item, and it is protected by the Indonesian government. This condition then triggers the idea to maintain the shape of the traditional foundation by modifying the material. The suggestion is replacing the ironwood column with reinforced concrete column. In addition, the number of stem softwood is added to sustain the burden of replacing the column material. Although this modified form of Kacapuri foundation is currently still not been tested in applications in society, some research on the modified Kacapuri foundation has been conducted by some researchers and government unit. This paper will try to give an overview of the theoretical foundation bearing capacity Kacapuri modifications applied to the soft alluvial soil located in Borneo, Indonesia, where the original form of Kacapuri is implemented this whole time. The foundation is modeled buried depth in 2m below the ground surface and also below the ground water level. The calculation of the theoretical bearing capacity and then is calculated based on the bearing capacity equation suggested Skempton, Terzaghi and Ohsuki using the data of soft alluvial soil in Borneo. The result will then compared with the bearing capacity of the Kacapuri foundation original design from some previous research. The results show that the ultimate bearing capacity of the Modified Kacapuri foundation using Skempton equation amounted to 329,26 kN, Terzaghi for 456,804kN, and according Ohsaki amounted to 491,972 kN. The ultimate bearing capacity of the original Kacapuri foundation model based on Skempton equation is 18,23 kN. This result shows that the modification added the ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation, although the replacement of ironwood to reinforced concrete will also add some dead load to the total load itself.

Keywords: bearing capacity, Kacapuri, modified foundation, shallow foundation

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18061 Optimizing the Capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Segmentation and Pattern Recognition

Authors: Yalong Jiang, Zheru Chi


In this paper, we study the factors which determine the capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model and propose the ways to evaluate and adjust the capacity of a CNN model for best matching to a specific pattern recognition task. Firstly, a scheme is proposed to adjust the number of independent functional units within a CNN model to make it be better fitted to a task. Secondly, the number of independent functional units in the capsule network is adjusted to fit it to the training dataset. Thirdly, a method based on Bayesian GAN is proposed to enrich the variances in the current dataset to increase its complexity. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC 2010 Person Part dataset and the MNIST dataset show that, in both conventional CNN models and capsule networks, the number of independent functional units is an important factor that determines the capacity of a network model. By adjusting the number of functional units, the capacity of a model can better match the complexity of a dataset.

Keywords: CNN, convolutional neural network, capsule network, capacity optimization, character recognition, data augmentation, semantic segmentation

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18060 Pressure Distribution, Load Capacity, and Thermal Effect with Generalized Maxwell Model in Journal Bearing Lubrication

Authors: M. Guemmadi, A. Ouibrahim


This numerical investigation aims to evaluate how a viscoelastic lubricant described by a generalized Maxwell model, affects the pressure distribution, the load capacity and thermal effect in a journal bearing lubrication. We use for the purpose the CFD package software completed by adapted user define functions (UDFs) to solve the coupled equations of momentum, of energy and of the viscoelastic model (generalized Maxwell model). Two parameters, viscosity and relaxation time are involved to show how viscoelasticity substantially affect the pressure distribution, the load capacity and the thermal transfer by comparison to Newtonian lubricant. These results were also compared with the available published results.

Keywords: journal bearing, lubrication, Maxwell model, viscoelastic fluids, computational modelling, load capacity

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18059 Modeling of Enthalpy and Heat Capacity of Phase-Change Materials

Authors: Igor Medved, Anton Trnik, Libor Vozar


Phase-change materials (PCMs) are of great interest in the applications where a temperature level needs to be maintained and/or where there is demand for thermal energy storage. Examples are storage of solar energy, cold, and space heating/cooling of buildings. During a phase change, the enthalpy vs. temperature plot of PCMs shows a jump and there is a distinct peak in the heat capacity plot. We present a theoretical description from which these jumps and peaks can be obtained. We apply our theoretical results to fit experimental data with very good accuracy for selected materials and changes between two phases. The development is based on the observation that PCMs are polycrystalline; i.e., composed of many single-crystalline grains. The enthalpy and heat capacity are thus interpreted as averages of the contributions from the individual grains. We also show how to determine the baseline and excess part of the heat capacity and thus the latent heat corresponding to the phase change.

Keywords: averaging, enthalpy jump, heat capacity peak, phase change

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
18058 A Mathematical Framework for Expanding a Railway’s Theoretical Capacity

Authors: Robert L. Burdett, Bayan Bevrani


Analytical techniques for measuring and planning railway capacity expansion activities have been considered in this article. A preliminary mathematical framework involving track duplication and section sub divisions is proposed for this task. In railways, these features have a great effect on network performance and for this reason they have been considered. Additional motivations have also arisen from the limitations of prior models that have not included them.

Keywords: capacity analysis, capacity expansion, railways, track sub division, track duplication

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18057 A Robust Theoretical Elastoplastic Continuum Damage T-H-M Model for Rock Surrounding a Wellbore

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui, Ben Wetenhall, Colin Davie


Injection of CO2 inside wellbore can induce different kind of loadings that can lead to thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical changes on the surrounding rock. A dual-porosity theoretical constitutive model will be presented for the stability analysis of the wellbore during CO2 injection. An elastoplastic damage response will be considered. A bounding yield surface will be presented considering damage effects on sandstone. The main target of the research paper is to present a theoretical constitutive model that can help industries to safely store CO2 in geological rock formations and forecast any changes on the surrounding rock of the wellbore. The fully coupled elasto-plastic damage Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical theoretical model will be validated from existing experimental data for sandstone after simulating some scenarios by using FEM on MATLAB software.

Keywords: carbon capture and storage, rock mechanics, THM effects on rock, constitutive model

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18056 Determination of the Bearing Capacity of Granular Pumice Soils by Laboratory Tests

Authors: Mustafa Yildiz, Ali Sinan Soganci


Pumice soils are countered in many projects such as transportation roads, channels and residential units throughout the World. The pumice deposits are characterized by the vesicular nature of their particles. When the pumice soils are evaluated considering the geotechnical viewpoint, they differ from silica sands in terms of physical and engineering characteristics. These differences are low grain strength, high friction angle, void ratio and compressibility. At stresses greater than a few hundred kPa, the stress-strain-strength behaviour of these soils is determined by particle crushing. Particle crushing leads to changes in the density and reduction in the components of shear stress due to expansion. In this study, the bearing capacity and behaviour of granular pumice soils compared to sand-gravels were investigated by laboratory model tests. Firstly the geotechnical properties of granular pumice soils were determined; then, the behaviour of pumice soils with an equivalent diameter of sand and gravel soils were investigated by model rectangular and circular foundation types and were compared with each other. For this purpose, basic types of model footing (15*15 cm, 20*20 cm, Φ=15 cm and Φ=20 cm) have been selected. When the experimental results of model bearing capacity are analyzed, the values of sand and gravel bearing capacity tests were found to be 1.0-1.5 times higher than the bearing capacity of pumice the same size. This fact has shown that sand and gravel have a higher bearing capacity than pumice of the similar particle sizes.

Keywords: pumice soils, laboratory model tests, bearing capacity, laboratory model tests, Nevşehir

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
18055 Probabilistic Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Isolated Footing using Monte Carlo Simulation

Authors: Sameer Jung Karki, Gokhan Saygili


The allowable bearing capacity of foundation systems is determined by applying a factor of safety to the ultimate bearing capacity. Conventional ultimate bearing capacity calculations routines are based on deterministic input parameters where the nonuniformity and inhomogeneity of soil and site properties are not accounted for. Hence, the laws of mathematics like probability calculus and statistical analysis cannot be directly applied to foundation engineering. It’s assumed that the Factor of Safety, typically as high as 3.0, incorporates the uncertainty of the input parameters. This factor of safety is estimated based on subjective judgement rather than objective facts. It is an ambiguous term. Hence, a probabilistic analysis of the bearing capacity of an isolated footing on a clayey soil is carried out by using the Monte Carlo Simulation method. This simulated model was compared with the traditional discrete model. It was found out that the bearing capacity of soil was found higher for the simulated model compared with the discrete model. This was verified by doing the sensitivity analysis. As the number of simulations was increased, there was a significant % increase of the bearing capacity compared with discrete bearing capacity. The bearing capacity values obtained by simulation was found to follow a normal distribution. While using the traditional value of Factor of safety 3, the allowable bearing capacity had lower probability (0.03717) of occurring in the field compared to a higher probability (0.15866), while using the simulation derived factor of safety of 1.5. This means the traditional factor of safety is giving us bearing capacity that is less likely occurring/available in the field. This shows the subjective nature of factor of safety, and hence probability method is suggested to address the variability of the input parameters in bearing capacity equations.

Keywords: bearing capacity, factor of safety, isolated footing, montecarlo simulation

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18054 A Theoretical Analysis of Air Cooling System Using Thermal Ejector under Variable Generator Pressure

Authors: Mohamed Ouzzane, Mahmoud Bady


Due to energy and environment context, research is looking for the use of clean and energy efficient system in cooling industry. In this regard, the ejector represents one of the promising solutions. The thermal ejector is a passive component used for thermal compression in refrigeration and cooling systems, usually activated by heat either waste or solar. The present study introduces a theoretical analysis of the cooling system which uses a gas ejector thermal compression. A theoretical model is developed and applied for the design and simulation of the ejector, as well as the whole cooling system. Besides the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum, the gas dynamic equations, state equations, isentropic relations as well as some appropriate assumptions are applied to simulate the flow and mixing in the ejector. This model coupled with the equations of the other components (condenser, evaporator, pump, and generator) is used to analyze profiles of pressure and velocity (Mach number), as well as evaluation of the cycle cooling capacity. A FORTRAN program is developed to carry out the investigation. Properties of refrigerant R134a are calculated using real gas equations. Among many parameters, it is thought that the generator pressure is the cornerstone in the cycle, and hence considered as the key parameter in this investigation. Results show that the generator pressure has a great effect on the ejector and on the whole cooling system. At high generator pressures, strong shock waves inside the ejector are created, which lead to significant condenser pressure at the ejector exit. Additionally, at higher generator pressures, the designed system can deliver cooling capacity for high condensing pressure (hot season).

Keywords: air cooling system, refrigeration, thermal ejector, thermal compression

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18053 The Potential Threat of Cyberterrorism to the National Security: Theoretical Framework

Authors: Abdulrahman S. Alqahtani


The revolution of computing and networks could revolutionise terrorism in the same way that it has brought about changes in other aspects of life. The modern technological era has faced countries with a new set of security challenges. There are many states and potential adversaries who have the potential and capacity in cyberspace, which makes them able to carry out cyber-attacks in the future. Some of them are currently conducting surveillance, gathering and analysis of technical information, and mapping of networks and nodes and infrastructure of opponents, which may be exploited in future conflicts. This poster presents the results of the quantitative study (survey) to test the validity of the proposed theoretical framework for the cyber terrorist threats. This theoretical framework will help to in-depth understand these new digital terrorist threats. It may also be a practical guide for managers and technicians in critical infrastructure, to understand and assess the threats they face. It might also be the foundation for building a national strategy to counter cyberterrorism. In the beginning, it provides basic information about the data. To purify the data, reliability and exploratory factor analysis, as well as confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed. Then, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was utilised to test the final model of the theory and to assess the overall goodness-of-fit between the proposed model and the collected data set.

Keywords: cyberterrorism, critical infrastructure, , national security, theoretical framework, terrorism

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18052 Selection of Variogram Model for Environmental Variables

Authors: Sheikh Samsuzzhan Alam


The present study investigates the selection of variogram model in analyzing spatial variations of environmental variables with the trend. Sometimes, the autofitted theoretical variogram does not really capture the true nature of the empirical semivariogram. So proper exploration and analysis are needed to select the best variogram model. For this study, an open source data collected from California Soil Resource Lab1 is used to explain the problems when fitting a theoretical variogram. Five most commonly used variogram models: Linear, Gaussian, Exponential, Matern, and Spherical were fitted to the experimental semivariogram. Ordinary kriging methods were considered to evaluate the accuracy of the selected variograms through cross-validation. This study is beneficial for selecting an appropriate theoretical variogram model for environmental variables.

Keywords: anisotropy, cross-validation, environmental variables, kriging, variogram models

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18051 Analytical Model to Predict the Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP Composites Conditions

Authors: Rajai Al-Rousan


This paper presents a proposed analytical model for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP composites as external reinforcement. The proposed analytical model can predict the shear contribution of CFRP composites of RC beams with an acceptable coefficient of correlation with the tested results. Based on the comparison of the proposed model with the published well-known models (ACI model, Triantafillou model, and Colotti model), the ACI model had a wider range of 0.16 to 10.08 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears at failure. Also, an acceptable range of 0.27 to 2.78 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears by the Triantafillou model. Finally, the best prediction (the ratio between the tested and predicted ones) of the ultimate shear capacity is observed by using Colotti model with a range of 0.20 to 1.78. Thus, the contribution of the CFRP composites as external reinforcement can be predicted with high accuracy by using the proposed analytical model.

Keywords: predicting, shear capacity, reinforced concrete, beams, strengthened, externally, CFRP composites

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18050 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Foundations with Different Shapes

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, S. Taghvamanesh


So far several methods by different researchers have been developed in order to calculate the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Ny (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Ny depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. Many empirical definitions have been used for measurement of the bearing capacity factors N

Keywords: bearing capacity, bearing capacity factor Nγ, irregular foundations, shape factor

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18049 A Simplified Distribution for Nonlinear Seas

Authors: M. A. Tayfun, M. A. Alkhalidi


The exact theoretical expression describing the probability distribution of nonlinear sea-surface elevations derived from the second-order narrowband model has a cumbersome form that requires numerical computations, not well-disposed to theoretical or practical applications. Here, the same narrowband model is re-examined to develop a simpler closed-form approximation suitable for theoretical and practical applications. The salient features of the approximate form are explored, and its relative validity is verified with comparisons to other readily available approximations, and oceanic data.

Keywords: ocean waves, probability distributions, second-order nonlinearities, skewness coefficient, wave steepness

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18048 Conceptual Modeling of the Relationship between Project Management Practices and Knowledge Absorptive Capacity Using Interpretive Structural Modeling Method

Authors: Seyed Abdolreza Mosavi, Alireza Babakhan, Elham Sadat Hoseinifard


Knowledge-based firms need to design mechanisms for continuous absorptive and creation of knowledge in order to ensure their survival in the competitive arena and to follow the path of development. Considering the project-oriented nature of product development activities in knowledge-based firms on the one hand and the importance of analyzing the factors affecting knowledge absorptive capacity in these firms on the other, the purpose of this study is to identify and classify the factors affecting project management practices on absorptive knowledge capacity. For this purpose, we have studied and reviewed the theoretical literature in the field of project management and absorptive knowledge capacity so as to clarify its dimensions and indexes. Then, using the ISM method, the relationship between them has been studied. To collect data, 21 questionnaires were distributed in project-oriented knowledge-based companies. The results of the ISM method analysis provide a model for the relationship between project management activities and knowledge absorptive capacity, which includes knowledge acquisition capacity, scope management, time management, cost management, quality management, human resource management, communications management, procurement management, risk management, stakeholders management and integration management. Having conducted the MICMAC analysis, we divided the variables into three groups of independent, relational and dependent variables and came up with no variables to be included in the group of autonomous variables.

Keywords: knowledge absorptive capacity, project management practices, knowledge-based firms, interpretive structural modeling

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18047 The Role of Group Size, Public Employees’ Wages and Control Corruption Institutions in a Game-Theoretical Model of Public Corruption

Authors: Pablo J. Valverde, Jaime E. Fernandez


This paper shows under which conditions public corruption can emerge. The theoretical model includes variables such as the public employee wage (w), a control corruption parameter (c), and the group size of interactions (GS) between clusters of public officers and contractors. The system behavior is analyzed using phase diagrams based on combinations of such parameters (c, w, GS). Numerical simulations are implemented in order to contrast analytic results based on Nash equilibria of the theoretical model. Major findings include the functional relationship between wages and network topology, which attempts to reduce the emergence of corrupt behavior.

Keywords: public corruption, game theory, complex systems, Nash equilibrium.

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
18046 Development of a Congestion Controller of Computer Network Using Artificial Intelligence Algorithm

Authors: Mary Anne Roa


Congestion in network occurs due to exceed in aggregate demand as compared to the accessible capacity of the resources. Network congestion will increase as network speed increases and new effective congestion control methods are needed, especially for today’s very high speed networks. To address this undeniably global issue, the study focuses on the development of a fuzzy-based congestion control model concerned with allocating the resources of a computer network such that the system can operate at an adequate performance level when the demand exceeds or is near the capacity of the resources. Fuzzy logic based models have proven capable of accurately representing a wide variety of processes. The model built is based on bandwidth, the aggregate incoming traffic and the waiting time. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides not only good utilization but also low packet loss.

Keywords: congestion control, queue management, computer networks, fuzzy logic

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18045 Theoretical Framework for Value Creation in Project Oriented Companies

Authors: Mariusz Hofman


The paper ‘Theoretical framework for value creation in Project-Oriented Companies’ is designed to determine, how organisations create value and whether this allows them to achieve market success. An assumption has been made that there are two routes to achieving this value. The first one is to create intangible assets (i.e. the resources of human, structural and relational capital), while the other one is to create added value (understood as the surplus of revenue over costs). It has also been assumed that the combination of the achieved added value and unique intangible assets translates to the success of a project-oriented company. The purpose of the paper is to present hypothetical and deductive model which describing the modus operandi of such companies and approach to model operationalisation. All the latent variables included in the model are theoretical constructs with observational indicators (measures). The existence of a latent variable (construct) and also submodels will be confirmed based on a covariance matrix which in turn is based on empirical data, being a set of observational indicators (measures). This will be achieved with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Due to this statistical procedure, it will be verified whether the matrix arising from the adopted theoretical model differs statistically from the empirical matrix of covariance arising from the system of equations. The fit of the model with the empirical data will be evaluated using χ2, RMSEA and CFI (Comparative Fit Index). How well the theoretical model fits the empirical data is assessed through a number of indicators. If the theoretical conjectures are confirmed, an interesting development path can be defined for project-oriented companies. This will let such organisations perform efficiently in the face of the growing competition and pressure on innovation.

Keywords: value creation, project-oriented company, structural equation modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
18044 Capacity Loss at Midblock Sections of Urban Arterials Due to Pedestrian Crossings

Authors: Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra


Pedestrian crossings at grade in India are very common and pedestrian cross the carriageway at undesignated locations where they found the path to access the residential and commercial areas. Present paper aims to determine capacity loss on 4-lane urban arterials due to such crossings. Base capacity which is defined as the capacity without any influencing factor is determined on 4-lane roads by collecting speed-flow data in the field. It is observed that base capacity is varying from 1636 pcu/hr/lane to 2043 pcu/hr/lane which is attributed to the different operating conditions at different sections. The variation in base capacity is related with the operating speed on the road sections. Free flow speed of standard car is measured in the field and 85th percentile of this speed is reported as operating speed. Capacity of the 4-lane road sections with different pedestrian cross-flow is also determined and compared with the capacity of base section. The difference in capacity values is reported as capacity loss due to the average number of pedestrian crossings in one hour. It has been observed that capacity of 4-lane road section reduces from 18 to 30 percent with pedestrian cross-flow of 800 to 1550 peds/hr. A model is proposed between capacity loss and pedestrian cross-flow from the observed data.

Keywords: capacity, free flow speed, pedestrian, urban arterial, transport

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18043 Simulation of the Large Hadrons Collisions Using Monte Carlo Tools

Authors: E. Al Daoud


In many cases, theoretical treatments are available for models for which there is no perfect physical realization. In this situation, the only possible test for an approximate theoretical solution is to compare with data generated from a computer simulation. In this paper, Monte Carlo tools are used to study and compare the elementary particles models. All the experiments are implemented using 10000 events, and the simulated energy is 13 TeV. The mean and the curves of several variables are calculated for each model using MadAnalysis 5. Anomalies in the results can be seen in the muons masses of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the two Higgs doublet model.

Keywords: Feynman rules, hadrons, Lagrangian, Monte Carlo, simulation

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18042 Gaussian Probability Density for Forest Fire Detection Using Satellite Imagery

Authors: S. Benkraouda, Z. Djelloul-Khedda, B. Yagoubi


we present a method for early detection of forest fires from a thermal infrared satellite image, using the image matrix of the probability of belonging. The principle of the method is to compare a theoretical mathematical model to an experimental model. We considered that each line of the image matrix, as an embodiment of a non-stationary random process. Since the distribution of pixels in the satellite image is statistically dependent, we divided these lines into small stationary and ergodic intervals to characterize the image by an adequate mathematical model. A standard deviation was chosen to generate random variables, so each interval behaves naturally like white Gaussian noise. The latter has been selected as the mathematical model that represents a set of very majority pixels, which we can be considered as the image background. Before modeling the image, we made a few pretreatments, then the parameters of the theoretical Gaussian model were extracted from the modeled image, these settings will be used to calculate the probability of each interval of the modeled image to belong to the theoretical Gaussian model. The high intensities pixels are regarded as foreign elements to it, so they will have a low probability, and the pixels that belong to the background image will have a high probability. Finally, we did present the reverse of the matrix of probabilities of these intervals for a better fire detection.

Keywords: forest fire, forest fire detection, satellite image, normal distribution, theoretical gaussian model, thermal infrared matrix image

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18041 Fuzzy Data, Random Drift, and a Theoretical Model for the Sequential Emergence of Religious Capacity in Genus Homo

Authors: Margaret Boone Rappaport, Christopher J. Corbally


The ancient ape ancestral population from which living great ape and human species evolved had demographic features affecting their evolution. The population was large, had great genetic variability, and natural selection was effective at honing adaptations. The emerging populations of chimpanzees and humans were affected more by founder effects and genetic drift because they were smaller. Natural selection did not disappear, but it was not as strong. Consequences of the 'population crash' and the human effective population size are introduced briefly. The history of the ancient apes is written in the genomes of living humans and great apes. The expansion of the brain began before the human line emerged. Coalescence times for some genes are very old – up to several million years, long before Homo sapiens. The mismatch between gene trees and species trees highlights the anthropoid speciation processes, and gives the human genome history a fuzzy, probabilistic quality. However, it suggests traits that might form a foundation for capacities emerging later. A theoretical model is presented in which the genomes of early ape populations provide the substructure for the emergence of religious capacity later on the human line. The model does not search for religion, but its foundations. It suggests a course by which an evolutionary line that began with prosimians eventually produced a human species with biologically based religious capacity. The model of the sequential emergence of religious capacity relies on cognitive science, neuroscience, paleoneurology, primate field studies, cognitive archaeology, genomics, and population genetics. And, it emphasizes five trait types: (1) Documented, positive selection of sensory capabilities on the human line may have favored survival, but also eventually enriched human religious experience. (2) The bonobo model suggests a possible down-regulation of aggression and increase in tolerance while feeding, as well as paedomorphism – but, in a human species that remains cognitively sharp (unlike the bonobo). The two species emerged from the same ancient ape population, so it is logical to search for shared traits. (3) An up-regulation of emotional sensitivity and compassion seems to have occurred on the human line. This finds support in modern genetic studies. (4) The authors’ published model of morality's emergence in Homo erectus encompasses a cognitively based, decision-making capacity that was hypothetically overtaken, in part, by religious capacity. Together, they produced a strong, variable, biocultural capability to support human sociability. (5) The full flowering of human religious capacity came with the parietal expansion and smaller face (klinorhynchy) found only in Homo sapiens. Details from paleoneurology suggest the stage was set for human theologies. Larger parietal lobes allowed humans to imagine inner spaces, processes, and beings, and, with the frontal lobe, led to the first theologies composed of structured and integrated theories of the relationships between humans and the supernatural. The model leads to the evolution of a small population of African hominins that was ready to emerge with religious capacity when the species Homo sapiens evolved two hundred thousand years ago. By 50-60,000 years ago, when human ancestors left Africa, they were fully enabled.

Keywords: genetic drift, genomics, parietal expansion, religious capacity

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18040 Institutional Capacity and Corruption: Evidence from Brazil

Authors: Dalson Figueiredo, Enivaldo Rocha, Ranulfo Paranhos, José Alexandre


This paper analyzes the effects of institutional capacity on corruption. Methodologically, the research design combines both descriptive and multivariate statistics to examine two original datasets based on secondary data. In particular, we employ a principal component model to estimate an indicator of institutional capacity for both state audit institutions and subnational judiciary courts. Then, we estimate the effect of institutional capacity on two dependent variables: (1) incidence of administrative irregularities and (2) time elapsed to judge corruption cases. The preliminary results using ordinary least squares, negative binomial and Tobit models suggest the same conclusions: higher the institutional audit capacity, higher is the probability of detecting a corruption case. On the other hand, higher the institutional capacity of state judiciary, the lower is the time to judge corruption cases.

Keywords: institutional capacity, corruption, state level institutions, evidence from Brazil

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
18039 Instructional Leadership and Competency in Capacity Development among Principals: A Mediation with Self Efficacy in Moderate Performing Schools

Authors: Mohd Ibrahim K. Azeez, Mohammed Sani Ibrahim, Rosemawati Mustapa, Maisarah A. Malik, Chandrakala Varatharajoo, Wee Akina Sia Seng Lee


The leadership of the principals is known to be a key indicator in development and school performance. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the extent of the influence of instructional leadership in the field of supervision and curriculum focus on capacity development competence in the field of communication and teamwork. In addition, this study also examines self-efficacy mediator school leadership in the field of self-improvement and self-management of school principals. The study involved 383 guest teachers from 55 secondary schools for leadership in schools. Data was analyzed using SEM aid program AMOS 21. The final result shows partial mediation model was the best model fit to obtain the best goodness of fit of (X2/df = 4.663, CFI = 0.922, GFI = 0.778, TLI = 0914, NFI = 0.903, and RMSEA = 0.098) compared to the direct effect model of the findings (X2/df = 5.319, CFI = 0.908, GFI = 0755, TLI = 0.899, NFI = 0.889, and RMSEA = 0.106). While the findings of the fully mediator model with a self-efficacy refers principals as a mediator as follows (X2/df = 4.838, CFI = 0918, GFI = 0772, TLI = 0.910, NFI = 0.899, and RMSEA = 0.100). Therefore, it can be concluded that the findings clearly demonstrate self-efficacy variables principals become a mediator in the relationship between instructional leadership capacity and competency development.

Keywords: instructional leadership, capacity development, self-efficacy, competency

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18038 Short-Term Energy Efficiency Decay and Risk Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pump System

Authors: Tu Shuyang, Zhang Xu, Zhou Xiang


The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of short-term heat exchange decay of ground heat exchanger (GHE) on the ground source heat pump (GSHP) energy efficiency and capacity. A resistance-capacitance (RC) model was developed and adopted to simulate the transient characteristics of the ground thermal condition and heat exchange. The capacity change of the GSHP was linked to the inlet and outlet water temperature by polynomial fitting according to measured parameters given by heat pump manufacturers. Thus, the model, which combined the heat exchange decay with the capacity change, reflected the energy efficiency decay of the whole system. A case of GSHP system was analyzed by the model, and the result showed that there was risk that the GSHP might not meet the load demand because of the efficiency decay in a short-term operation. The conclusion would provide some guidances for GSHP system design to overcome the risk.

Keywords: capacity, energy efficiency, GSHP, heat exchange

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18037 Photoreflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy of Coupled Quantum Wells

Authors: J. V. Gonzalez Fernandez, T. Mozume, S. Gozu, A. Lastras Martinez, L. F. Lastras Martinez, J. Ortega Gallegos, R. E. Balderas Navarro


We report on a theoretical-experimental study of photoreflectance anisotropy (PRA) spectroscopy of coupled double quantum wells. By probing the in-plane interfacial optical anisotropies, we demonstrate that PRA spectroscopy has the capacity to detect and distinguish layers with quantum dimensions. In order to account for the experimental PRA spectra, we have used a theoretical model at k=0 based on a linear electro-optic effect through a piezoelectric shear strain.

Keywords: coupled double quantum well (CDQW), linear electro-optic (LEO) effect, photoreflectance anisotropy (PRA), piezoelectric shear strain

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18036 Eccentric Loading of CFDST Columns

Authors: Trevor N. Haas, Alexander Koen


Columns have traditionally been constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel. Much attention was allocated to estimate the axial capacity of the traditional column sections to the detriment of other forms of construction. Other forms of column construction such as Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubes received little research attention, and almost no attention when subjected to eccentric loading. This paper investigates the axial capacity of columns when subjected to eccentric loading. The experimental axial capacities are compared to other established theoretical formulae on concentric loading to determine a possible relationship. The study found a good correlation between the reduction in axial capacity for different column lengths and hollow section ratios.

Keywords: CSDST, CFST, axial capacity, hollow section ratios

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