Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2528

Search results for: loading units

2528 Performance Analysis of Ferrocement Retrofitted Masonry Wall Units under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Raquib Ahsan, Md. Mahir Asif, Md. Zahidul Alam


A huge portion of old masonry buildings in Bangladesh are vulnerable to earthquake. In most of the cases these buildings contain unreinforced masonry wall which are most likely to be subjected to earthquake damages. Due to deterioration of mortar joint and aging, shear resistance of these unreinforced masonry walls dwindle. So, retrofitting of these old buildings has become an important issue. Among many researched and experimented techniques, ferrocement retrofitting can be a low cost technique in context of the economic condition of Bangladesh. This study aims at investigating the behavior of ferrocement retrofitted unconfined URM walls under different types of cyclic loading. Four 725 mm × 725 mm masonry wall units were prepared with bricks jointed by stretcher bond with 12.5 mm mortar between two adjacent layers of bricks. To compare the effectiveness of ferrocement retrofitting a particular type wire mesh was used in this experiment which is 20 gauge woven wire mesh with 12.5 mm × 12.5 mm square opening. After retrofitting with ferrocement these wall units were tested by applying cyclic deformation along the diagonals of the specimens. Then a comparative study was performed between the retrofitted specimens and control specimens for both partially reversed cyclic load condition and cyclic compression load condition. The experiment results show that ultimate load carrying capacities of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 35% and 27% greater than the control specimen under partially reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. And before failure the deformations of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 43% and 33% greater than the control specimen under reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. Therefore, the test results show that the ultimate load carrying capacity and ductility of ferrocement retrofitted specimens have improved.

Keywords: cyclic compression, cyclic loading, ferrocement, masonry wall, partially reversed cyclic load, retrofitting

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2527 Pull-Out Behavior of Mechanical Anchor Bolts by Cyclic Loading

Authors: Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Kusumi Shingo, Matsuzawa Koichi, Kunieda Yoichiro, Yagisawa Yasuei


In this study, the pull-out properties of various mechanical anchor bolts embedded in concrete were investigated. Five kinds of mechanical anchor bolts were selected which were ordinarily used for concrete anchoring. Tensile tests for mechanical anchor bolts embedded in φ300mm x 100mm size concrete were conducted to measure the load - load displacement curves. The loading conditions were a monotonous loading and a repeating loading. The fracture energy for each mechanical anchor bolts was estimated by the analysis of consumed energy calculated by the load - load displacement curve. The effect of the types of mechanical anchor bolts on the pull-out properties of concrete subjected in monotonous loading and a repeating loading was cleared.

Keywords: concrete, cyclic loading, mechanical anchor bolt, pull-out strength

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2526 Features of Rail Strength Analysis in Conditions of Increased Force Loading

Authors: G. Guramishvili, M. Moistsrapishvili, L. Andghuladze


In the article are considered the problems arising at increasing of transferring from rolling stock axles on rail loading from 210 KN up to 270 KN and is offered for rail strength analysis definition of rail force loading complex integral characteristic with taking into account all affecting force factors that is characterizing specific operation condition of rail structure and defines the working capability of structure. As result of analysis due mentioned method is obtained that in the conditions of 270 KN loading the rail meets the working assessment criteria of rail and rail structures: Strength, rail track stability, rail links stability and its transverse stability, traffic safety condition that is rather important for post-Soviet countries railways.

Keywords: axial loading, rail force loading, rail structure, rail strength analysis, rail track stability

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2525 Semantic Features of Turkish and Spanish Phraseological Units with a Somatic Component ‘Hand’

Authors: Narmina Mammadova


In modern linguistics, the comparative study of languages is becoming increasingly popular, the typology and comparison of languages that have different structures is expanding and deepening. Of particular interest is the study of phraseological units, which makes it possible to identify the specific features of the compared languages in all their national identity. This paper gives a brief analysis of the comparative study of somatic phraseological units (SFU) of the Spanish and Turkish languages with the component "hand" in the semantic aspect; identification of equivalents, analogs and non-equivalent units, as well as a description of methods of translation of non-equivalent somatic phraseological units. Comparative study of the phraseology of unrelated languages is of particular relevance since it allows us to identify both general, universal features and differential and specific features characteristic of a particular language. Based on the results of the generalization of the study, it can be assumed that phraseological units containing a somatic component have a high interlingual phraseological activity, which contributes to an increase in the degree of interlingual equivalence.

Keywords: Linguoculturology, Turkish, Spanish, language picture of the world, phraseological units, semantic microfield

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2524 An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for Combined Economic and Environmental Power Dispatch Including Valve Point Loading Effects

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, T. Guesmi


In recent years, the combined economic and emission power dispatch is one of the main problems of electrical power system. It aims to schedule the power generation of generators in order to minimize cost production and emission of harmful gases caused by fossil-fueled thermal units such as CO, CO2, NOx, and SO2. To solve this complicated multi-objective problem, an improved version of the particle swarm optimization technique that includes non-dominated sorting concept has been proposed. Valve point loading effects and system losses have been considered. The three-unit and ten-unit benchmark systems have been used to show the effectiveness of the suggested optimization technique for solving this kind of nonconvex problem. The simulation results have been compared with those obtained using genetic algorithm based method. Comparison results show that the proposed approach can provide a higher quality solution with better performance.

Keywords: power dispatch, valve point loading effects, multiobjective optimization, Pareto solutions

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2523 Safety System Design and Overfill Protection for Loading Asphalt onto Trucks

Authors: Wendy Ampadu, Ray Diezmos, Hassan Malik, Jeremy Hyslob


There are several technologies out there for use as high-level switches as part of a system for shutting down flow to a vessel. Given that the asphalt truck loading poses issues such as poor visibility, coating, condensation, and fumes, a solution that is robust enough to last in these conditions is often needed in industries. Furthermore, the design of the loading arm, rack, and process equipment should allow for the safety of workers. The objective of this report includes the redesign of structures for use at loading facilities and selecting an overflow technology protection from hot bitumen. The report is based on loading facilities at a Canadian bitumen production company. The engineering design approach was used to create multiple redesign concepts for the loading dock system. Research on overfill systems was also completed by surveying the existing market for technologies and securing quotes from over 20 Canadian and United States instrumentation companies. A final loading dock redesign and level transmitter for overfill protection solution were chosen.

Keywords: bitumen, reliability engineering, safety system, process safety management, asphalt, loading docks, tanker trucks

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2522 Loading Factor Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller: Specific Features and Way of Modeling

Authors: K. Soldatova, Y. Galerkin


A loading factor performance is necessary for the modeling of centrifugal compressor gas dynamic performance curve. Measured loading factors are linear function of a flow coefficient at an impeller exit. The performance does not depend on the compressibility criterion. To simulate loading factor performances, the authors present two parameters: a loading factor at zero flow rate and an angle between an ordinate and performance line. The calculated loading factor performances of non-viscous are linear too and close to experimental performances. Loading factor performances of several dozens of impellers with different blade exit angles, blade thickness and number, ratio of blade exit/inlet height, and two different type of blade mean line configuration. There are some trends of influence, which are evident – comparatively small blade thickness influence, and influence of geometry parameters is more for impellers with bigger blade exit angles, etc. Approximating equations for both parameters are suggested. The next phase of work will be simulating of experimental performances with the suggested approximation equations as a base.

Keywords: loading factor performance, centrifugal compressor, impeller, modeling

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2521 Full Analytical Procedure to Derive P-I Diagram of a Steel Beam under Blast Loading

Authors: L. Hamra, J. F. Demonceau, V. Denoël


The aim of this paper is to study a beam extracted from a frame and subjected to blast loading. The demand of ductility depends on six dimensionless parameters: two related to the blast loading, two referring to the bending behavior of the beam and two corresponding to the dynamic behavior of the rest of the structure. We develop a full analytical procedure that provides the ductility demand as a function of these six dimensionless parameters.

Keywords: analytical procedure, blast loading, membrane force, P-I diagram

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2520 Kinematic Behavior of Geogrid Reinforcements during Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Moneim


Reinforced earth structures are generally subjected to cyclic loading generated from earthquakes. This paper presents a summary of the results and analyses of a testing program carried out in a large-scale multi-function geosynthetic testing apparatus that accommodates soil samples up to 1.0 m3. This apparatus performs different shear and pullout tests under both static and cyclic loading. The testing program was carried out to investigate the controlling factors affecting soil/geogrid interaction under cyclic loading. The extensibility of the geogrids, the applied normal stresses, the characteristics of the cyclic loading (frequency, and amplitude), and initial static load within the geogrid sheet were considered in the testing program. Based on the findings of the testing program, the effect of these parameters on the pullout resistance of geogrids, as well as the displacement mobility under cyclic loading were evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations for the design of reinforced earth walls under cyclic loading are presented.

Keywords: geogrid, soil, interface, cyclic loading, pullout, large scale testing

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2519 A Condition-Based Maintenance Policy for Multi-Unit Systems Subject to Deterioration

Authors: Nooshin Salari, Viliam Makis


In this paper, we propose a condition-based maintenance policy for multi-unit systems considering the existence of economic dependency among units. We consider a system composed of N identical units, where each unit deteriorates independently. Deterioration process of each unit is modeled as a three-state continuous time homogeneous Markov chain with two working states and a failure state. The average production rate of units varies in different working states and demand rate of the system is constant. Units are inspected at equidistant time epochs, and decision regarding performing maintenance is determined by the number of units in the failure state. If the total number of units in the failure state exceeds a critical level, maintenance is initiated, where units in failed state are replaced correctively and deteriorated state units are maintained preventively. Our objective is to determine the optimal number of failed units to initiate maintenance minimizing the long run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. A numerical example is developed to demonstrate the proposed policy and the comparison with the corrective maintenance policy is presented.

Keywords: reliability, maintenance optimization, semi-Markov decision process, production

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2518 Delivery of Positively Charged Proteins Using Hyaluronic Acid Microgels

Authors: Elaheh Jooybar, Mohammad J. Abdekhodaie, Marcel Karperien, Pieter J. Dijkstra


In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) microgels were developed for the goal of protein delivery. First, a hyaluronic acid-tyramine conjugate (HA-TA) was synthesized with a degree of substitution of 13 TA moieties per 100 disaccharide units. Then, HA-TA microdroplets were produced using a water in oil emulsion method and crosslinked in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Loading capacity and the release kinetics of lysozyme and BSA, as model proteins, were investigated. It was shown that lysozyme, a cationic protein, can be incorporated efficiently in the HA microgels, while the loading efficiency for BSA, as a negatively charged protein, is low. The release profile of lysozyme showed a sustained release over a period of one month. The results demonstrated that the HA-TA microgels are a good carrier for spatial delivery of cationic proteins for biomedical applications.

Keywords: microgel, inverse emulsion, protein delivery, hyaluronic acid, crosslinking

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2517 Viscoelastic Modeling of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) under Repeated Loading by Using Finite Element Method

Authors: S. A. Tabatabaei, S. Aarabi


Predicting the hot mix asphalt (HMA) response and performance is a challenging task because of the subjectivity of HMA under the complex loading and environmental condition. The behavior of HMA is a function of temperature of loading and also shows the time and rate-dependent behavior directly affecting design criteria of mixture. Velocity of load passing make the time and rate. The viscoelasticity illustrates the reaction of HMA under loading and environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture effect. The behavior has direct effect on design criteria such as tensional strain and vertical deflection. In this paper, the computational framework for viscoelasticity and implementation in 3D dimensional HMA model is introduced to use in finite element method. The model was lied under various repeated loading conditions at constant temperature. The response of HMA viscoelastic behavior is investigated in loading condition under speed vehicle and sensitivity of behavior to the range of speed and compared to HMA which is supposed to have elastic behavior as in conventional design methods. The results show the importance of loading time pulse, unloading time and various speeds on design criteria. Also the importance of memory fading of material to storing the strain and stress due to repeated loading was shown. The model was simulated by ABAQUS finite element package

Keywords: viscoelasticity, finite element method, repeated loading, HMA

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2516 Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. Joseph Antony, Z. K. Jahanger


Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.

Keywords: cyclic loading, DPIV, settlement, soil-structure interactions, strip footing

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2515 Study of Crashworthiness Behavior of Thin-Walled Tube under Axial Loading by Using Computational Mechanics

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Noorhifiantylaily Ahmad, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari


This paper presents the computationally mechanics analysis of energy absorption for cylindrical and square thin wall tubed structure by using ABAQUS/explicit. The crashworthiness behavior of AISI 1020 mild steel thin-walled tube under axial loading has been studied. The influence effects of different model’s cross-section, as well as model length on the crashworthiness behavior of thin-walled tube, are investigated. The model was placed on loading platform under axial loading with impact velocity of 5 m/s to obtain the deformation results of each model under quasi-static loading. The results showed that model undergoes different deformation mode exhibits different energy absorption performance.

Keywords: axial loading, computational mechanics, energy absorption performance, crashworthiness behavior, deformation mode

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2514 Mechanical Model of Gypsum Board Anchors Subjected Cyclic Shear Loading

Authors: Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Fumiya Ikedo


In this study, the mechanical model of various anchors embedded in gypsum board subjected cyclic shear loading were investigated. Shear tests for anchors embedded in 200 mm square size gypsum board were conducted to measure the load - load displacement curves. The strength of the gypsum board was changed for three conditions and 12 kinds of anchors were selected which were ordinary used for gypsum board anchoring. The loading conditions were a monotonous loading and a cyclic loading controlled by a servo-controlled hydraulic loading system to achieve accurate measurement. The fracture energy for each of the anchors was estimated by the analysis of consumed energy calculated by the load - load displacement curve. The effect of the strength of gypsum board and the types of anchors on the shear properties of gypsum board anchors was cleared. A numerical model to predict the load-unload curve of shear deformation of gypsum board anchors caused by such as the earthquake load was proposed and the validity on the model was proved.

Keywords: gypsum board, anchor, shear test, cyclic loading, load-unload curve

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2513 Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Non-Convex Economic Power Dispatch Problem

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, T. Guesmi


This study presents a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm by including a local search technique for solving the non-convex economic power dispatch problem. The local search step is incorporated at the end of each iteration. Total system losses, valve-point loading effects and prohibited operating zones have been incorporated in the problem formulation. Thus, the problem becomes highly nonlinear and with discontinuous objective function. The proposed technique is validated using an IEEE benchmark system with ten thermal units. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed optimization algorithm has better convergence characteristics in comparison with the original ABC algorithm.

Keywords: economic power dispatch, artificial bee colony, valve-point loading effects, prohibited operating zones

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2512 Knowledge and Ontology Engineering in Continuous Monitoring of Production Systems

Authors: Maciej Zaręba, Sławomir Lasota


The monitoring of manufacturing processes is an important issue in nowadays ERP systems. The identification and analysis of appropriate data for the units that take part in the production process are ones of the most crucial problems. In this paper, the authors introduce a new approach towards modelling the relation between production units, signals, and factors possible to obtain from the production system. The main idea for the system is based on the ontology of production units.

Keywords: manufacturing operation management, OWL, ontology implementation, ontology modeling

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2511 Study of the Behavior of Geogrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls Under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Yongzhe Zhao, Ying Liu, Zhiyong Liu, Hui You


The soil behind retaining wall is normally subjected to cyclic loading, for example traffic loading. Geotextile has been widely used to reinforce the soil for the purpose of reducing the settlement of the soil. A series of physical model tests were performed to investigate the settlement of footing under cyclic loading. The settlement of the footing, ground deformation and the vertical earth pressure in subsoil were presented and discussed under different types of geotextiles. The results indicate that including geotextiles significantly decreases the footing settlement and the stiffer the geotextile, the less the settlement. Under cyclic loading, the soil below the footing shows dilation within certain depths and beyond that it experiences contraction. The location of footing relative to the retaining wall has important effects on the deformation behavior of the soil in the ground, and the closer the footing to the retaining wall, the greater the contraction soil shows. This is because the retaining wall experienced greater lateral displacement.

Keywords: physical model tests, reinforced retaining wall, cyclic loading, footing

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2510 Behaviour of Rc Column under Biaxial Cyclic Loading-State of the Art

Authors: L. Pavithra, R. Sharmila, Shivani Sridhar


Columns severe structural damage needs proportioning a significant portion of earthquake energy can be dissipated yielding in the beams. Presence of axial load along with cyclic loading has a significant influence on column. The objective of this paper is to present the analytical results of columns subjected to biaxial cyclic loading.

Keywords: RC column, Seismic behaviour, cyclic behaviour, biaxial testing, ductile behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
2509 A Study of Environmental Test Sequences for Electrical Units

Authors: Jung Ho Yang, Yong Soo Kim


Electrical units are operated by electrical and electronic components. An environmental test sequence is useful for testing electrical units to reduce reliability issues. This study introduces test sequence guidelines based on relevant principles and considerations for electronic testing according to international standard IEC-60068-1 and the United States military standard MIL-STD-810G. Then, test sequences were proposed based on the descriptions for each test. Finally, General Motors (GM) specification GMW3172 was interpreted and compared to IEC-60068-1 and MIL-STD-810G.

Keywords: reliability, environmental test sequence, electrical units, IEC 60068-1, MIL-STD-810G

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2508 Study on Effect of Reverse Cyclic Loading on Fracture Resistance Curve of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Jaegu Choi, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Byungwoo Moon


Since massive earthquakes in the world have been reported recently, the safety of nuclear power plants for seismic loading has become a significant issue. Seismic loading is the reverse cyclic loading, consisting of repeated tensile and compression by longitudinal and transverse wave. Up to this time, the study on characteristics of fracture toughness under reverse cyclic loading has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the fracture toughness under reverse cyclic load for the integrity estimation of nuclear power plants under seismic load. Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for determination of fracture toughness or integrity estimation in terms of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be derived by the fracture resistance test using single specimen technique. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of reverse cyclic loading on a fracture resistance curve of ESG specimen, having a similar stress gradient compared to the crack surface of the real pipe. For this, we carried out the fracture toughness test under the reverse cyclic loading, while changing incremental plastic displacement. Test results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with a decrease of the incremental plastic displacement.

Keywords: reverse cyclic loading, j-r curve, ESG specimen, incremental plastic displacement

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2507 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens

Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi


Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.

Keywords: brittleness, loading rate, acoustic emission, tensile fracture, shear fracture

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2506 Investigation of Steel Infill Panels under Blast Impulsive Loading

Authors: Seyed M. Zahrai, Saeid Lotfi


If an infill panel does not have enough ductility against the loading, it breaks and gets damaged before depreciation and load transfer. As steel infill panel has appropriate ductility before fracture, it can be used as an alternative to typical infill panels under blast loading. Concerning enough ductility of out-of-plane behavior the infill panel, the impact force enters the horizontal diaphragm and is distributed among the lateral elements which can be made from steel infill panels. This article investigates the behavior of steel infill panels with different thickness and stiffeners using finite element analysis with geometric and material nonlinearities for optimization of the steel plate thickness and stiffeners arrangement to obtain more efficient design for its out-of-plane behavior.

Keywords: blast loading, ductility, maximum displacement, steel infill panel

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2505 A Study of Electric Generation Characteristics for Thin-Film Piezoelectric PbZrTiO₃ Ceramic Plate during the Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

Authors: Tsukasa Ogawa, Mitsuhiro Okayasu


To examine the generation properties of electric power for piezoelectric (PbZrTiO3) ceramic plates, the electric-power generation characteristics were examined experimentally and numerically during cyclic bending under various loading fixtures with different contact condition, i.e., point and area contact. In the low applied loading condition between 10 and 50 N, increasing the load-contact area on the piezoelectric ceramic led to a nonlinear decrease in the generated voltage. Decreasing contact area, including the point contact, basically enhanced the generated voltage, although the voltage saturated during loading when the contact area is less than ϕ5 mm, which was attributed to the high strain status, resulting in the material failure, i.e., high stress concentration. In this case, severe plastic deformation and the domain switching were dominated failure modes in the ceramic. From this approach, it is clear that the applied load became more larger (50 ~100 N), larger contact area (ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm) became advantageous for power generation. Based upon this cyclic loading was carried out to investigate the fatigue characteristics of the piezoelectric ceramic late. For all contact conditions, electric voltage dropped in the beginning of the cyclic loading, although the higher electric generation was stable in the further cyclic loading for the contact area of ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm. In constant, further decrement of electric generation occurred for the point contact condition, and the low electric voltage was generated for the larger contact condition.

Keywords: electric power generation, piezoelectric ceramic, lead zirconate titanate ceramic, loading conditions

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2504 Polydopamine Nanoparticle as a Stable and Capacious Nano-Reservoir of Rifampicin

Authors: Tasnuva Tamanna, Aimin Yu


Application of nanoscience in biomedical field has come across as a new era. This study involves the synthesis of nano drug carrier with antibiotic loading. Based on the founding that polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles could be formed via self-polymerization of dopamine at alkaline pH, one-step synthesis of rifampicin coupled polydopamine (PDA-R) nanoparticles was achieved by adding rifampicin into the dopamine solution. The successful yield of PDA nanoparticles with or without the presence of rifampicin during the polymerization process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Drug loading was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and the loading efficiency of rifampicin was calculated to be 76%. Such highly capacious nano-reservoir was found very stable with little drug leakage at pH 3.

Keywords: drug loading, nanoparticles, polydopamine, rifampicin

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2503 Production of Renewable and Clean Bio-Fuel (DME) from Biomethanol over Copper Modified Alumina Catalyst

Authors: Ahmed I. Osman, Jehad K. Abu-Dahrieh, David W. Rooney, Jillian Thompson


The effect of loading of copper on the catalytic performance of different alumina support during the dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) was performed in a fixed bed reactor. There are two levels of loading; low loading (1, 2, 4 and 6% Cu wt/wt) and high loading (10 and 15% Cu wt/wt) on both AC350 (alumina catalyst calcined at 350) and AC550 (alumina catalyst calcined at 550), to study the effect of loading and the effect of the support during methanol dehydration to DME (MTD). The catalysts were characterized by TGA, XRD, BET, TPD-NH3, TEM and DRIFT-Pyridine. Under reaction conditions where the temperature ranged from 180-300˚C with a WHSV= 12.1 h-1 it was found that all the catalysts calcined at 550˚C showed higher activity than those calcined at 350˚C. In this study, the optimum catalyst was 6% Cu/AC550. This catalyst showed a high degree of stability, had one half activity of the pure catalyst (AC550) and double the activity of the optimum catalyst calcined at 350˚C (6% Cu/AC350). So, we recommended 6% Cu/AC550 for the production of DME from methanol.

Keywords: bio-fuel, nano composite catalyst, DME, Cu-Al2O3

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2502 Eccentric Loading of CFDST Columns

Authors: Trevor N. Haas, Alexander Koen


Columns have traditionally been constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel. Much attention was allocated to estimate the axial capacity of the traditional column sections to the detriment of other forms of construction. Other forms of column construction such as Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubes received little research attention, and almost no attention when subjected to eccentric loading. This paper investigates the axial capacity of columns when subjected to eccentric loading. The experimental axial capacities are compared to other established theoretical formulae on concentric loading to determine a possible relationship. The study found a good correlation between the reduction in axial capacity for different column lengths and hollow section ratios.

Keywords: CSDST, CFST, axial capacity, hollow section ratios

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2501 Ranking All of the Efficient DMUs in DEA

Authors: Elahe Sarfi, Esmat Noroozi, Farhad Hosseinzadeh Lotfi


One of the important issues in Data Envelopment Analysis is the ranking of Decision Making Units. In this paper, a method for ranking DMUs is presented through which the weights related to efficient units should be chosen in a way that the other units preserve a certain percentage of their efficiency with the mentioned weights. To this end, a model is presented for ranking DMUs on the base of their superefficiency by considering the mentioned restrictions related to weights. This percentage can be determined by decision Maker. If the specific percentage is unsuitable, we can find a suitable and feasible one for ranking DMUs accordingly. Furthermore, the presented model is capable of ranking all of the efficient units including nonextreme efficient ones. Finally, the presented models are utilized for two sets of data and related results are reported.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency, ranking, weight

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2500 Robustness of Steel Beam to Column Moment Resisting Joints

Authors: G. Culache, M. P. Byfield, N. S. Ferguson, A. Tyas


Steel joints in building structures represent a weak link in the case of accidental transient loading. This type of loading can occur due to blast effects or impact with moving vehicles and will result in large deformations in the material as well as large rotations. This paper addresses the lack of experimental investigations into the response of moment resisting connections subjected to such loading. The current design philosophy was used to create test specimens with flush and extended end plates. The specimens were tested in a specially designed testing rig capable of delivering the sustained loading even beyond the point of failure. Types of failure that the authors attempted to obtain were bolt fracture, flange crushing and end plate fracture. Experimental data is presented, described and analyzed. The tests show that the strength and ductility can be significantly improved by replacing ordinary mild-steel bolts with their stainless steel equivalents. This minor modification is demonstrated to significantly improve the robustness when subjected to loading that results in high deformations and rotation, where loading is maintained during failure. Conclusions are drawn about the wider implications of this research and recommendations made on the direction of future research in this field.

Keywords: steel moment connections, high strain rates, dynamic loading, experimental testing

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2499 The Influence of Contact Models on Discrete Element Modeling of the Ballast Layer Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Peyman Aela, Lu Zong, Guoqing Jing


Recently, there has been growing interest in numerical modeling of ballast railway tracks. A commonly used mechanistic modeling approach for ballast is the discrete element method (DEM). Up to now, the effects of the contact model on ballast particle behavior have not been precisely examined. In this regard, selecting the appropriate contact model is mainly associated with the particle characteristics and the loading condition. Since ballast is cohesionless material, different contact models, including the linear spring, Hertz-Mindlin, and Hysteretic models, could be used to calculate particle-particle or wall-particle contact forces. Moreover, the simulation of a dynamic test is vital to investigate the effect of damping parameters on the ballast deformation. In this study, ballast box tests were simulated by DEM to examine the influence of different contact models on the mechanical behavior of the ballast layer under cyclic loading. This paper shows how the contact model can affect the deformation and damping of a ballast layer subjected to cyclic loading in a ballast box.

Keywords: ballast, contact model, cyclic loading, DEM

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