Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: hafnium

13 Enthalpies of Formation of Equiatomic Binary Hafnium Transition Metal Compounds HfM (M=Co, Ir, Os, Pt, Rh, Ru)

Authors: Hadda Krarcha, S. Messaasdi


In order to investigate Hafnium transition metal alloys HfM (M= Co, Ir, Os,Pt, Rh, Ru) phase diagrams in the region of 50/50% atomic ratio, we performed ab initio Full-Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves calculations of the enthalpies of formation of HfM compounds at B2 (CsCl) structure type. The obtained enthalpies of formation are discussed and compared to some of the existing models and available experimental data.

Keywords: enthalpy of formation, transition metal, binarry compunds, hafnium

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12 Hafnium Doped Zno Nanostructures: An Eco-Friendly Synthesis for Optoelectronic Applications

Authors: Mohamed Achehboune, Mohammed Khenfouch, Issam Boukhoubza, Bakang Mothudi, Izeddine Zorkani, Anouar Jorio


Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been attracting growing interest in recent years; their optical and electrical properties make them useful as attractive and promising materials for optoelectronic applications. In this study, pure and Hafnium doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized using a green processing method. The structural, optical and electrical properties of samples were investigated structural and optical spectroscopies and electrical measurements. The synthesis and chemical composition of pure and Hafnium doped ZnO were confirmed by SEM observation. The XRD studies of Hafnium doped ZnO demonstrate the formation of wurtzite structure with preferred c-axis orientation. Moreover, the optical and electrical properties of doped material have improved after the doping process. The experimental results obtained for our material show that Hf doped ZnO nanostructures could be a promising material in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaic cell and light emitting diode devices.

Keywords: green synthesis, hafnium-doped-zinc oxide, nanostructures, optoelectronic

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11 A Comparison between Reagents Extracted from Tree Leaves for Spectrophotometric Determination of Hafnium(IV)

Authors: A. Boveiri Monji, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, B. Salimi


The main goal of this paper was to make use of green reagents as a substitute of perilous synthetic reagents and organic solvents for spectrophotometric determination of hafnium(IV). The extracts taken from six different kinds of tree leaves including Acer negundo, Ficus carica, Cerasus avium, Chimonanthus, Salix babylonica and Pinus brutia, were applied as green reagents for the experiments. In 6-M hydrochloric acid, hafnium reacted with the reagent to form a yellow product and showed maximum absorbance at 421 nm. Among tree leaves, Chimonanthus showed satisfactory results with a molar absorptivity value of 0.61 × 104 l mol-1 cm-1 and the method was linear in the 0.3-9 µg mL -1 concentration range. The detection limit value was 0.064 µg mL-1. The proposed method was simple, low cost, clean, and selective.

Keywords: hafnium, spectrophotometric determination, synthetic reagents, tree leaves

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10 A Green Method for Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of Hafnium(IV) with Aqueous Extract of Ficus carica Tree Leaves

Authors: A. Boveiri Monji, H. Yousefnia, M. Haji Hosseini, S. Zolghadri


A clean spectrophotometric method for the determination of hafnium by using a green reagent, acidic extract of Ficus carica tree leaves is developed. In 6-M hydrochloric acid, hafnium reacts with this reagent to form a yellow product. The formed product shows maximum absorbance at 421 nm with a molar absorptivity value of 0.28 × 104 l mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹, and the method was linear in the 2-11 µg ml⁻¹ concentration range. The detection limit value was found to be 0.312 µg ml⁻¹. Except zirconium and iron, the selectivity was good, and most of the ions did not show any significant spectral interference at concentrations up to several hundred times. The proposed method was green, simple, low cost, and selective.

Keywords: spectrophotometric determination, Ficus caricatree leaves, synthetic reagents, hafnium

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9 Study of Waveguide Silica Glasses by Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: Mohamed Abdelmounim Bakkali, Mustapha El Mataouy, Abellatif Aaliti, Mouhamed Khaddor


In the paper, we study the effects of introducing hafnium oxide on Raman spectra of silica glass planar waveguide activated by 0.3 mol% Er3+ ions. This work compares Raman spectra measured for three thin films deposited on silicon substrate. The films were prepared with different molar ratio of Si/Hf using sol-gel method and deposited by dip coating technique. The effect of hafnium oxide incorporation on the waveguides shows the evolution of the structure of this material. This structural information is useful to understand the luminescence intensity by means of ion–ion interaction mechanisms.

Keywords: optical amplifiers, non-bridging oxygen, erbium, sol-gel, waveguide, silica-hafnia

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8 Hafnium and Samarium Hydroxyapatite Composites and Their Characterization

Authors: Meltem Nur Erdöl, Feyzanur Bayrak, Elif Emanetçi, Faik Nüzhet Oktar, Cevriye Kalkandelen, Oğuzhan Gündüz


Nowadays, the bioceramic graft applications are very important due to the fact that especially European population is getting much older. Consequently, healing approaches for some health problems become more important in the near future. For instance, osteoporosis is one of the reasons for serious hip fractures. Beside these, the traffic accidents playing role increasing of various hip fractures and other bone fractures. Naturally all these are leading the importance developing new bioceramic graft materials. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the leading bioceramics on the market. Beside the high biocompatibility HA bioceramics unfortunately are weak materials for loaded areas. For improvement mechanical properties of HA material, some oxides and metallic powders can be added. In this study, some rare earth oxides like hafnium (IV) oxide (HfO₂) and samarium (III) oxide (Sm₂O₃) are added to HA for improvement of their material characteristics. Thus, compression, microhardness and theoretical density tests are performed. X-ray diffraction patterns are also investigated corresponding x-ray diffraction equipment. At the end, studies of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) are completed. All values were compared with past BHA and various composites.

Keywords: biocomposite, hafnium oxide, hydroxyapatite, nanotechnology, samarium oxide

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7 Phosphate Capture from Sewage by Hafnium-Modified Fe₃O₄@SiO₂ Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles: Adsorption Capacity, Selectivity, Reusability Analysis and Mechanistic Insights

Authors: Qian Zhao


With global increasing demand for phosphorus and intensively depleting reserves, it is urgent need to explore innovative approaches towards capturing phosphate from sewage, which is also an effective way to reduce phosphate contamination and avoid eutrophication of water bodies. In the present article, the superparamagnetic nano-sorbents containing Fe₃O₄ core and hafnium-modified MgAl/MgFe layered double hydroxides shell (abbreviated as MgAlHf-NP and MgFeHf-NP) was developed using a simple and low-cost synthesis protocol. The obtained Hf-coated nano-materials showed well-defined crystal structure and sufficient saturation magnetization and exhibited higher adsorption capacity for phosphate. Meanwhile, high selectivity was also confirmed since coexisting foreign anions and biomacromolecules showed little competitive effect on phosphate adsorption. The enhancement via doping with Hf should be explained by the stronger ligand complexation built by the pair of hard acid Hf ion and hard base phosphate that matched up the bonding preferences. Sufficient OH⁻ concentration and clear pH shift during the desorption/regeneration allowed for regeneration rate of higher than 90% after 5 cycles of adsorption desorption. This article attempts to provide a competitive candidate for phosphate-capture, which is highly effective, easily separable and repeatedly usable.

Keywords: phosphate recovery, nanoparticles, superparamagnetic, adsorption, reusability

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6 Structural, Elastic, Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Perovskites AHfO3 (a=Ba,Sr,Eu)

Authors: H. Krarcha


The structural, elastic, vibrational and thermal properties of AHfO3 compounds with the cubic perovskites structure have been investigated, by employing a first principles method, using the plane wave pseudo potential calculations (PP-PW), based on the density functional theory (DFT), within the local density approximation (LDA). The optimized lattice parameters, independent elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44), bulk modulus (B), compressibility (b), shear modulus (G), Young’s modulus (Y ), Poisson’s ratio (n), Lame´’s coefficients (m, l), as well as band structure, density of states and electron density distributions are obtained and analyzed in comparison with the available theoretical and experimental data. For the first time the numerical estimates of elastic parameters of the polycrystalline AHfO3 ceramics (in framework of the VoigteReusseHill approximation) are performed. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, by means of total energy versus volume calculations obtained with the FP-LAPW method, is applied to study the thermal and vibrational effects. Predicted temperature and pressure effects on the structural parameters, thermal expansions, heat capacities, and Debye temperatures are determined from the non-equilibrium Gibbs functions.

Keywords: Hafnium, elastic propreties, first principles calculation, perovskite

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5 Purification of Zr from Zr-Hf Resources Using Crystallization in HF-HCl Solvent Mixture

Authors: Kenichi Hirota, Jifeng Wang, Sadao Araki, Koji Endo, Hideki Yamamoto


Zirconium (Zr) has been used as a fuel cladding tube for nuclear reactors, because of the excellent corrosion resistance and the low adsorptive material for neutron. Generally speaking, the natural resource of Zr is often containing Hf that has similar properties. The content of Hf in the Zr resources is about 2~4 wt%. In the industrial use, the content of Hf in Zr resources should be lower than the 100 ppm. However, the separation of Zr and Hf is not so easy, because of similar chemical and physical properties such as melting point, boiling point and things. Solvent extraction method has been applied for the separation of Zr and Hf from Zr natural resources. This method can separate Hf with high efficiency (Hf < 100ppm), however, it needs much amount of organic solvents for solvent extraction and the cost of its disposal treatment is high. Therefore, we attached attention for the fractional crystallization. This separation method depends on the solubility difference of Zr and Hf in the solvent. In this work, hexafluorozirconate (hafnate) (K2Zr(Hf)F6) was used as model compound. Solubility of K2ZrF6 in water showed lower than that of K2HfF6. By repeating of this treatment, it is possible to purify Zr, practically. In this case, 16-18 times of recrystallization stages were needed for its high purification. The improvement of the crystallization process was carried out in this work. Water, hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) +hydrochloric acid (HCl) mixture were chosen as solvent for dissolution of Zr and Hf. In the experiment, 10g of K2ZrF6 was added to each solvent of 100mL. Each solution was heated for 1 hour at 353K. After 1h of this operation, they were cooled down till 293K, and were held for 5 hours at 273K. Concentration of Zr or Hf was measured using ICP analysis. It was found that Hf was separated from Zr-Hf mixed compound with high efficiency, when HF-HCl solution was used for solvent of crystallization. From the comparison of the particle size of each crystal by SEM, it was confirmed that the particle diameter of the crystal showed smaller size with decreasing of Hf content. This paper concerned with purification of Zr from Zr-Hf mixture using crystallization method.

Keywords: crystallization, zirconium, hafnium, separation

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4 Two-Dimensional Material-Based Negative Differential Resistance Device with High Peak-to- Valley Current Ratio for Multi-Valued Logic Circuits

Authors: Kwan-Ho Kim, Jin-Hong Park


The multi-valued logic (MVL) circuits, which can handle more than two logic states, are one of the promising solutions to overcome the bit density limitations of conventional binary logic systems. Recently, tunneling devices such as Esaki diode and resonant tunneling diode (RTD) have been extensively explored to construct the MVL circuits. These tunneling devices present a negative differential resistance (NDR) phenomenon in which a current decreases as a voltage increases in a specific applied voltage region. Due to this non-monotonic current behavior, the tunneling devices have more than two threshold voltages, consequently enabling construction of MVL circuits. Recently, the emergence of two dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) crystals has opened up the possibility to fabricate such tunneling devices easily. Owing to the defect-free surface of the 2D crystals, a very abrupt junction interface could be formed through a simple stacking process, which subsequently allowed the implementation of a high-performance tunneling device. Here, we report a vdW heterostructure based tunneling device with multiple threshold voltages, which was fabricated with black phosphorus (BP) and hafnium diselenide (HfSe₂). First, we exfoliated BP on the SiO₂ substrate and then transferred HfSe₂ on BP using dry transfer method. The BP and HfSe₂ form type-Ⅲ heterojunction so that the highly doped n+/p+ interface can be easily implemented without additional electrical or chemical doping process. Owing to high natural doping at the junction, record high peak to valley ratio (PVCR) of 16 was observed to the best our knowledge in 2D materials based NDR device. Furthermore, based on this, we first demonstrate the feasibility of the ternary latch by connecting two multi-threshold voltage devices in series.

Keywords: two dimensional van der Waals crystal, multi-valued logic, negative differential resistnace, tunneling device

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3 A Low-Cost Memristor Based on Hybrid Structures of Metal-Oxide Quantum Dots and Thin Films

Authors: Amir Shariffar, Haider Salman, Tanveer Siddique, Omar Manasreh


According to the recent studies on metal-oxide memristors, researchers tend to improve the stability, endurance, and uniformity of resistive switching (RS) behavior in memristors. Specifically, the main challenge is to prevent abrupt ruptures in the memristor’s filament during the RS process. To address this problem, we are proposing a low-cost hybrid structure of metal oxide quantum dots (QDs) and thin films to control the formation of filaments in memristors. We aim to use metal oxide quantum dots because of their unique electronic properties and quantum confinement, which may improve the resistive switching behavior. QDs have discrete energy spectra due to electron confinement in three-dimensional space. Because of Coulomb repulsion between electrons, only a few free electrons are contained in a quantum dot. This fact might guide the growth direction for the conducting filaments in the metal oxide memristor. As a result, it is expected that QDs can improve the endurance and uniformity of RS behavior in memristors. Moreover, we use a hybrid structure of intrinsic n-type quantum dots and p-type thin films to introduce a potential barrier at the junction that can smooth the transition between high and low resistance states. A bottom-up approach is used for fabricating the proposed memristor using different types of metal-oxide QDs and thin films. We synthesize QDs including, zinc oxide, molybdenum trioxide, and nickel oxide combined with spin-coated thin films of titanium dioxide, copper oxide, and hafnium dioxide. We employ fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass as the substrate for deposition and bottom electrode. Then, the active layer composed of one type of quantum dots, and the opposite type of thin films is spin-coated onto the FTO. Lastly, circular gold electrodes are deposited with a shadow mask by using electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation at room temperature. The fabricated devices are characterized using a probe station with a semiconductor parameter analyzer. The current-voltage (I-V) characterization is analyzed for each device to determine the conduction mechanism. We evaluate the memristor’s performance in terms of stability, endurance, and retention time to identify the optimal memristive structure. Finally, we assess the proposed hypothesis before we proceed to the optimization process for fabricating the memristor.

Keywords: memristor, quantum dot, resistive switching, thin film

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2 A Comparative Study of the Tribological Behavior of Bilayer Coatings for Machine Protection

Authors: Cristina Diaz, Lucia Perez-Gandarillas, Gonzalo Garcia-Fuentes, Simone Visigalli, Roberto Canziani, Giuseppe Di Florio, Paolo Gronchi


During their lifetime, industrial machines are often subjected to chemical, mechanical and thermal extreme conditions. In some cases, the loss of efficiency comes from the degradation of the surface as a result of its exposition to abrasive environments that can cause wear. This is a common problem to be solved in industries of diverse nature such as food, paper or concrete industries, among others. For this reason, a good selection of the material is of high importance. In the machine design context, stainless steels such as AISI 304 and 316 are widely used. However, the severity of the external conditions can require additional protection for the steel and sometimes coating solutions are demanded in order to extend the lifespan of these materials. Therefore, the development of effective coatings with high wear resistance is of utmost technological relevance. In this research, bilayer coatings made of Titanium-Tantalum, Titanium-Niobium, Titanium-Hafnium, and Titanium-Zirconium have been developed using magnetron sputtering configuration by PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) technology. Their tribological behavior has been measured and evaluated under different environmental conditions. Two kinds of steels were used as substrates: AISI 304, AISI 316. For the comparison with these materials, titanium alloy substrate was also employed. Regarding the characterization, wear rate and friction coefficient were evaluated by a tribo-tester, using a pin-on-ball configuration with different lubricants such as tomato sauce, wine, olive oil, wet compost, a mix of sand and concrete with water and NaCl to approximate the results to real extreme conditions. In addition, topographical images of the wear tracks were obtained in order to get more insight of the wear behavior and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken to evaluate the adhesion and quality of the coating. The characterization was completed with the measurement of nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus. Concerning the results, thicknesses of the samples varied from 100 nm (Ti-Zr layer) to 1.4 µm (Ti-Hf layer) and SEM images confirmed that the addition of the Ti layer improved the adhesion of the coatings. Moreover, results have pointed out that these coatings have increased the wear resistance in comparison with the original substrates under environments of different severity. Furthermore, nanoindentation hardness results showed an improvement of the elastic strain to failure and a high modulus of elasticity (approximately 200 GPa). As a conclusion, Ti-Ta, Ti-Zr, Ti-Nb, and Ti-Hf are very promising and effective coatings in terms of tribological behavior, improving considerably the wear resistance and friction coefficient of typically used machine materials.

Keywords: coating, stainless steel, tribology, wear

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1 Corrosion Protective Coatings in Machines Design

Authors: Cristina Diaz, Lucia Perez, Simone Visigalli, Giuseppe Di Florio, Gonzalo Fuentes, Roberto Canziani, Paolo Gronchi


During the last 50 years, the selection of materials is one of the main decisions in machine design for different industrial applications. It is due to numerous physical, chemical, mechanical and technological factors to consider in it. Corrosion effects are related with all of these factors and impact in the life cycle, machine incidences and the costs for the life of the machine. Corrosion affects the deterioration or destruction of metals due to the reaction with the environment, generally wet. In food industry, dewatering industry, concrete industry, paper industry, etc. corrosion is an unsolved problem and it might introduce some alterations of some characteristics in the final product. Nowadays, depending on the selected metal, its surface and its environment of work, corrosion prevention might be a change of metal, use a coating, cathodic protection, use of corrosion inhibitors, etc. In the vast majority of the situations, use of a corrosion resistant material or in its defect, a corrosion protection coating is the solution. Stainless steels are widely used in machine design, because of their strength, easily cleaned capacity, corrosion resistance and appearance. Typical used are AISI 304 and AISI 316. However, their benefits don’t fit every application, and some coatings are required against corrosion such as some paintings, galvanizing, chrome plating, SiO₂, TiO₂ or ZrO₂ coatings, etc. In this work, some coatings based in a bilayer made of Titanium-Tantalum, Titanium-Niobium, Titanium-Hafnium or Titanium-Zirconium, have been developed used magnetron sputtering configuration by PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) technology, for trying to reduce corrosion effects on AISI 304, AISI 316 and comparing it with Titanium alloy substrates. Ti alloy display exceptional corrosion resistance to chlorides, sour and oxidising acidic media and seawater. In this study, Ti alloy (99%) has been included for comparison with coated AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless steel. Corrosion tests were conducted by a Gamry Instrument under ASTM G5-94 standard, using different electrolytes such as tomato salsa, wine, olive oil, wet compost, a mix of sand and concrete with water and NaCl for testing corrosion in different industrial environments. In general, in all tested environments, the results showed an improvement of corrosion resistance of all coated AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless steel substrates when they were compared to uncoated stainless steel substrates. After that, comparing these results with corrosion studies on uncoated Ti alloy substrate, it was observed that in some cases, coated stainless steel substrates, reached similar current density that uncoated Ti alloy. Moreover, Titanium-Zirconium and Titanium-Tantalum coatings showed for all substrates in study including coated Ti alloy substrates, a reduction in current density more than two order in magnitude. As conclusion, Ti-Ta, Ti-Zr, Ti-Nb and Ti-Hf coatings have been developed for improving corrosion resistance of AISI 304 and AISI 316 materials. After corrosion tests in several industry environments, substrates have shown improvements on corrosion resistance. Similar processes have been carried out in Ti alloy (99%) substrates. Coated AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless steel, might reach similar corrosion protection on the surface than uncoated Ti alloy (99%). Moreover, coated Ti Alloy (99%) might increase its corrosion resistance using these coatings.

Keywords: coatings, corrosion, PVD, stainless steel

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