Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 64

Search results for: tragedy of the commons

64 Piracy Killed the Radio Star: A System Archetype Analysis of Digital Music Theft

Authors: Marton Gergely


Digital experience goods, such as music and video, are readily available and easily accessible through a sundry of illegal mediums. Furthermore, the rate of music theft has been increasing at a seemingly unstoppable rate. Instead of studying the effect of copyright infringement on affected shareholders, this paper aims to examine the overall impact that digital music piracy has on society as a whole. Through a systems dynamics approach, an archetype is built to model the behavior of both legal and illegal music users. Additionally, the effects over time are considered. The conceptual model suggests that if piracy continues to grow at the current pace, industry shareholders will eventually lose the motivation to supply new music. In turn, this tragedy would affect not only the illegal players, but legal consumers as well, by means of a decrease in overall quality of life.

Keywords: music piracy, illegal downloading, tragedy of the commons, system archetypes

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63 Participatory Approach for Urban Sustainability through Ostrom’s Principles

Authors: Kuladeep Kumar Sadevi


The shift towards raising global urban population has intense implications on the sustainability of the urban livelihoods. Rapid urbanization has made governments, companies and civil societies recognize that they are barely equipped to deal with growing urban demands, especially water, waste and energy management. Effective management of land, water, energy and waste at a community level should be addressed well to attain greener cities. In pursuit of Green livelihoods; various norms, codes, and green rating programmes have been followed by stakeholders at various levels. While the sustainability is being adapted at smaller scale developments, greening the urban environment at community/city level is still finding its path to reality. This is due to lack of the sense of ownership in the citizens for their immediate neighborhoods and city as a whole. This phenomenon can be well connected to the theory of 'tragedy of commons' with respect to the community engagement to manage the common pool resources. The common pool resource management has been well addressed by Elinor Ostrom, who shared the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2009 for her lifetime of scholarly work investigating how communities succeed or fail at managing common pool (finite) resources. This paper examines the applicability of Elinor Ostrom's 8 Principles for Managing a Commons, to meet urban sustainability. The key objective of this paper is to come up with a model for effective urban common pool resource management, which ultimately leads to sustainability as a whole. The paper brings out a methodology to understand various parameters involved in urban sustainability, examine the synergies of all such parameters, and application of Ostrom’s principles to correlate these parameters in order to attain effective urban resource management.

Keywords: common pool resources, green cities, green communities, participatory management, sustainable development, urban resource management, urban sustainability

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62 Commoning as an Approach to Community Planning: An Inquiry into the Role of Urban Local Bodies and Commoners

Authors: Pruthvi Nath Palleti, Sarmada Madhulika Kone


Communities are formed based on the commonalities that exist in a set of individuals and when the group comes together on identifying those commonalities and to achieve their common goals. Thus, community planning with its vision to strengthen the community mostly involves with making or remaking of commons, which results in making or remaking of communities. This paper looks into different practices of planning around the world and tried to establish a link between commoning (the act of exercising the rights over commons by commoners) and participatory approach to community planning.

Keywords: commoners, commoning, community, participatory planning, urban local bodies

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61 A Critical Examination of the Relationship between the Media and the Political Agenda in the Social Deviance Portrayal of Disabled People

Authors: Cara Williams


This paper considers the media’s role in formulating a dominant social deviance paradigm and medicalised portrayal of disabled people and examines how those representations of impairment reinforce the personal tragedy view that underpins the social value given to the category of disability. According to a materialist perspective, the personal tragedy medical model approach condemns disabled people to live an inferior 'life apart', socially excluded and prevented from living as fully participating citizens on an equal basis to non-disabled people. Commonly, disabled people are portrayed as a person who needs to be cured in order to achieve a better 'quality of life'; otherwise stories center on deviance, criminality or scrounger. Media representations have consistently used negative language and images that reinforce the personal tragedy 'deficient' view of disability. The systematic misrepresentation within film, literature, TV and other art forms have validated a process about what it means to be 'normal' and how 'difference' and 'identity' are interpreted. The impact of these stereotyped disabling images for disabled people is a barrier not experienced by many other oppressed minority groups. Applying a materialist analysis, this paper contends that the impact on audience’s perceptions of impaired bodies and minds, and the harmful effects on disabled people can be linked with agenda setting theory - the relationship between the media and the political agenda.

Keywords: media, disabled people, political agenda, personal tragedy

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
60 Bug Localization on Single-Line Bugs of Apache Commons Math Library

Authors: Cherry Oo, Hnin Min Oo


Software bug localization is one of the most costly tasks in program repair technique. Therefore, there is a high claim for automated bug localization techniques that can monitor programmers to the locations of bugs, with slight human arbitration. Spectrum-based bug localization aims to help software developers to discover bugs rapidly by investigating abstractions of the program traces to make a ranking list of most possible buggy modules. Using the Apache Commons Math library project, we study the diagnostic accuracy using our spectrum-based bug localization metric. Our outcomes show that the greater performance of a specific similarity coefficient, used to inspect the program spectra, is mostly effective on localizing of single line bugs.

Keywords: software testing, bug localization, program spectra, bug

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
59 People's Perspective on Water Commons in Trans-Boundary Water Governance: A Case Study from Nepal

Authors: Sristi Silwal


South Asian rivers support ecosystems and sustain well-being of thousands of riparian communities. Rivers however are also sources of conflict between countries and one of the contested issues between governments of the region. Governments have signed treaties to harness some of the rivers but their provisions have not been successful in improving the quality of life of those who depend on water as common property resources. This paper will present a case of the study of the status of the water commons along the lower command areas of Koshi, Gandka and Mahakali rivers. Nepal and India have signed treaties for development and management of these rivers in 1928, 1954 and 1966. The study investigated perceptions of the local community on climate-induced disasters, provision of the treaties such as water for irrigation, participation in decision-making and specific impact of women. It looked at how the local community coped with adversities. The study showed that the common pool resources are gradually getting degraded, flood events increasing while community blame ‘other state’ and state administration for exacerbating these ills. The level of awareness about provisions of existing treatise is poor. Ongoing approach to trans-boundary water management has taken inadequate cognizance of these realities as the dominant narrative perpetuates cooperation between the governments. The paper argues that on-going discourses on trans-boundary water development and management need to use a new metrics of taking cognizance of the condition of the commons and that of the people depended on them for sustenance. In absence of such narratives, the scale of degradation would increase making those already marginalized more vulnerable to impacts of global climate change.

Keywords: climate change vulnerability, conflict, cooperation, water commons

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58 The Status of the Actio Popularis under International Environmental Law in Cases of Damage to Global Commons

Authors: Aimite Jorge, Leenekela Usebiu


In recent years the International Community has seen a rise of what can be termed as ‘actio popularis”;that is to say lawsuits brought by third parties in the interest of the public or the world community as a whole, such as in cases of genocide and terrorism prosecutions under international law. It is equally clear that under current globalized world the effect of multinational activities on the environment is often felt beyond the borders of the territories where they operate. Equally true is the fact that the correspondence of citizens self-determination with national government is increasingly upset by the increasing willingness of states to share some ‘sovereign powers’ in order to address new economic, environmental and security interdependencies. The ‘unbundling’ of functional governance from fixed territories sees continuously citizens give up their formal approval of key decisions in exchange for a more remote, indirect say in supra-national or international decision-making bodies. The efforts to address a growing transnational flow of ecological harm are at the forefront of such indirect transformations, as evidenced by a proliferation of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) over the past three decades. However, unlike the defence of the global commons in cases of terrorism and genocide, there is still to be a clear application of action popularis in the case of environment, despite acknowledgement that the effect of the activities of several multinationals on the environment is as destructive to the global commons as genocide or terrorism are. Thus, this paper looking at specific cases of harmful degradation of the environment by certain multinationals transcending national boundaries, argues that it is high-time for a serious consideration of the application of the actio-popularis to environmental concerns. Although it is acknowledged that in international environmental law the challenge to reach a “critical mass” of recognition and support for an ‘actio-popularis’ for environment damage is particularly demanding, it is worth the try.

Keywords: actio popularis in environment law, global commons, transnational environmental damage, law and environment

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57 A Change in Property-Rights Regime and the Proliferation of Fenced Plots, Investigating Its Implication on the Livelihoods of the Locals: A Case Study of the Guji Highlands of South Ethiopia

Authors: Tingirtu Gebretsadik


This study aimed at explaining factors behind the ever increasing individualization over pastoral commons land and assesses the implication of the current change in property-ownership and land use system on the livelihoods of the Guji agro-pastoral system. Thus, three kebeles of Ana Sora woreda were selected for they conventionally appear to accommodate farming, pastoral and agro-pastoral systems. The survey method was employed to gather information on the major socio-economic condition of households. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were also held in all the three kebele. The empirical results were interpreted by integrating institutional, livelihood and adaptation frameworks. In this study individualization of ownership of pastoral commons manifested in the form of fenced closures is on the rise among the Guji and it has been adopted as the outcome of a long run process. Factors related to ecology and rangeland degradation, socio-economic changes, land registration and certification has allowed the increasing engagement in fencing commons grazing land for individual use. Consequently, the Guji pastoral system of production demonstrated a declining trend, and are adapting to alternative livelihood strategies. Moreover, farming and other developments have facilitated pastoral land losses and land use claims and tenure ambiguities.

Keywords: land tenure, traditional institutions, property rights, fenced plots

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56 Obioma's 'The Fishermen' and the Redefinition of African Postcolonial Narrative Tragedy

Authors: Ezechi Onyerionwu


If there is a modern world literary culture that has so tremendously patronized the tragic mode, it has to be that of Africa, and this has been largely true to the extent that the African socio-historical process has been given strong projection by its literature and other art forms. From the three-century-long transatlantic slave trade which brutally translocated millions of Africans to the ‘outermost parts of the earth’, to the vicious partitioning of Africa among European powers and the subsequent imposition of colonial authority on a pulverized people, Africa has really been at the receiving end of the big negatives of global transactions. The African tale has largely been one long tragic narrative. However, the postcolonial African tragic saga has presented an interesting variety of forms and approaches, which have seen to the production of some of the most thought-provoking and acclaimed African novels of the late 20th and early 21st century. Some of the defining characteristics of the African tragic prose has been: the exploration of the many neocolonial implications of the African contemporary existence; the significance of the robust interplay between the essentially foreign, and the originally indigenous elements of the modern African society; and the implosive aftermaths of the individual modern African’s attempt to rationalize his position at the centre of a very complex society. Obioma’s incredible novel, The Fishermen, is in many ways, a classic of the African postcolonial narrative tragedy. The reasons for this bold categorization would occupy the present paper.

Keywords: African narrative tragedy, neocolonialism, postcolonial literature, twenty first century African literature

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55 A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Disappearance of MH370 in Malaysia and United Kingdom Newspapers: A Pilot Study

Authors: Theng Theng Ong


This pilot study adopts a corpus-based discourse analysis to explore the construction of Malaysia airline tragedy MH370 in the selected Malaysian and United Kingdom (UK) newspapers. Fairclough’s three-dimensional model is adopted in the study to support the corpus-based analysis. The analysis aims to determine the ways in which Malaysian Airline tragedy MH370 is linguistically defined and constructed in terms of keywords and collocation. The study also seeks to identify the types of discourse that are presented in the news articles. In addition, the differences or similarities in terms of keywords, topics or issues covered by the selected Malaysian and UK news media are examined.

Keywords: corpus, CDA, newspapers, airline tragedies

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54 Assessing Economic Losses Of 2104 Flood Disaster: A Case Study on Dabong, Kelantan, Malaysia

Authors: Ahmad Hamidi Mohamed, Jamaluddin Othman, Mashitah Suid, Mohd Zaim Mohd Shukri


Floods are considered an annual natural disaster in Kelantan. However, the record-setting flood of 2014 was a 'tsunami-like disaster'. A study has been conducted with the objectives to assess the economic impact of the flood to the resident of Dabong area in Kelantan Darul Naim, Malaysia. This area was selected due to the severity during the flood. The impacts of flood on local people were done by conducting structured interviews with the use of questionnaires. The questionnaire was intended to acquire information on losses faced by Dabong residence. Questionnaires covered various areas of inconveniences suffered with respect to health effects, including illnesses suffered, their intensities, duration and their associated costs. Loss of productivity and quality of life was also assessed. Inquiries were made to Government agencies to obtain relevant statistical data regarding the loss due to the flood tragedy. The data collected by giving formal request to the governmental agencies and formal meetings were done. From the study a staggering amount of losses were calculated. This figure comes from losses of property, Farmers/Agriculture, Traders/Business, Health, Insurance and Governmental losses. Flood brings hardship to the people of Dabong and these losses of home will cause inconveniences to the society. The huge amount of economic loss extracted from this study shows that federal and state government of Kelantan need to find out the cause of the major flood in 2014. Fast and effective measures have to be planned and implemented in flood prone area to prevent same tragedy happens in the future.

Keywords: economic impact, flood tragedy, Malaysia, property losses

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53 Post-modernist Tragi-Comedy: A Study of Tom Stoppard’s “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead”

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki


The death of tragedy is probably the most distinctive literary controversy of the twentieth century. There is common critical consent that tragedy in the classical sense of the word is no longer possible. Thinkers, philosophers, and critics such as Nietzsche, Durrenmatt, and George Steiner have all agreed that the decline of the genre in the modern age is due to the total lack of a unified world image and the absence of a shared vision in a fragmented and ideologically diversified world. The production of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead in 1967 marked the rise of the genre of tragi-comedy as a more appropriate reflection of the spirit of the age. At the hands of such great dramatists as Tom Stoppard (1937- ), the revived genre was not used as an extra comic element to give some comic relief to an otherwise tragic text, but it was given a postmodernist touch to serve the interpretation of the dilemma of man in the postmodernist world. This paper will study features of postmodernist tragi-comedy in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead as one of the most important plays in modern British theatre and investigate Stoppard’s vision of man and life as influenced by postmodernist thought and philosophy.

Keywords: British, drama, postmodernist, Stoppard, tragi-comedy

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52 Interplay of Imaginary, Symbolic and Real In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Disturbance of Nature

Authors: Mahnaz Poorshahidi


This article is a psychological reading of Shakespeare’s Hamlet applying Lacan’s ideas to work with a new look. Lacan entitled Hamlet ‘tragedy of desire’. He believes that Hamlet is caught up in the desire of his mother. So he is the universal symbol of all human beings, regardless of their sex, who desire their mother, but based on the rules of Nature and Father, this unity is impossible. Hamlet hesitates in fulfilling the task of revenge and the text says nothing about the reasons and motives behind it. However, this essay tries to answer the question and justify Hamlet’s hesitation. There is one question for the readers, which is why Hamlet appears to delay in killing his uncle, despite the fact that this is precisely what he seems to want to do. In 1958-59 Lacan delivered a series of lectures on Hamlet entitled ‘Desire and Its Interpretations’ and called it ‘tragedy of desire’. However, this article will have a new representation of Hamlet’s decision not to take revenge. The research demonstrates that Hamlet has passed through imaginary, symbolic and real stages, which are the natural process of life. Eliminating father means disturbing this natural process. This essay is going to conclude that killing Claudius can break the natural order of life. On the other hand, Claudius has also disturbed nature and is regretful about his deed. Hamlet’s ever-present speech ‘To be or not to be’ reflects his mental turmoil and disturbance of the natural life cycle: Nature.

Keywords: desire, father figure, lacan, nature

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51 Analyzing Middle Actors' Influence on Land Use Policy: A Case Study in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Kevin Soubly, Kaysara Khatun


This study applies the existing Middle-Out Perspective (MOP) as a complementing analytical alternative to the customary dichotomous options of top-down vs. bottom-up strategies of international development and commons governance. It expands the framework by applying it to a new context of land management and environmental change, enabling fresh understandings of decision making around land use. Using a case study approach in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia among a village of indigenous Dayak, this study explores influences from both internal and external middle actors, utilizing qualitative empirical evidence and incorporating responses across 25 village households and 11 key stakeholders. Applying the factors of 'agency' and 'capacity' specific to the MOP, this study demonstrates middle actors’ unique capabilities and criticality to change due to their influence across various levels of decision-making. Study results indicate that middle actors play a large role, both passively and actively, both directly and indirectly, across various levels of decision-making, perception-shaping, and commons governance. In addition, the prominence of novel 'passive' middle actors, such as the internet, can provide communities themselves with a level of agency beyond that provided by other middle actors such as NGOs and palm oil industry entities – which often operate at the behest of the 'top' or out of self-interest. Further, the study posits that existing development and decision-making frameworks may misidentify the 'bottom' as the 'middle,' raising questions about traditional development and livelihood discourse, strategies, and support, from agricultural production to forest management. In conclusion, this study provides recommendations including that current policy preconceptions be reevaluated to engage middle actors in locally-adapted, integrative manners in order to improve governance and rural development efforts more broadly.

Keywords: environmental management, governance, Indonesia, land use, middle actors, middle-out perspective

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
50 Time, Uncertainty, and Technological Innovation

Authors: Xavier Everaert


Ever since the publication of “The Problem of Social” cost, Coasean insights on externalities, transaction costs, and the reciprocal nature of harms, have been widely debated. What has been largely neglected however, is the role of technological innovation in the mitigation of negative externalities or transaction costs. Incorporating future uncertainty about negligence standards or expected restitution costs and the profit opportunities these uncertainties reveal to entrepreneurs, allow us to frame problems regarding social costs within the reality of rapid technological evolution.

Keywords: environmental law and economics, entrepreneurship, commons, pollution, wildlife

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49 The Development of Open Access in Latin America and Caribbean: Mapping National and International Policies and Scientific Publications of the Region

Authors: Simone Belli, Sergio Minniti, Valeria Santoro


ICTs and technology transfer can benefit and move a country forward in economic and social development. However, ICT and access to the Internet have been inequitably distributed in most developing countries. In terms of science production and dissemination, this divide articulates itself also through the inequitable distribution of access to scientific knowledge and networks, which results in the exclusion of developing countries from the center of science. Developing countries are on the fringe of Science and Technology (S&T) production due not only to low investment in research but also to the difficulties to access international scholarly literature. In this respect, Open access (OA) initiatives and knowledge infrastructure represent key elements for both producing significant changes in scholarly communication and reducing the problems of developing countries. The spreading of the OA movement in the region, exemplified by the growth of regional and national initiatives, such as the creation of OA institutional repositories (e.g. SciELO and Redalyc) and the establishing of supportive governmental policies, provides evidence of the significant role that OA is playing in reducing the scientific gap between Latin American countries and improving their participation in the so-called ‘global knowledge commons’. In this paper, we map OA publications in Latin America and observe how Latin American countries are moving forward and becoming a leading force in widening access to knowledge. Our analysis, developed as part of the H2020 EULAC Focus research project, is based on mixed methods and consists mainly of a bibliometric analysis of OA publications indexed in the most important scientific databases (Web of Science and Scopus) and OA regional repositories, as well as the qualitative analysis of documents related to the main OA initiatives in Latin America. Through our analysis, we aim at reflecting critically on what policies, international standards, and best practices might be adapted to incorporate OA worldwide and improve the infrastructure of the global knowledge commons.

Keywords: open access, LAC countries, scientific publications, bibliometric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
48 Assessment of Community Perceptions of Mangrove Ecosystem Services and Their Link to SDGs in Vanga, Kenya

Authors: Samson Obiene, Khamati Shilabukha, Geoffrey Muga, James Kairo


Mangroves play a vital role in the achievement of multiple goals of global sustainable development (SDG’s), particularly SDG SDG 14 (life under water). Their management, however, is faced with several shortcomings arising from inadequate knowledge on the perceptions of their ecosystem services, hence a need to map mangrove goods and services within SDGs while interrogating the disaggregated perceptions. This study therefore aimed at exploring the parities and disparities in attitudes and perceptions of mangrove ecosystem services among community members of Vanga and the link of the ecosystem services (ESs) to specific SDG targets. The study was based at the Kenya-Tanzania transboundary area in Vanga; where a carbon-offset project on mangroves is being up scaled. Mixed methods approach employing surveys, focus group discussions (FGDs) and reviews of secondary data were used in the study. A two stage cluster samplings was used to select the study population and the sample size. FGDs were conducted purposively selecting active participants in mangrove related activities with distinct socio-demographic characteristics. Sampled respondents comprised of males and females of different occupations and age groups. Secondary data review was used to select specific SDG targets against which mangrove ecosystem services identified through a value chain analysis were mapped. In Vanga, 20 ecosystem services were identified and categorized under supporting, cultural and aesthetic, provisioning and regulating services. According to the findings of this study, 63.9% (95% ci 56.6-69.3) perceived of the ESs as very important for economic development, 10.3% (95% ci 0-21.3) viewed them as important for environmental and ecological development while 25.8% (95% ci 2.2-32.8) were not sure of any role they play in development. In the social-economic disaggregation, ecosystem service values were found to vary with the level of interaction with the ecosystem which depended on gender and other social-economic classes within the study area. The youths, low income earners, women and those with low education levels were also identified as the primary beneficiaries of mangrove ecosystem services. The study also found that of the 17 SDGs, mangroves have a potential of influencing the achievement 12, including, SDGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 17 either directly or indirectly. Generally therefore, the local community is aware of the critical importance mangroves for enhanced livelihood and ecological services but challenges in sustainability still occur as a result the diverse values and of the services and the contradicting interests of the different actors around the ecosystem. It is therefore important to consider parities in values and perception to avoid a ‘tragedy of the commons’ while striving to enhance sustainability of the Mangrove ecosystem.

Keywords: sustainable development, community values, socio-demographics, Vanga, mangrove ecosystem services

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47 The Role of Pharmacist in The Community: A Study of Methanol Toxicity Disaster in Tripoli Libya During March 2013

Authors: Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Mahmud H. Arhima, Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Ebtisam A. Benomran, Salsabeela Elmezwghi, Aram Elhatan, Nafesa Elgusbi


Mass poisonings with methanol are rare but occur regularly both in developed and in non-developing countries. As a result of the tragedy that happened in the city of Tripoli Libya in March during year 2013 a number of patients were admitted to Tripoli Medical Center and Tripoli Central Hospital suffering from poisoning following ingestion of methanol by mistake. Our aims have been formulated to collect Information about those cases as much as we can from the archiving departments from the two hospitals including the number of cases that had been admitted, recovered patients and died victims. This retrospective study was planned to find out the reasons which allow those patients to drink methanol in our Muslim community and also the role of pharmacist to prevent such a disaster that claimed the lives of many people. During this tragedy 291 ospitalized patients their ages between 16-32 years old were admitted to both hospitals, total number of died 189 (121 at Tripoli medical center) and (68 at Tripoli central hospital), demographic data also shows that most of them are male (97%) and (3% female), about 4% of the patients foreigners and 96% were Libyans. There were a lot of obstacles and poor facilities at the time of patient admission as recognized in many cases including lack of first line of treatment. The morbidity was high due to the lack of antidote and availability of dialysis machines at this two main hospitals in Tripoli also according to survey done to the medical staff and also a random number of medical students shows about 28% have no idea about the first aid procedure used for methanol poisoning cases and this due to the absence of continuing education for all medical staff through the establishment of training courses on first aid, rapid diagnosis of poisoning and follow the written procedures to dealing with such cases.

Keywords: ethanol, fomepizole, methanol, poisoning

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46 Revenge: Dramaturgy and the Tragedy of Jihad

Authors: Myriam Benraad


On 5 July 2016, just days before the bloody terrorist attack on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, the Al-Hayat media centre, one of the official propaganda branches of the Islamic State, broadcast a French nasheed which paid tribute to the Paris and Brussels attacks of November 2015 and March 2016. Entitled 'My Revenge', the terrorist anthem was of rare vehemence. It mentioned, sequentially, 'huddled bodies', in a reference to the civilian casualties of Western air strikes in the Iraqi-Syrian zone, 'explosive belts', 'sharp knives', 'large-calibre weapons' as well as 'localised targets'. France was accused of bearing the responsibility for the wave of attacks on its territory since the Charlie Hebdo massacre of January 2015 due to its 'ruthless war' against the Muslim world. Evoking an 'old aggression' and the 'crimes and spoliations' of which France has made itself guilty, the jihadist hymn depicted the rebirth of the caliphate as 'laudable revenge'. The notion of revenge has always been central to contemporary jihadism, understood both as a revolutionary ideology and a global militant movement. In recent years, the attacks carried out in Europe and elsewhere in the world have, for most, been claimed in its name. Whoever says jihad, says drama, yet few studies, if any, have looked at its dramatic and emotional elements, most notably its tragic vengefulness. This seems all the more astonishing that jihad is filled with drama; it could even be seen as a drama in its own right. The jihadists perform a script and take on roles inspired by their respective group’s culture (norms, values, beliefs, and symbols). The militants stage and perform such a script for a designated audience, either partisan, sympathising or hostile towards them and their cause. This research paper will examine the dramaturgy of jihadism and in particular, the genre that best characterises its violence: revenge tragedy. Theoretically, the research will rely on the tools of social movement theory and the sociology of emotions. Methodologically, it will draw from dramaturgical analysis and a combination of qualitative and quantitative tools to attain valuable observations of a number of developments, trends, and patterns. The choice has been made to focus mainly – however not exclusively – on the attacks which have taken place since 2001 in the European Union and more specific member states that have been significantly hit by jihadist terrorism. The research looks at a number of representative longitudinal samples identifying continuities and discontinuities, similarities, but also substantial differences. The preliminary findings tend to establish the relevance and validity of this approach in helping make better sense of sensitisation, mobilisation, and survival dynamics within jihadist groups, and motivations among individuals who have embraced violence. Besides, they illustrate their pertinence for counterterrorism policymakers and practitioners. Through drama, jihadist groups ensure the unceasing regeneration of their militant cause as well as their legitimation among their partisans. Without drama, and without the spectacular ideological staging of reality, they would not be able to maintain their attraction potential and power of persuasion.

Keywords: Jihadism, dramaturgy, revenge, tragedy

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45 Wikipedia World: A Computerized Process for Cultural Heritage Data Dissemination

Authors: L. Rajaonarivo, M. N. Bessagnet, C. Sallaberry, A. Le Parc Lacayrelle, L. Leveque


TCVPYR is a European FEDER (European Regional Development Fund) project which aims to promote tourism in the French Pyrenees region by leveraging its cultural heritage. It involves scientists from various domains (geographers, historians, anthropologists, computer scientists...). This paper presents a fully automated process to publish any dataset as Wikipedia articles as well as the corresponding linked information on Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons. We validate this process on a sample of geo-referenced cultural heritage data collected by TCVPYR researchers in different regions of the Pyrenees. The main result concerns the technological prerequisites, which are now in place. Moreover, we demonstrated that we can automatically publish cultural heritage data on Wikimedia.

Keywords: cultural heritage dissemination, digital humanities, open data, Wikimedia automated publishing

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44 OER on Academic English, Educational Research and ICT Literacy, Promoting International Graduate Programs in Thailand

Authors: Maturos Chongchaikit, Sitthikorn Sumalee, Nopphawan Chimroylarp, Nongluck Manowaluilou, Thapanee Thammetha


The 2015 Kasetsart University Research Plan, which was funded by the National Research Institutes: TRF – NRCT, comprises four sub-research projects on the development of three OER websites and on their usage study by students in international programs. The goals were to develop the open educational resources (OER) in the form of websites that will promote three key skills of quality learning and achievement: Academic English, Educational Research, and ICT Literacy, to graduate students in international programs of Thailand. The statistics from the Office of Higher Education showed that the number of foreign students who come to study in international higher education of Thailand has increased respectively by 25 percent per year, proving that the international education system and institutes of Thailand have been already recognized regionally and globally as meeting the standards. The output of the plan: the OER websites and their materials, and the outcome: students’ learning improvement due to lecturers’ readiness for open educational media, will ultimately lead the country to higher business capabilities for international education services in ASEAN Community in the future. The OER innovation is aimed at sharing quality knowledge to the world, with the adoption of Creative Commons Licenses that makes sharing be able to do freely (5Rs openness), without charge and leading to self and life-long learning. The research has brought the problems on the low usage of existing OER in the English language to develop the OER on three specific skills and try them out with the sample of 100 students randomly selected from the international graduate programs of top 10 Thai universities, according to QS Asia University Rankings 2014. The R&D process was used for product evaluation in 2 stages: the development stage and the usage study stage. The research tools were the questionnaires for content and OER experts, the questionnaires for the sample group and the open-ended interviews for the focus group discussions. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and SD. The findings revealed that the developed websites were fully qualified as OERs by the experts. The students’ opinions and satisfaction were at the highest levels for both the content and the technology used for presentation. The usage manual and self-assessment guide were finalized during the focus group discussions. The direct participation according to the concept of 5Rs Openness Activities through the provided tools of OER models like MERLOT and OER COMMONS, as well as the development of usage manual and self-assessment guide, were revealed as a key approach to further extend the output widely and sustainably to the network of users in various higher education institutions.

Keywords: open educational resources, international education services business, academic English, educational research, ICT literacy, international graduate program, OER

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43 Countering Terrorism through Social Media: Case Study in Indonesia

Authors: Mauly Budiyanti, Aisyah M. Anggiana


Terrorism is a threat to national security since the war on terror era after the tragedy of 9/11. The shifting of national threat from military to non-military centric leads us to recognize that military action is not the only way to face and solve terrorism. Alongside the use of military action to counter terrorism, Indonesia has another way to counter it by using the role of social media. The role of social media on spreading positivity to counter terrorism has the power to show that people now are fearless toward terrorist attack because their goal is to make sure that people are threatened enough by the way they act. This is showing the emergence of the non-state actor has a big impact on national security, as well as pluralism, said about the involving of non-state actor on international events. In this paper, we will examine the role of social media in countering terrorism based on study case in Indonesia.

Keywords: Indonesia, national security, social media, terrorism.

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42 Assessment of the Ecological Tragedy on Lake Chad

Authors: Luke Onyekakeyah, Cynthia Onyekakeyah


The conflict in Northeastern Nigeria could mar local and international efforts to salvage the drying Lake Chad, which at present is merely 20 per cent of its original size. The conflict which began in 2009, assumed a monstrous dimension to the extent that any prospects of a redeeming action on the Lake is bleak. The concern of the authorities in the basin countries is how to bring the conflict to an end in the interest of the ecologically-dependent riparian population. Lake Chad is Africa’s fourth largest lake. From a previous 388,500 km2 some 600, 000 years ago, the Lake has shrunk to a maximum length of 25,000 km2. During the last four decades, the Lake has been susceptible to increasing variability and irregular rainfall. Dry spell, excessive evaporation and sandstorm have adversely affected the Lake, such that a 2001 estimate put the Lake to a meager 19,000 km2. Given the critical importance of the Lake as a source of livelihood for over 20 million people, there is mounting concern that an unprecedented human and ecological catastrophe is unfolding, should the Lake eventually dries up. The study evaluates the Lake Chad and how the conflict has adversely impacted it.

Keywords: lake chad, conflict, salvage, Nigeria

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41 Civil Nuclear Liability Indian Perspective

Authors: Shivani Gupta, Shrishti Chaturvedi


By using a miniscule of nuclear matter, the problem of immeasurable human needs for energy can be resolved. However since nuclear energy also has the inherent potential for catastrophic destruction, one should be extremely mindful of the consequences should a mischance occur. Civil Nuclear Liability has recently gained a lot of momentum after India entered into agreements with nations like United States of America, France and others. Also now India is a part of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation (CSC). With a history of Bhopal Gas Tragedy, India is now much more vigilant about the latest developments in this sector. Therefore, it has become imperative to analyses the liability regime in the background of international conventions such as Vienna Convention 1963, Paris Convention 1960, Convention on Supplementary Compensation, 1997 and others. Also the present Indian legal scenarios in this regard which are derived from Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages Act, 2010 and Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages Rules, 2011 have also been extensively discussed in the paper.

Keywords: nuclear liability, civil liability for nuclear damages act, 2010, civil liability for nuclear damages rules, India

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40 Electronic Libraries and the Emergence of New Technology Paradigms

Authors: A. Basheer Ahamadhu, Kiran Kaur, Zainab Ajab Mohideen, Sukmawati Muhammad, Noor Azlinda Wan Jan


Library management facing favorable conditions and unexpected challenges in the century of information technology. They were having been under pressure to meet their duties to meet the information needs of customers. An information technology has brought big changes to the traditional methods of library work. Libraries need to evaluate, measuring effect information technology to them. This would equip them with the knowledge to make effective information technology to enhance their services. Recognizing the importance of development an electronic library, this research investigated their willingness to change from the traditional library based on the level of automation for the digital library initiatives, review both of the problems associated with digital library and public and terms to be considered for future growth. The main components have been inspected, such as grip library, demographic automations and digitization projects, digital library related to budgetary problems, the thought leader in the electronic library practices library, and the situation viewed for future growth. Libraries have run several digitization projects, at the level of institutions and countries but still needs more efforts in order to bring it to higher levels.

Keywords: academic library, electronic library, information technology, information commons, web pages library

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39 Unified Theory of the Security Dilemma: Geography, MAD and Democracy

Authors: Arash Heydarian Pashakhanlou


The security dilemma is one of the key concepts in International Relations (IR), and the numerous engagements with it have created a great deal of confusion regarding its essence. That is why this article seeks to dissect the security dilemma and rebuild it from its foundational core. In doing so, the present study highlights that the security dilemma requires interaction among actors that seek to protect themselves from other's capacity for harm under the condition of uncertainty to operate. In this constellation, actors are confronted with the dilemma of motives, power, and action, which they seek to resolve by acquiring information regarding their opponents. The relationship between the parties is shaped by the harm-uncertainty index (HUI) consisting of geographical distance, MAD, and joint democracy that determines the intensity of the security dilemma. These elements define the unified theory of the security dilemma (UTSD) developed here. UTSD challenges the prevailing view that the security dilemma is a unidimensional paradoxical concept, regulated by the offense-defense balance and differentiation that only occurs in anarchic settings with tragic outcomes and is equivalent to the spiral model.

Keywords: security dilemma, revisionism, status quo, anarchy, uncertainty, tragedy, spiral, deterrence

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38 An Analysis of Urban Institutional Arrangements and Their Implications on Wetlands Allocation for Development Purposes: A Case of Harare, Zimbabwe

Authors: Effort M. Magoso


This study analyses urban institutional arrangements and their implications on allocation of wetlands for development purposes in Zimbabwe using a case study of Harare. It was driven by the need to get to the root of the current urban assault on wetlands. The study sought to analyse institutions that influence wetlands governance in Harare, to ascertain level of wetlands loss and to determine the adequacy of the legal and regulatory framework for governing wetlands. Theories of common property resources and of institutions are the paradigms that undergird this study. A qualitative research methodology was employed, while in-depth interviews, observations and document review were used to gather data. The study found out that unchecked infrastructure developments are taking place in the city’s wetlands. Urban institutional arrangements in Harare were exposed as having negative implications on the protection of wetlands. It is the key argument of this study that good institutional arrangements are priceless in the protection of commons such as wetlands. This study also recommends a new framework that has environmentalists and technocrats as the final decision maker in land allocation as the solution to protect wetlands from undue anthropogenic activities.

Keywords: institutional arrangements, common property resources, wetlands, institutions

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37 The Tragedy of Colonialism in Non-colonised Society: Italy’s Historical Narratives and the Amhara Genocide in Ethiopia

Authors: Birhanu Bitew Geremew


In its attempt to colonize Ethiopia, Italy challenged the nationalism of Ethiopiawinet, claiming that Ethiopia is a mere collection of discrete ethnic groups brought together by Amhara colonialism. Extracting data from a variety of sources including secondary materials, opinions expressed in the broadcast, print and social media platforms, party documents, official letters and key informant interviews, this paper provides a critical reflection on how the colonial presence of Italy made a political mess in Ethiopia by asserting ethnic nationalism. The paper argues that the narratives invented by the Italians greatly contributed to the emergence of ethnic nationalism following the advent of Marxism-Leninism in Ethiopia. Borrowing narratives from the Italians, Ethiopian ethnic elites of the 1960s, who were the advocates of Marxism, simplistically categorized the Amhara as oppressor while ‘others’ as oppressed in Leninist fashion. This categorization negatively shaped the attitude of ‘others’ towards the Amhara and instigated massively executed genocide against these people.

Keywords: Amhara colonialism, Ethiopia, Genocide, historical narratives, Marxism

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36 Road Safety and Accident Prevention in Third World Countries: A Case Study of NH-7 in India

Authors: Siddegowda, Y. A. Sathish, G. Krishnegowda, T. M. Mohan Kumar


Road accidents are a human tragedy. They involve high human suffering and monetary costs in terms of untimely death, injuries and social problems. India had earned the dubious distinction of having more number of fatalities due to road accidents in the world. Road safety is emerging as a major social concern around the world especially in India because of infrastructure project works. A case study was taken on NH – 07 which connects to various major cities and industries. The study shows that major cases of fatalities are due to bus, trucks and high speed vehicles. The main causes of accidents are due to high density, non-restriction of speed, use of mobile phones, lack of board signs on road parking, visibility restriction, improper geometric design, road use characteristics, environmental aspects, social aspects etc. Data analysis and preventive measures are enlightened in this paper.

Keywords: accidents, environmental aspects, fatalities, geometric design, road user characteristics

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35 The Mediterranean Migration Crisis: The North East Hotspot Policy

Authors: Loizos A. Hadjivasiliou, May Chehab


Confronted with the human tragedy unfolding in the Mediterranean during the 2011-2016 period, the European Union introduced for the first time the “hotspot approach”, the establishment of facilities for initial reception, identification registration, and fingerprinting of asylum seekers and migrants arriving in the EU by sea, at the frontline Member States. However, the lack of a comprehensive collective policy on migration management and border security left the Mediterranean Member States, mainly Italy, Greece, and Cyprus, struggling to overcome these challenges. The current study sheds light on the implementation of the hotspot approach as the frontispiece of the European response to the migration challenges, which, limited to the operational and financial support of the hosting member states, leads to heterogeneous burden-sharing. Within this framework, it highlights the fact that the implementation of the hotspots as a panacea carries the risk of transforming the Mediterranean member states into giant hotspots with unpredictable consequences for the future of the Schengen area.

Keywords: asylum, burden sharing, hotspots, migration management policy, Schengen area

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