Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 986

Search results for: the constructions and developments

986 A Study of Mandarin Ba Constructions from the Perspective of Event Structure

Authors: Changyin Zhou


Ba constructions are a special type of constructions in Chinese. Their syntactic behaviors are closely related to their event structural properties. The existing study which treats the semantic function of Ba as causative meets difficulty in treating the discrepancy between Ba constructions and their corresponding constructions without Ba in expressing causativity. This paper holds that Ba in Ba constructions is a functional category expressing affectedness. The affectedness expressed by Ba can be positive or negative. The functional category Ba expressing negative affectedness has the semantic property of being 'expected'. The precondition of Ba construction is the boundedness of the event concerned. This paper, holding the parallelism between motion events and change-of-state events, proposes a syntactic model based on the notions of boundedness and affectedness, discusses the transformations between Ba constructions and the related resultative constructions, and derivates the various Ba constructions concerned.

Keywords: affectedness, Ba constructions, boundedness, event structure, resultative constructions

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985 Strategy Research for the Development of Thematic Commercial Streets - Based On the Survey of Eight Typical Thematic Commercial Streets in Harbin

Authors: Wang Zhenzhen, Wang Xu, Hong Liangping


The construction of thematic commercial streets has been on the hotspot with the rapid development of cities. In order to improve the image and competitiveness of cities, many cities are building or rebuilding thematic commercial streets. However, many contradictions and problems have emerged during this process. Therefore, it is significant, for both the practice and the research, to analyse the development of thematic commercial streets and provide some useful suggestions. Through the deep research and comparative study of the eight typical thematic commercial streets in Harbin, this paper summarize the current situations, laws and influencing factors of the development of these streets, and then put forward some suggestions about the plan, constructions and developments of the thematic commercial streets.

Keywords: thematic commercial streets, laws of the development, influence factors, the constructions and developments, degrees of aggregation

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984 Examples from a Traditional Sismo-Resistant Architecture

Authors: Amira Zatir, Abderahmane Mokhtari, Amina Foufa, Sara Zatir


It exists in several regions in the world, of numerous historic monuments, buildings and housing environment, built in traditional ways which survive for earthquakes, even in zones where the seismic risk is particularly raised. These constructions, stemming from vernacular architecture, allow, through their resistances in the time earthquakes, to identify the various sismo-resistant "local" techniques. Through the examples and the experiences presented, the remark which can be made, is that in the traditional built, two major principles in a way opposite, govern the constructions in earthquake-resistant. It is about the very big flexibility, whom answer very light constructions, like the Japanese wooden constructions, Turkish and even Chinese; that of the very big rigidity to which correspond constructions in masonry in particular stone, more or less heavy and massive, which we meet in particular in the Mediterranean Basin, and in the historic sanctuary of Machu Pacchu. In it sensible and well-reflected techniques of construction are added, of which the use of the humble materials such as the earth and the adobe. The ancient communities were able to face the seismic risks, thanks to them know-how reflected in their intelligently designed constructions, testifying of a local seismic culture.

Keywords: earthquake, architecture, traditional, construction, resistance

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983 Pragmatic Discoursal Study of Hedging Constructions in English Language

Authors: Mohammed Hussein Ahmed, Bahar Mohammed Kareem


This study is concerned with the pragmatic discoursal study of hedging constructions in English language. Hedging is a mitigated word used to lessen the impact of the utterance uttered by the speakers. Hedging could be either adverbs, adjectives, verbs and sometimes it may consist of clauses. It aims at finding out the extent to which speakers and participants of the discourse use hedging constructions during their conversations. The study also aims at finding out whether or not there are any significant differences in the types and functions of the frequency of hedging constructions employed by male and female. It is hypothesized that hedging constructions are frequent in English discourse more than any other languages due to its formality and that the frequency of the types and functions are influenced by the gender of the participants. To achieve the aims of the study, two types of procedures have been followed: theoretical and practical. The theoretical procedure consists of presenting a theoretical background of hedging topic which includes its definitions, etymology and theories. The practical procedure consists of selecting a sample of texts and analyzing them according to an adopted model. A number of conclusions will be drawn based on the findings of the study.

Keywords: hedging, pragmatics, politeness, theoretical

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982 Better Knowledge and Understanding of the Behavior of Masonry Buildings in Earthquake

Authors: A. R. Mirzaee, M. Khajehpour


Due to Simple Design, reasonable cost and easy implementation most people are reluctant to build buildings with masonry construction. Masonry Structures performance at earthquake are so limited. Of most earthquakes occurred in Iran and other countries, we can easily see that most of the damages are for masonry constructions and this is the evidence that we lack proper understanding of the performance of masonry buildings in earthquake. In this paper, according to field studies, conducted in past earthquakes. To evaluate the strengths and weaknesses points of the masonry constructions and also provide a solution to prevent such damage should be presented, and also program Examples of the correct bearing wall and tie-column design with the valid regulations (MSJC-08 (ASD)) will be explained.

Keywords: Masonry constructions, performance at earthquake, MSJC-08 (ASD), bearing wall, tie-column

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981 Lexical Knowledge of Verb Particle Constructions with the Particle on by Mexican English Learners

Authors: Sarai Alvarado Pineda, Ricardo Maldonado Soto


The acquisition of Verb Particle Constructions is a challenge for Spanish speakers learning English. The acquisition is particularly difficult for speakers of languages with no verb particle constructions. The purpose of the current study is to define the procedural steps in the acquisition of constructions with the particle on. There are three outstanding meanings for the particle on; Surface: The movie is based on a true story, Activation: John turn on the light, Continuity: The band played on all night. The central aim of this study is to measure how Mexican Spanish participants respond to both the three meanings mentioned above and the degree of meaning transparency/opacity of on verb particle constructions. Forty Mexican Spanish learners of English (20 basic and 20 advanced) are compared against a control group of 20 American native English speakers through a reaction time test (PsychoPy2 2015). The participants were asked to discriminate 90 items based on their knowledge of these constructions. There are 30 items per meaning divided into two groups of transparent and opaque meaning. Results revealed three major findings: Advanced students have a reaction time similar to that of native speakers (advanced 4.5s versus native 3.7s), while students with a lower level of English proficiency, show a high reaction time (7s). Likewise, there is a shorter reaction time in constructions with lower opacity in the three groups of participants, with differences between each level (basic 6.7s, advanced 4.3s, and native 3.4s). Finally, a difference in reaction time can be identified according to the meaning provided by the construction. The reaction time for the activation category (5.27s) is greater than continuity (5.04s), and this category is also slower than the surface (4.94s). The study shows that the level of sensitivity of English learners increases significantly aiming towards native speaker patterns as determined by the level of transparency of meaning of each construction as well as the degree of entrenchment of each constructional meaning.

Keywords: meaning of the particle, opacity, reaction time, verb particle constructions

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980 Input and Interaction as Training for Cognitive Learning: Variation Sets Influence the Sudden Acquisition of Periphrastic estar 'to be' + verb + -ndo*

Authors: Mary Rosa Espinosa-Ochoa


Some constructions appear suddenly in children’s speech and are productive from the beginning. These constructions are supported by others, previously acquired, with which they share semantic and pragmatic features. Thus, for example, the acquisition of the passive voice in German is supported by other constructions with which it shares the lexical verb sein (“to be”). This also occurs in Spanish, in the acquisition of the progressive aspectual periphrasis estar (“to be”) + verb root + -ndo (present participle), supported by locative constructions acquired earlier with the same verb. The periphrasis shares with the locative constructions not only the lexical verb estar, but also pragmatic relations. Both constructions can be used to answer the question ¿Dónde está? (“Where is he/she/it?”), whose answer could be either Está aquí (“He/she/it is here”) or Se está bañando (“He/she/it is taking a bath”).This study is a corpus-based analysis of two children (1;08-2;08) and the input directed to them: it proposes that the pragmatic and semantic support from previously-acquired constructions comes from the input, during interaction with others. This hypothesis is based on analysis of constructions with estar, whose use to express temporal change (which differentiates it from its counterpart ser [“to be”]), is given in variation sets, similar to those described by Küntay and Slobin (2002), that allow the child to perceive the change of place experienced by nouns that function as its grammatical subject. For example, at different points during a bath, the mother says: El jabón está aquí “The soap is here” (beginning of bath); five minutes later, the soap has moved, and the mother says el jabón está ahí “the soap is there”; the soap moves again later on and she says: el jabón está abajo de ti “the soap is under you”. “The soap” is the grammatical subject of all of these utterances. The Spanish verb + -ndo is a progressive phase aspect encoder of a dynamic state that generates a token. The verb + -ndo is also combined with verb estar to encode. It is proposed here that the phases experienced in interaction with the adult, in events related to the verb estar, allow a child to generate this dynamicity and token reading of the verb + -ndo. In this way, children begin to produce the periphrasis suddenly and productively, even though neither the periphrasis nor the verb + -ndo itself are frequent in adult speech.

Keywords: child language acquisition, input, variation sets, Spanish language

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979 Expert System for Road Bridge Constructions

Authors: Michael Dimmer, Holger Flederer


The basis of realizing a construction project is a technically flawless concept which satisfies conditions regarding environment and costs, as well as static-constructional terms. The presented software system actively supports civil engineers during the setup of optimal designs, by giving advice regarding durability, life-cycle costs, sustainability and much more. A major part of the surrounding conditions of a design process is gathered and assimilated by experienced engineers subconsciously. It is a question about eligible building techniques and their practicability by considering emerging costs. Planning engineers have acquired many of this experience during their professional life and use them for their daily work. Occasionally, the planning engineer should disassociate himself from his experience to be open for new and better solutions which meet the functional demands, as well. The developed expert system gives planning engineers recommendations for preferred design options of new constructions as well as for existing bridge constructions. It is possible to analyze construction elements and techniques regarding sustainability and life-cycle costs. This way the software provides recommendations for future constructions. Furthermore, there is an option to design existing road bridges especially for heavy duty transport. This implies a route planning tool to get quick and reliable information as to whether the bridge support structures of a transport route have been measured sufficiently for a certain heavy duty transport. The use of this expert system in bridge planning companies and building authorities will save costs massively for new and existent bridge constructions. This is achieved by consequently considering parameters like life-cycle costs and sustainability for its planning recommendations.

Keywords: expert system, planning process, road bridges, software system

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978 A Review: The Impact of Core Quality the Empirical Review of Critical Factors on the Causes of Delay in Road Constructions Projects in the GCC Countries

Authors: Sulaiman Al-Hinai, Setyawan Widyarto


The aim of this study is to identify the critically dominating factors on the delays of road constructions in the GCC countries and their effects on project delivery in Arab countries. Towards the achieved of the objectives the study used the empirical literature from the all relevant online sources and database as many as possible. The findings of this study have summarized and short listed of the success factors in the two categories such as internal and external factors have caused to be influenced to delay of road constructions in the Arab regions. However, in the category of internal factors, there are 63 factors short listed from seven group of factors which has revealed to effects on the delay of road constructions especially, the consultant related factors, the contractor related factors, designed related factors, client related factors, labor related factors, material related issues, equipment related issues respectively. Moreover, for external related factors are also considered to summarized especially natural disaster (flood, hurricanes and cyclone etc.), conflict, war, global financial crisis, compensation delay to affected property owner, price fluctuated, unexpected ground conditions (soil and high-water level), changing of government regulations and laws, delays in obtaining permission from municipality, loss of time by traffic control and restrictions at job site, problem with inhabitant of community, delays in providing service from utilities (water and electricity’s) and accident during constructions accordingly. The present study also concluded the effects of above factors which has delay road constructions through increasing of cost and overrun it, taken overtime, creating of disputes, going for lawsuits, finally happening of abandon of projects. Thus, the present study has given the following recommendations to overcome of above problems by increasing of detailed site investigations, ensure careful monitoring and regular meetings, effective site management, collaborative working and effective coordination’s, proper and comprehensive planning and scheduling and ensure full and intensive commitment from all parties accordingly.

Keywords: Arab GCC countries, critical success factors, road constructions delay, project management

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977 Syntax-Related Problems of Translation

Authors: Anna Kesoyan


The present paper deals with the syntax-related problems of translation from English into Armenian. Although Syntax is a part of grammar, syntax-related problems of translation are studied separately during the process of translation. Translation from one language to another is widely accepted as a challenging problem. This becomes even more challenging when the source and target languages are widely different in structure and style, as is the case with English and Armenian. Syntax-related problems of translation from English into Armenian are mainly connected with the syntactical structures of these languages, and particularly, with the word order of the sentence. The word order of the sentence of the Armenian language, which is a synthetic language, is usually characterized as “rather free”, and the word order of the English language, which is an analytical language, is characterized “fixed”. The following research examines the main translation means, particularly, syntactical transformations as the translator has to take real steps while trying to solve certain syntax-related problems. Most of the means of translation are based on the transformation of grammatical components of the sentence, without changing the main information of the text. There are several transformations that occur during translation such as word order of the sentence, transformations of certain grammatical constructions like Infinitive participial construction, Nominative with the Infinitive and Elliptical constructions which have been covered in the following research.

Keywords: elliptical constructions, nominative with the infinitive constructions, fixed and free word order, syntactic structures

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976 Water's Role in Creating a Sense of Belonging

Authors: Narges Nejati


Nowadays as science hasten toward technology, only quantity of construction noticed and there is a little attention toward quality of construction and there is no usage for element which was prevalent in traditional architecture. This is the cause of this issue that nowadays we see building that most of them just keep you from heat and cold of outside environment and there is no trace of any culture of their country or nation in it. And although we know that man is a creature that adores beauty by his nature, but this spiritual need of him is ignored. And designers by taking an enormous price instead of planning (spiritual designing) to release peace, they attend to planning which make a human soul bothered and ill. The present research is trying to illustrate price of concepts and principles of water usage as one of the elements of nature and also shows the water application in some of the Iranian constructions and the results show the motif of using water in constructions and also some benefits of using it in constructions. And also this matter can causes a reconnection between nature and constructing of a beautiful environment which is consonant and proportional with man’ physical, spiritual and cultural needs. And causes peace and comfort of men. A construction which man feels a friendly atmosphere in them which he has a sense of belonging to them not a construction which arouses feeling of weariness and fatigue.

Keywords: water usage, belonging, sustainable architecture, urban design

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975 The Transformation of Architecture through the Technological Developments in History: Future Architecture Scenario

Authors: Adel Gurel, Ozge Ceylin Yildirim


Nowadays, design and architecture are being affected and underwent change with the rapid advancements in technology, economics, politics, society and culture. Architecture has been transforming with the latest developments after the inclusion of computers into design. Integration of design into the computational environment has revolutionized the architecture and new perspectives in architecture have been gained. The history of architecture shows the various technological developments and changes in which the architecture has transformed with time. Therefore, the analysis of integration between technology and the history of the architectural process makes it possible to build a consensus on the idea of how architecture is to proceed. In this study, each period that occurs with the integration of technology into architecture is addressed within historical process. At the same time, changes in architecture via technology are identified as important milestones and predictions with regards to the future of architecture have been determined. Developments and changes in technology and the use of technology in architecture within years are analyzed in charts and graphs comparatively. The historical process of architecture and its transformation via technology are supported with detailed literature review and they are consolidated with the examination of focal points of 20th-century architecture under the titles; parametric design, genetic architecture, simulation, and biomimicry. It is concluded that with the historical research between past and present; the developments in architecture cannot keep up with the advancements in technology and recent developments in technology overshadow the architecture, even the technology decides the direction of architecture. As a result, a scenario is presented with regards to the reach of technology in the future of architecture and the role of the architect.

Keywords: computer technologies, future architecture, scientific developments, transformation

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974 Impact of Masonry Joints on Detection of Humidity Distribution in Aerated Concrete Masonry Constructions by Electric Impedance Spectrometry Measurements

Authors: Sanita Rubene, Martins Vilnitis, Juris Noviks


Aerated concrete is a load bearing construction material, which has high heat insulation parameters. Walls can be erected from aerated concrete masonry constructions and in perfect circumstances additional heat insulation is not required. The most common problem in aerated concrete heat insulation properties is the humidity distribution throughout the cross section of the masonry elements as well as proper and conducted drying process of the aerated concrete construction because only dry aerated concrete masonry constructions can reach high heat insulation parameters. In order to monitor drying process of the masonry and detect humidity distribution throughout the cross section of aerated concrete masonry construction application of electrical impedance spectrometry is applied. Further test results and methodology of this non-destructive testing method is described in this paper.

Keywords: aerated concrete, electrical impedance spectrometry, humidity distribution, non-destructive testing

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973 Cognitive and Functional Analysis of Experiencer Subject and Experiencer Object Psychological Verb Constructions in French

Authors: Carine Kawakami


In French, as well as in English, there are two types of psychological verb constructions depending on where the experiencer argument is realized; the first type is in the subject position (e.g., Je regrette d’être venuici. ‘I regret coming here'), hereinafter called ES verb construction, and the second type is in the object position (e.g., Cette nouvelle m’asurpris. ‘This new surprised me.'), referred to as EO verb construction. In the previous studies about psychological verbs, the syntactic position of the experiencer argument has been just a matter of its connection with the syntactic or semantic structure of the verb. So that, few attentions have been paid to how two types of realization of experiencer are related to the conceptualization of psychological event and to the function of the sentence describing the psychological event, in the sense of speech act theory. In this research, focusing on the French phenomena limited to the first personal pronoun and the present tense, the ES verb constructions and the EO verbs construction will be analyzed from a cognitive and functional approach. It will be revealed that, due to the possibility to be used in soliloquy and the high co-occurrence with ça (‘it’), the EO verb constructions may have an expressive function to betray what the speaker feel in hic et nunc, like interjection. And in the expressive case, the experience is construed as a locus where a feeling appears spontaneously and is construed subjectively (e.g., Ah, çam’énerve! ‘Oh, it irritates me!'). On the other hand, the ES verb constructions describe the speaker’s mental state in an assertive manner rather than the expressive and spontaneously way. In other words, they describe what speaker feel to the interlocutor (e.g. Je suisénervé. ‘I am irritated.'). As a consequence, when the experiencer argument is realized in the subject position, it is construed objectively and have a participant feature in the sense of cognitive grammar. Finally, it will be concluded that the choice of construction type, at least in French, is correlated to the conceptualization of the psychological event and the discourse feature of its expression.

Keywords: french psychological verb, conceptualization, expressive function, assertive function, experiencer realization

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972 On the Construction of Lightweight Circulant Maximum Distance Separable Matrices

Authors: Qinyi Mei, Li-Ping Wang


MDS matrices are of great significance in the design of block ciphers and hash functions. In the present paper, we investigate the problem of constructing MDS matrices which are both lightweight and low-latency. We propose a new method of constructing lightweight MDS matrices using circulant matrices which can be implemented efficiently in hardware. Furthermore, we provide circulant MDS matrices with as few bit XOR operations as possible for the classical dimensions 4 × 4, 8 × 8 over the space of linear transformations over finite field F42 . In contrast to previous constructions of MDS matrices, our constructions have achieved fewer XORs.

Keywords: linear diffusion layer, circulant matrix, lightweight, maximum distance separable (MDS) matrix

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971 Revisiting the Historical Narratives of the Old Churches in Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines

Authors: Ruby Ann L. Ayo


As cultural heritage reflects the historical origin of a certain group of people, it reveals their customs, traits, beliefs, practices and even values they hold on for years. One of the tangible examples of cultural heritage is the physical structures including the old churches. The study looked-into the existing historical narratives of the century Old Catholic churches in the Province of Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines: NuestraSeñora de Salvacion in Joroan, Tiwi, Albay; the Our Lady of the Gate in Daraga, Albay; the San Juan de Bautista in Tabaco City and the St. John the Baptist in Camalig, Albay. The historical narratives were analysed in terms of validity and reliability of the secondary documents with reference to the elements of history revealing consistency and adequacy of historical facts. The contents were examined using a modified Checklist of Historical Documents. The historical narratives were likewise submitted to the content expert for validation as regards historical authenticity and accuracy. The contents of the narratives were scrutinized according to the following codes: (1.1) the Patron Saints;(1.2) factors that paved to their constructions; (1.3) the people responsible for their constructions; (1.4) the misconceptions about their constructions; and (1.5) their contributions to Bikol heritage. Based on the codes, themes were identified as: (2.1) Marian Devotees and Christ-centered Patron Saints; (2.2) geographical, socio-political and cultural factors; (2.3) church and government officials; (2.4) misconceptions on the dates of constructions and original sites; and (2.5) popular pilgrim sites and well-admired architectural designs.

Keywords: historical narratives, old churches, cultural heritage, historical validity and reliability, elements of history

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970 Existential and Possessive Constructions in Modern Standard Arabic Two Strategies Reflecting the Ontological (Non-)Autonomy of Located or Possessed Entities

Authors: Fayssal Tayalati


Although languages use very divergent constructional strategies, all existential constructions appear to invariably involve an implicit or explicit locative constituent. This locative constituent either surface as a true locative phrase or are realized as a possessor noun phrase. However, while much research focuses on the supposed underlying syntactic relation of locative and possessive existential constructions, not much is known about possible semantic factors that could govern the choice between these constructions. The main question that we address in this talk concerns the choice between the two related constructions in Modern Standard Arabic (MAS). Although both are used to express the existence of something somewhere, we can distinguish three contexts: First, for some types of entities, only the EL construction is possible (e.g. (1a) ṯammata raǧulun fī l-ḥadīqati vs. (1b) *(kāna) ladā l-ḥadīqati raǧulun). Second, for other types of entities, only the possessive construction is possible (e.g. (2a) ladā ṭ-ṭawilati aklun dāʾiriyyun vs. (2b) *ṯammata šaklun dāʾiriyyun ladā/fī ṭ-ṭawilati). Finally, for still other entities, both constructions can be found (e.g. (3a) ṯammata ḥubbun lā yūṣafu ladā ǧārī li-zawǧati-hi and (3b) ladā ǧārī ḥubbun lā yūṣafu li-zawǧati-hi). The data covering a range of ontologically different entities (concrete objects, events, body parts, dimensions, essential qualities, feelings, etc.) shows that the choice between the existential locative and the possessive constructions is closely linked to the conceptual autonomy of the existential theme with respect to its location or to the whole that it is a part of. The construction with ṯammata is the only possible one to express the existence of a fully autonomous (i.e. nondependent) entity (concrete objects (e.g.1) and abstract objects such as events, especially the ones that Grimshaw called ‘simple events’). The possessive construction with (kāna) ladā is the only one used to express the existence of fully non-autonomous (i.e. fully dependent on a whole) entities (body parts, dimensions (e.g. 2), essential qualities). The two constructions alternate when the existential theme is conceptually dependent but separable of the whole, either because it has an autonomous (independent) existence of the given whole (spare parts of an object), or because it receives a relative autonomy in the speech through a modifier (accidental qualities, feelings (e.g. 3a, 3b), psychological states, among some other kinds of themes). In this case, the modifier expresses an approximate boundary on a scale, and provides relative autonomy to the entity. Finally, we will show that kinship terms (e.g. son), which at first sight may seem to constitute counterexamples to our hypothesis, are nonetheless supported by it. The ontological (non-)autonomy of located or possessed entities is also reflected by morpho-syntactic properties, among them the use and the choice of determiners, pluralisation and the behavior of entities in the context of associative anaphora.

Keywords: existence, possession, autonomous entities, non-autonomous entities

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969 The Influence of Theories and Approaches to Educational Policy and Planning in Ghana’s Current Educational Developments

Authors: Ruth Donkoh, Wing On Lee, Solomon A. Boateng, Portia Oware Twerefoo, Josephine Donkor


In this paper we defend the value of theories and approaches to educational policy and planning in enhancing the educational developments in Ghana. This mission is achieved by enumerating the recent educational developments in Ghana and juxtaposing it with some educational theories, approaches to policy making, and policy planning to see if the educational developments conform with the theory principles as well as policy making and planning processes. Data collection for the research was made through textual analysis of policy documents as well as review of relevant literatures. The findings reveled that educational developments in Ghana are unable to attain its objectives due to the policies not conforming with the policy formation and planning principles. In addition, was that education planning in Ghana does not follow the policy-administration dichotomy theory principles and likewise the distribution of educational needs goes contrary to the equity theory. We recommend that educational policies in Ghana should be in conformity with the principles of theories as well as the approaches to educational policy making and planning to help meet the needs of learners, attain educational quality, and to help in the accomplishment of educational development objectives.

Keywords: Ghana education, equity theories, politics- administration dichotomy theory, educational policies, educational planning

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968 Technological Developments in Logistics and its Applications in the Army

Authors: Gökhan Balci


“Armies march on their stomachs “mentioned Napoleon, who drew attentıon to the importance of logistics for the armies…In today’s World, in whıch continental trade gained importance, the crucial role of logistics became conspicuous since it was accepted by the business World that an effective logistics system is the key factor for success. Depending of the new developments in technology and techniques of logistics, the modern military institutions increase their effectiveness. The modern national armies or allied forces which operate in overseas, realize the importance of logistics as well. This study will focus on the applications of logistics in civilian business sector and modern armies, which may shed light on logistical problems of the other armies.

Keywords: modern logistics, application in armies, new technology in logistics, new developments in technology

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967 Urban Analysis of the Old City of Oran and Its Building after an Earthquake

Authors: A. Zatir, A. Mokhtari, A. Foufa, S. Zatir


The city of Oran, like any other region of northern Algeria, is subject to frequent seismic activity, the study presented in this work will be based on an analysis of urban and architectural context of the city of Oran before the date of the earthquake of 1790, and then try to deduce the differences between the old city before and after the earthquake. The analysis developed as a specific objective to tap into the seismic history of the city of Oran parallel to its urban history. The example of the citadel of Oran indicates that constructions presenting the site of the old citadel, may present elements of resistance for face to seismic effects. Removed in city observations of these structures, showed the ingenuity of the techniques used by the ancient builders, including the good performance of domes and arches in resistance to seismic forces.

Keywords: earthquake, citadel, performance, traditional techniques, constructions

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966 Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment in the New Developments of Tabriz: A Case Study for Roshdieh

Authors: Melisa Yazdan Panahi


Since, today in most countries around the world much attention is paid to planning the smallest unit in the city i.e. the residential neighborhoods to achieve sustainable urban development goals, a variety of assessment tools have been developed to assess and monitor the sustainability of new developments. One of the most reliable and widely used assessment tools is LEED-ND rating system. This paper whit the aim of assessing sustainability level of Roshdieh neighborhood in Tabriz, has introduced this rating system and applied it in the study area. The results indicate that Roshdieh has the potential of achieving the standards of sustainable neighborhoods, but the present situation is far from the ideal point.

Keywords: LEED-ND, sustainable neighborhood, new developments, Tabriz

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965 Constructions of Linear and Robust Codes Based on Wavelet Decompositions

Authors: Alla Levina, Sergey Taranov


The classical approach to the providing noise immunity and integrity of information that process in computing devices and communication channels is to use linear codes. Linear codes have fast and efficient algorithms of encoding and decoding information, but this codes concentrate their detect and correct abilities in certain error configurations. To protect against any configuration of errors at predetermined probability can robust codes. This is accomplished by the use of perfect nonlinear and almost perfect nonlinear functions to calculate the code redundancy. The paper presents the error-correcting coding scheme using biorthogonal wavelet transform. Wavelet transform applied in various fields of science. Some of the wavelet applications are cleaning of signal from noise, data compression, spectral analysis of the signal components. The article suggests methods for constructing linear codes based on wavelet decomposition. For developed constructions we build generator and check matrix that contain the scaling function coefficients of wavelet. Based on linear wavelet codes we develop robust codes that provide uniform protection against all errors. In article we propose two constructions of robust code. The first class of robust code is based on multiplicative inverse in finite field. In the second robust code construction the redundancy part is a cube of information part. Also, this paper investigates the characteristics of proposed robust and linear codes.

Keywords: robust code, linear code, wavelet decomposition, scaling function, error masking probability

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964 A Comprehensive Review of Axial Flux Machines and Its Applications

Authors: Shahbaz Amin, Sabir Hussain Shah, Sahib Khan


This paper presents a thorough review concerning the design types of axial flux permanent magnet machines (AFPM) in terms of different features such as construction, design, materials, and manufacturing. Particular emphasis is given on the design and performance analysis of AFPM machines. A comparison among different permanent magnet machines is also provided. First of all, early and modern axial flux machines are mentioned. Secondly, rotor construction of different axial flux machines is described, then different stator constructions are mentioned depending upon the presence of slots and stator back iron. Then according to the arrangement of the rotor stator structure the machines are classified into single, double and multi-stack arrangements. Advantages, disadvantages and applications of each type of rotor and stator are pointed out. Finally on the basis of the reviewed literature merits, demerits, features and application of different axial flux machines structures are explained and clarified. Thus, this paper provides connection between the machines that are currently being used in industry and the developments of AFPM throughout the years.

Keywords: axial flux machines, axial flux applications, coreless machines, PM machines

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963 Optimising GIS in Cushioning the Environmental Impact of Infrastructural Projects

Authors: Akerele Akintunde Hareef


GIS is an integrating tool for storing, retrieving, manipulating, and analyzing spatial data. It is a tool which defines an area with respect to features and other relevant thematic delineations. On the other hand, Environmental Impact Assessment in short is both positive and negative impact of an infrastructure on an environment. Impact of infrastructural projects on the environment is an aspect of development that barely get extensive portion of pre-project execution phase and when they do, the effects are most times not implemented to cushion the impact they have on human and the environment. In this research, infrastructural projects like road constructions, water reticulation projects, building constructions, bridge etc. have immense impact on the environment and the people that reside in location of construction. Hence, the need for this research tends to portray the relevance of Environmental Impact assessment in calculating the vulnerability of human and the environment to imbalance necessitated by this infrastructural development and how the use of GIS application can be optimally applied to annul or minimize the effect.

Keywords: environmental impact assessment (EIA), geographic information system (GIS), infrastructural projects, environment

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962 Professionalism Developments Programs in Faculty Members of Medical Universities

Authors: Tayebeh Shokri, Shahram Yazdani, Soleiman Ahmadi, Leila Afshar


Introduction: In recent years, the importance of the progress of faculty members in teaching professionalism has increased and many empowerment programs have been carried out in this regard. This study was conducted by reviewing studies and faculty developments programs that have been conducted with the aim of reviewing and promoting professionalism in medical universities. Methodology: In this narrative review, Databases that were selected included: PubMed, Springer, Index, Emerald, Google scholar, Eric, Copernicus, Web of sciences, Science Direct, and articles published in medical education journals, including: medical teacher, medical education and Finally, 36 articles were included in the study. Results: Faculty members have multiple roles in universities, and their progress leads to the improvement of the culture within the organization, the creation of support and the desire to implement programs, we must provide opportunities to achieve these advances. Achieving these goals will be possible by implementing empowerment programs that are done from appropriate training strategies and with various training methods. Conclusion: Examining successful faculty developments programs in world-renowned universities will help us to extract the highlights and experiences of these programs and use their experiences to improve our empowerment programs. Identify appropriate learning opportunities and outcomes in our other universities It will avoid reworking and wasting resources. Using the principles of adult learning and a variety of appropriate learning methods and strategies will lead to the improvement of professionalism developments programs.

Keywords: professionalism, faculty members, professional ethics, developments programs

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961 The Process of Crisis: Model of Its Development in the Organization

Authors: M. Mikušová


The main aim of this paper is to present a clear and comprehensive picture of the process of a crisis in the organization which will help to better understand its possible developments. For a description of the sequence of individual steps and an indication of their causation and possible variants of the developments, a detailed flow diagram with verbal comment is applied. For simplicity, the process of the crisis is observed in four basic phases called: symptoms of the crisis, diagnosis, action and prevention. The model highlights the complexity of the phenomenon of the crisis and that the various phases of the crisis are interweaving.

Keywords: crisis, management, model, organization

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960 Canonical Objects and Other Objects in Arabic

Authors: Safiah Ahmed Madkhali


The grammatical relation object has not attracted the same attention in the literature as subject has. Where there is a clearly monotransitive verb such as kick, the criteria for identifying the grammatical relation may converge. However, the term object is also used to refer to phenomena that do not subsume all, or even most, of the recognized properties of the canonical object. Instances of such phenomena include non-canonical objects such as the ones in the so-called double-object construction i.e. the indirect object and the direct object as in (He bought his dog a new collar). In this paper, it is demonstrated how criteria of identifying the grammatical relation object that are found in the theoretical and typological literature can be applied to Arabic. Also, further language-specific criteria are here derived from the regularities of the canonical object in the language. The criteria established in this way are then applied to the non-canonical objects to demonstrate how far they conform to, or diverge from, the canonical object. Contrary to the claim that the direct object is more similar to the canonical object than is the indirect object, it was found that it is, in fact, the indirect object rather than the direct object that shares most of the aspects of the canonical object in monotransitive clauses.

Keywords: canonical objects, double-object constructions, cognate object constructions, non-canonical objects

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959 Integration of Fuzzy Logic in the Representation of Knowledge: Application in the Building Domain

Authors: Hafida Bouarfa, Mohamed Abed


The main object of our work is the development and the validation of a system indicated Fuzzy Vulnerability. Fuzzy Vulnerability uses a fuzzy representation in order to tolerate the imprecision during the description of construction. At the the second phase, we evaluated the similarity between the vulnerability of a new construction and those of the whole of the historical cases. This similarity is evaluated on two levels: 1) individual similarity: bases on the fuzzy techniques of aggregation; 2) Global similarity: uses the increasing monotonous linguistic quantifiers (RIM) to combine the various individual similarities between two constructions. The third phase of the process of Fuzzy Vulnerability consists in using vulnerabilities of historical constructions narrowly similar to current construction to deduce its estimate vulnerability. We validated our system by using 50 cases. We evaluated the performances of Fuzzy Vulnerability on the basis of two basic criteria, the precision of the estimates and the tolerance of the imprecision along the process of estimation. The comparison was done with estimates made by tiresome and long models. The results are satisfactory.

Keywords: case based reasoning, fuzzy logic, fuzzy case based reasoning, seismic vulnerability

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958 Influence of Colonial Architecture on South Indian Vernacular Constructions: A Case of Venkatagiri in Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Jahnavi Priya Alluri, Sarang Barbarwar


With over 6000 years of sustained civilization, India has been home to diverse social customs and various communities. The country’s culture and architecture have been profoundly impacted by the extensive variation in its geography and climatic conditions. In its history, many kingdoms have ruled in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The vernacular constructions of this region have progressed considerably in this period. The paper discusses the impact on vernacular architecture in Venkatagiri, Andhra Pradesh, post the arrival of the British. The town was a small settlement that finds its roots in the Vijaynagara Empire. The study tries to highlight the amalgamation of colonial influences on the local construction techniques and material usage. It discusses the new variation in the style of architecture through the case of Venkatagiri Palace and its precincts. The paper also discusses the traits of distinction in the influence through various social and economic groups of the old city of the same town.

Keywords: vernacular architecture, colonial architecture, Venkatagiri, south Indian vernacular

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957 Analyzing Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes toward Technology

Authors: Ahmet Oguz Akturk, Kemal Izci, Gurbuz Caliskan, Ismail Sahin


Rapid developments in technology are to necessitate societies to closely follow technological developments and change themselves to adopt those developments. It is obvious that one of the areas that are impacted from technological developments is education. Analyzing preservice teachers’ attitudes toward technology is crucial for both educational and professional purposes since teacher candidates are essential for educating future individual living in technological age. In this study, it is aimed to analyze preservice teachers’ attitudes toward technology and some variables (e.g., gender, daily internet usage and possessed technological devices) that predicting those attitudes. In this study, relational survey model used as research method and 329 preservice teachers who are studying in a large university located at the middle part of Turkey are voluntarily participated. Results of the study showed that mostly preservice teachers displayed positive attitudes toward technology while male preservice teachers’ attitudes toward technology was more positive than female preservice teachers. In order to analyze predicting factors for preservice teachers’ attitudes toward technology, stepwise multiple regressions were utilized. The results of stepwise multiple regression showed that daily internet use was the most strong predicting factor for predicting preservice teachers’ attitudes toward technology.

Keywords: attitudes toward technology, preservice teachers, gender, stepwise multiple regression analysis

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