Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3323

Search results for: sustainable neighborhood

3323 Investigating Sustainable Neighborhood Development in Jahanshahr

Authors: Khashayar Kashani Jou, Ilnaz Fathololoomi

Abstract:

Nowadays, access to sustainable development in cities is assumed as one of the most important goals of urban managers. In the meanwhile, neighborhood as the smallest unit of urban spatial organization has a substantial effect on urban sustainability. Hence, attention to and focus on this subject is highly important in urban development plans. The objective of this study is evaluation of the status of Jahanshahr Neighborhood in Karaj city based on sustainable neighborhood development indicators. This research has been applied based on documentary method and field surveys. Also, evaluating of Jahanshahr Neighborhood of Karaj shows that it has a high level in sustainability in physical and economical dimension while a low level in cultural and social dimension. For this purpose, this neighborhood as a semi-sustainable neighborhood must take measures for development of collective spaces and efficiency of utilizing the public neighborhood spaces via collaboration of citizens and officials.

Keywords: neighborhood, sustainable development, sustainable neighborhood development, Jahanshahr neighborhood

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3322 Comparison of Urban Regeneration Strategies in Asia and the Development of Neighbourhood Regeneration in Malaysia

Authors: Wan Jiun Tin

Abstract:

Neighborhood regeneration has gained its popularity despite market-led urban redevelopment is still the main strategy in most of the countries in Asia. Area-based approach of neighborhood regeneration with the focus on people, place and system which covers the main sustainable aspects shall be studied as part of the solution. Project implementation in small scale without fully depending on the financial support from the government and main stakeholders is the advantage of neighborhood regeneration. This enables the improving and upgrading of living conditions to be ongoing even during the economy downturn. In addition to that, there will be no specific selection on the development areas as the entire nation share the similar opportunity to upgrade and to improve their neighborhood. This is important to narrow the income disparities in urban. The objective of this paper is to review and to summarize the urban regeneration in developed countries with the focus on Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong. The aim is to determine the direction of sustainable urban regeneration in Malaysia for post-Vision 2020 through the introduction of neighborhood regeneration. This paper is conducted via literature review and observations in those selected countries. In conclusion, neighborhood regeneration shall be one of the approach of sustainable urban regeneration in Malaysia. A few criteria have been identified and to be recommended for the adaptation in Malaysia.

Keywords: area-based regeneration, public participation, sustainable urban regeneration, urban redevelopment

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3321 Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment in the New Developments of Tabriz: A Case Study for Roshdieh

Authors: Melisa Yazdan Panahi

Abstract:

Since, today in most countries around the world much attention is paid to planning the smallest unit in the city i.e. the residential neighborhoods to achieve sustainable urban development goals, a variety of assessment tools have been developed to assess and monitor the sustainability of new developments. One of the most reliable and widely used assessment tools is LEED-ND rating system. This paper whit the aim of assessing sustainability level of Roshdieh neighborhood in Tabriz, has introduced this rating system and applied it in the study area. The results indicate that Roshdieh has the potential of achieving the standards of sustainable neighborhoods, but the present situation is far from the ideal point.

Keywords: LEED-ND, sustainable neighborhood, new developments, Tabriz

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3320 The K-Distance Neighborhood Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Soner Nandappa D., Ahmed Mohammed Naji

Abstract:

In a graph G = (V, E), the distance from a vertex v to a vertex u is the length of shortest v to u path. The eccentricity e(v) of v is the distance to a farthest vertex from v. The diameter diam(G) is the maximum eccentricity. The k-distance neighborhood of v, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is Nk(v) = {u ϵ V (G) : d(v, u) = k}. In this paper, we introduce a new distance degree based topological polynomial of a graph G is called a k- distance neighborhood polynomial, denoted Nk(G, x). It is a polynomial with the coefficient of the term k, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is the sum of the cardinalities of Nk(v) for every v ϵ V (G). Some properties of k- distance neighborhood polynomials are obtained. Exact formulas of the k- distance neighborhood polynomial for some well-known graphs, Cartesian product and join of graphs are presented.

Keywords: vertex degrees, distance in graphs, graph operation, Nk-polynomials

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3319 Measuring Social Dimension of Sustainable Development in New Zealand Cities

Authors: Taimaz Larimian

Abstract:

During recent years, sustainable development has increasingly influenced urban policy, housing and planning in cities all over the world. Debates about sustainability no longer consider it solely as an environmental concern, but also incorporate social and economic dimensions. However, while a social dimension of sustainability is extensively accepted, the exact definition of the concept is still vague and unclear. This study is addressing this lack of specificity through a detailed exploration of social sustainability as the least studied pillar of sustainable development and sheds light on the debate over the definition of social sustainability through developing a measurement model of the constitutive dimensions of the concept. With this aim, a conceptual framework is developed based on the existing literature, determining seven main dimensions of the social sustainability concept namely: social interaction, safety and security, social equity, social participation, neighborhood satisfaction, housing satisfaction and sense of place. The validity and reliability of the model is then tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In order to do so, five case study neighborhoods from Dunedin city with a range of urban forms and characters are investigated, to define social sustainability concept and its consisting dimensions from people’s perspective. The findings of this study present a clear definition of social sustainability at neighborhood scale and highlight all different dimensions of the concept in the context of New Zealand cities. According to the results, among the investigated dimensions, neighborhood satisfaction and safety and security had the most influence on people’s feeling of social sustainability in their neighborhood.

Keywords: social sustainability, factor analysis, neighborhood level, New Zealand cities

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3318 Water Self Sufficient: Creating a Sustainable Water System Based on Urban Harvest Approach in La Serena, Chile

Authors: Zulfikar Dinar Wahidayat Putra

Abstract:

Water scarcity become a major challenge in an arid area. One of the arid areas is La Serena city in the Northern Chile which become a case study of this paper. Based on that, this paper tries to identify a sustainable water system by using urban harvest approach as a method to achieve water self-sufficiency for a neighborhood area in the La Serena city. By using the method, it is possible to create sustainable water system in the neighborhood area by reducing up to 38% of water demand and 94% of wastewater production even though water self-sufficient cannot be fully achieved, because of its dependency to the drinking water supply from water treatment plant of La Serena city.

Keywords: arid area, sustainable water system, urban harvest approach, self-sufficiency

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3317 Factors Influencing Walking in Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia

Authors: Zeinab Aliyas

Abstract:

Walking is known as the most common type of physical activity that helps mental and physical health of people. In the recent years, promoting walking activity in neighborhood areas and cities become as one of the important issues in terms of sustainable cities. Therefore the study aimed to investigate the influence of fear of crime and personal barriers as social and personal factor respectively on neighborhood walking. 464 questionnaires in Bandar Baru Bangi in Malaysia was distributed to collect data, and finally, 424 questionnaires were qualified to be used in the study. The Smart-PLS was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that individual barriers and fear of crime both have significant influence on the level of walking behavior in the neighborhood area. It was found that fear of crime has higher influence on walking behavior in comparison to individual factors. The finding of this study can help urban researcher and planner to know the significant influence of crime safety and individual attitudes on the level of walking activity.

Keywords: fear of crime, neighborhood walking, personal barriers, residential neighborhood

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3316 Sustainable Urban Growth of Neighborhoods: A Case Study of Alryad-Khartoum

Authors: Zuhal Eltayeb Awad

Abstract:

Alryad neighborhood is located in Khartoum town– the administrative center of the Capital of Sudan. The neighborhood is one of the high-income residential areas with villa type development of low-density. It was planned and developed in 1972 with large plots (600-875m²), wide crossing roads and balanced environment. Recently the area transformed into more compact urban form of high density, mixed-use integrated development with more intensive use of land; multi-storied apartments. The most important socio-economic process in the neighborhood has been the commercialization and deinitialization of the area in connect with the displacement of the residential function. This transformation affected the quality of the neighborhood and the inter-related features of the built environment. A case study approach was chosen to gather the necessary qualitative and quantitative data. A detailed survey on existing development pattern was carried out over the whole area of Alryad. Data on the built and social environment of the neighborhoods were collected through observations, interviews and secondary data sources. The paper reflected a theoretical and empirical interest in the particular characteristics of compact neighborhood with high density, and mixed land uses and their effect on social wellbeing of the residents all in the context of the sustainable development. The research problem is focused on the challenges of transformation that associated with compact neighborhood that created multiple urban problems, e.g., stress of essential services (water supply, electricity, and drainage), congestion of streets and demand for parking. The main objective of the study is to analyze the transformation of this area from residential use to commercial and administrative use. The study analyzed the current situation of the neighborhood compared to the five principles of sustainable neighborhood prepared by UN Habitat. The study found that the neighborhood is experienced changes that occur to inner-city residential areas and the process of change of the neighborhood was originated by external forces due to the declining economic situation of the whole country. It is evident that non-residential uses have taken place uncontrolled, unregulated and haphazardly that led to damage the residential environment and deficiency in infrastructure. The quality of urban life and in particular on levels of privacy was reduced, the neighborhood changed gradually to be a central business district that provides services to the whole Khartoum town. The change of house type may be attributed to a demand-led housing market and absence of policy. The results showed that Alryad is not fully sustainable and self-contained, street network characteristics and mixed land-uses development are compatible with the principles of sustainability. The area of streets represents 27.4% of the total area of the neighborhood. Residential density is 4,620 people/ km², that is lower than the recommendations, and the limited block land-use specialization is higher than 10% of the blocks. Most inhabitants have a high income so that there is no social mix in the neighborhood. The study recommended revision of the current zoning regulations in order to control and regulate undesirable development in the neighborhood and provide new solutions which allow promoting the neighborhood sustainable development.

Keywords: compact neighborhood, land uses, mixed use, residential area, transformation

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3315 Cars in a Neighborhood: A Case of Sustainable Living in Sector 22 Chandigarh

Authors: Maninder Singh

Abstract:

The Chandigarh city is under the strain of exponential growth of car density across various neighborhood. The consumerist nature of society today is to be blamed for this menace because everyone wants to own and ride a car. Car manufacturers are busy selling two or more cars per household. The Regional Transport Offices are busy issuing as many licenses to new vehicles as they can in order to generate revenue in the form of Road Tax. The car traffic in the neighborhoods of Chandigarh has reached a tipping point. There needs to be a more empirical and sustainable model of cars per household, which should be based on specific parameters of livable neighborhoods. Sector 22 in Chandigarh is one of the first residential sectors to be established in the city. There is scope to think, reflect, and work out a method to know how many cars we need to sell our citizens before we lose the argument to traffic problems, parking problems, and road rage. This is where the true challenge of a planner or a designer of the city lies. Currently, in Chandigarh city, there are no clear visible answers to this problem. The way forward is to look at spatial mapping, planning, and design of car parking units to address the problem, rather than suggesting extreme measures of banning cars (short-term) or promoting plans for citywide transport (very long-term). This is a chance to resolve the problem with a pragmatic approach from a citizen’s perspective, instead of an orthodox development planner’s methodology. Since citizens are at the center of how the problem is to be addressed, acceptable solutions are more likely to emerge from the car and traffic problem as defined by the citizens. Thus, the idea and its implementation would be interesting in comparison to the known academic methodologies. The novel and innovative process would lead to a more acceptable and sustainable approach to the issue of number of car parks in the neighborhood of Chandigarh city.

Keywords: cars, Chandigarh, neighborhood, sustainable living, walkability

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3314 Sustainable Development: Evaluation of an Urban Neighborhood

Authors: Harith Mohammed Benbouali

Abstract:

The concept of sustainable development is becoming increasingly important in our society. The efforts of specialized agencies, cleverly portrayed in the media, allow a widespread environmental awareness. Far from the old environmental movement in the backward-looking nostalgia, the environment is combined with today's progress. Many areas now include these concerns in their efforts, this in order to try to reduce the negative impact of human activities on the environment. The quantitative dimension of development has given way to the quality aspect. However, this feature is not common, and the initial target was abandoned in favor of economic considerations. Specialists in the field of building and construction have constantly sought to further integrate the environmental dimension, creating a seal of high environmental quality buildings. The pursuit of well-being of neighborhood residents and the quality of buildings are also a hot topic in planning. Quality of life is considered so on, since financial concerns dominate to the detriment of the environment and the welfare of the occupants. This work concerns the development of an analytical method based on multiple indicators of objectives across the district. The quantification of indicators related to objectives allows the construction professional, the developer or the community, to quantify and compare different alternatives for development of a neighborhood. This quantification is based on the use of simulation tools and a multi-criteria aggregation.

Keywords: sustainable development, environment, district, indicators, multi-criteria analysis, evaluation

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3313 Neighborhood-Scape as a Methodology for Enhancing Gulf Region Cities' Quality of Life: Case of Doha, Qatar

Authors: Eman AbdelSabour

Abstract:

Sustainability is increasingly being considered as a critical aspect in shaping the urban environment. It works as an invention development basis for global urban growth. Currently, different models and structures impact the means of interpreting the criteria that would be included in defining a sustainable city. There is a collective need to improve the growth path to an extremely durable path by presenting different suggestions regarding multi-scale initiatives. The global rise in urbanization has led to increased demand and pressure for better urban planning choice and scenarios for a better sustainable urban alternative. The need for an assessment tool at the urban scale was prompted due to the trend of developing increasingly sustainable urban development (SUD). The neighborhood scale is being managed by a growing research committee since it seems to be a pertinent scale through which economic, environmental, and social impacts could be addressed. Although neighborhood design is a comparatively old practice, it is in the initial years of the 21st century when environmentalists and planners started developing sustainable assessment at the neighborhood level. Through this, urban reality can be considered at a larger scale whereby themes which are beyond the size of a single building can be addressed, while it still stays small enough that concrete measures could be analyzed. The neighborhood assessment tool has a crucial role in helping neighborhood sustainability to perform approach and fulfill objectives through a set of themes and criteria. These devices are also known as neighborhood assessment tool, district assessment tool, and sustainable community rating tool. The primary focus of research has been on sustainability from the economic and environmental aspect, whereas the social, cultural issue is rarely focused. Therefore, this research is based on Doha, Qatar, the current urban conditions of the neighborhoods is discussed in this study. The research problem focuses on the spatial features in relation to the socio-cultural aspects. This study is outlined in three parts; the first section comprises of review of the latest use of wellbeing assessment methods to enhance decision process of retrofitting physical features of the neighborhood. The second section discusses the urban settlement development, regulations and the process of decision-making rule. An analysis of urban development policy with reference to neighborhood development is also discussed in this section. Moreover, it includes a historical review of the urban growth of the neighborhoods as an atom of the city system present in Doha. Last part involves developing quantified indicators regarding subjective well-being through a participatory approach. Additionally, applying GIS will be utilized as a visualizing tool for the apparent Quality of Life (QoL) that need to develop in the neighborhood area as an assessment approach. Envisaging the present QoL situation in Doha neighborhoods is a process to improve current condition neighborhood function involves many days to day activities of the residents, due to which areas are considered dynamic.

Keywords: neighborhood, subjective wellbeing, decision support tools, Doha, retrofiring

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3312 Sustaining the Social Memory in a Historic Neighborhood: The Case Study of Uch Dukkan Neighborhood in Ardabil City in Azerbaijani Region of Iran

Authors: Yousef Daneshvar Rouyandozagh, Ece. K. Açikgöz

Abstract:

Conservation of historical urban patterns in the traditional neighborhoods is a part of creating integrated urban environments that are socially more sustainable. Urbanization reflects on life conditions and social, physical, economical characteristics of the society. In this regard, historical zones and traditional regions are affected by dramatic interventions on these characteristics. This article focuses on the Uch Dukkan neighborhood located in Ardabil City in Azarbaijani region of Iran, which has been up to such interventions that leaded its transformation from the past to the present. After introducing a brief inventory of the main elements of the historical zone and the neighborhood; this study explores the changes and transformations in different periods; and their impacts on the quality of the environment and its social sustainability. The survey conducted in the neighborhood as part of this research study revealed that the Uch Dukkan neighborhood and the unique architectural heritage that it possesses have become more inactive physically and functionally in a decade. This condition requires an exploration and comparison of the present and the expected transformations of the meaning of social space from the most private unit to the urban scale. From this token, it is argued that an architectural point of view that is based on space order; use and meaning of space as a social and cultural image, should not be ignored. Based on the interplay between social sustainability, collective memory, and the urban environment, study aims to make the invisible portion of ignorance clear, that ends up with a weakness in defining the collective meaning of the neighborhood as a historic urban district. It reveals that the spatial possessions of the neighborhood are valuable not only for their historical and physical characteristics, but also for their social memory that is to be remembered and constructed further.

Keywords: urban integrity, social sustainability, collective memory, social decay

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3311 City versus Suburb: The Effects of Neighborhood on Place Attachment and Residential Satisfaction

Authors: Elif Aksel, Çagrı Imamoglu

Abstract:

This ongoing study aims to investigate the effects of neighborhood location on place attachment and residential satisfaction. Place attachment will be examined by comparing place of residence in different areas of the city. Furthermore, the relationship between neighborhood and residential satisfaction will be investigated in terms of physical and social aspects of the places influencing residential satisfaction. This study will be carried out in two different districts of Ankara which are Çankaya, located in the city center, and Sincan, a suburb. Two-hundred adult respondents will participate in this research; 100 men and 100 women aged between 18-65 years with different socio-economic status using snowball sampling. A place attachment scale and a questionnaire related with residential satisfaction, including open-ended questions and 7-point Likert type scale, will be used as instruments. Apart from these, demographic information of the participants such as gender, age, education, the length of residence will be collected. The findings of the study are expected to demonstrate that neighborhood is seen to be influential on place attachment by affecting the intensity of attachment. The level of place attachment is expected to be greater in areas far from the city compared to areas in the center of the city. Apart from this, the neighborhood is also effective in residential satisfaction. The residents living in these neighborhoods having strong physical and social opportunities will be expected to have higher residential satisfaction.

Keywords: neighborhood, neighborhood satisfaction, place attachment, residential satisfaction

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3310 Urban Regeneration of Unplanned Settlements in Al-Ruwais

Authors: Rama Ajineh

Abstract:

Neighborhoods are defined as local zones within settlements and cities recognized by individuals who live there, with their identities and given boundaries. Neighborhoods mainly structure individual’s lives, the small box which various social groups interact with each other, develop and become one strong entity. Also, it is a platform for more activities, providing many of the social services to enhance the connections between the people, giving a sense of community. However, some of these neighborhoods were unplanned and caused many social, economical and architectural problems to its residents in the first place, and to the city. A great example of such case is in Saudi Arabia, Jeddah, Al-Ruwais neighborhood, where the authority is planning to regenerate the area and make it a landmark for the city. Urban Regeneration of Unplanned Settlements is a process to make people live and work, now and in the future, and meet the various needs of the current and coming inhabitants, with a high-quality life for all. Through research, it was discovered that Urban regeneration plans on Al-Ruwais were planned regardless to the collective agreement of the inhabitants, giving themselves the absolute right to demolish and reconstruct the desired locations with a low compensation. Consequently, a deep research will be done on integrating the residents with the process, by showcasing examples of successful Urban Regenerations of Unplanned settlements in different cities. The research aims to understand the sustainable, and well-planned regeneration strategies used to enhance people’s living without harming them, and give sustainable urban solutions. Moreover, the research explores the definition of Sustainable Communities. The used methods in this paper are secondary research on site analysis and the relationship between the human and the neighborhood. The conclusion reveals the most successful fashion of Urban regeneration of Unplanned settlements and applies it to Al-Ruwais neighborhood considering the human factor as a primary element.

Keywords: architecture, human integration, original residents, site analysis, sustainable communities, urban sustainable solutions, urban regeneration

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3309 The Making of a Community: Perception versus Reality of Neighborhood Resources

Authors: Kirstie Smith

Abstract:

This paper elucidates the value of neighborhood perception as it contributes to the advancement of well-being for individuals and families within a neighborhood. Through in-depth interviews with city residents, this paper examines the degree to which key stakeholders’ (residents) evaluate their neighborhood and perception of resources and identify, access, and utilize local assets existing in the community. Additionally, the research objective included conducting a community inventory that qualified the community assets and resources of lower-income neighborhoods of a medium-sized industrial city. Analysis of the community’s assets was compared with the interview results to allow for a better understanding of the community’s condition. Community mapping revealed the key informants’ reflections of assets were somewhat validated. In each neighborhood, there were more assets mapped than reported in the interviews. Another chief supposition drawn from this study was the identification of key development partners and social networks that offer the potential to facilitate locally-driven community development. Overall, the participants provided invaluable local knowledge of the perception of neighborhood assets, the well-being of residents, the condition of the community, and suggestions for responding to the challenges of the entire community in order to mobilize the present assets and networks.

Keywords: community mapping, family, resource allocation, social networks

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3308 Blending Values for Historic Neighborhood Upliftment: Case of Heritage Hotel in Ahmedabad

Authors: Vasudha Saraogi

Abstract:

Heritage hotels are architectural marvels and embody a number of values of heritage discourses within them. The adaptive re-use of old structures to make them commercially viable as heritage hotels, not only boosts tourism and the local economy but also brings in development for the neighborhood in which it is located. This paper seeks to study the value created by heritage hotels in general and French Haveli (Ahmedabad) in particular using the single case study methodology. The paper draws upon the concept of the Italian model of Albergo Diffuso and its implementation via French Haveli, for value creation and development in Dhal Ni Pol (a historic neighborhood) while recognizing the importance of stakeholders to the process of the historic neighborhood upliftment.

Keywords: heritage discourses, historic neighborhoods, heritage hotel, Old City Ahmedabad

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3307 A Study of Indoor Comfort in Affordable Contemporary Courtyard Housing with Outdoor Welfare in Afghan Sustainable Neighborhoods

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Ahmad Javid Habib Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to recognize indoor comfort in contemporary Afghan courtyard house with outdoor welfare in housing layout and neighborhood design where sustainability is a local consideration. This research focuses on three new neighborhoods (Gawoond) in three different provinces of Afghanistan. Since 2001, the capital Kabul and major cities including Kandahar, which will be compared with Peshawar city in Pakistan, have faced a fast, rough-and-tumble process of urban innovation. The effects of this innovation necessitate reconsideration of the formation of sustainable urban environments and in-house thermal comfort. The lack of sustainable urban life in many newly developed Afghan neighborhoods can pose a major challenge to the process of sustainable urban development. Several factors can affect the success or failure of new neighborhoods in the context of urban life. For thermal analysis, we divide our research into three different climatic zones. This study is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of the interior comfort of contemporary courtyard housing with the exterior welfare of neighborhood sustainable design strategy in dry and cold, semi-hot and arid, and semi-humid and hot climates in Afghan cities and Peshawar.

Keywords: Afghan contemporary courtyard house, neighbourhood, street pattern and housing layout, sustainability, welfare, comfort, climate zone, Afghanistan

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3306 Correlation of Residential Community Layout and Neighborhood Relationship: A Morphological Analysis of Tainan Using Space Syntax

Authors: Ping-Hung Chen, Han-Liang Lin

Abstract:

Taiwan has formed diverse settlement patterns in different time and space backgrounds. Various socio-network links are created between individuals, families, communities, and societies, and different living cultures are also derived. But rapid urbanization and social structural change have caused the creation of densely-packed assembly housing complexes and made neighborhood community upward developed. This, among others, seemed to have affected neighborhood relationship and also created social problems. To understand the complex relations and socio-spatial structure of the community, it is important to use mixed methods. This research employs the theory of space syntax to analyze the layout and structural indicators of the selected communities in Tainan city. On the other hand, this research does the survey about residents' interactions and the sense of community by questionnaire of the selected communities. Then the mean values of the syntax measures from each community were correlated with the results of the questionnaire using a Pearson correlation to examine how elements in physical design affect the sense of community and neighborhood relationship. In Taiwan, most urban morphology research methods are qualitative study. This paper tries to use space syntax to find out the correlation between the community layout and the neighborhood relationship. The result of this study could be used in future studies or improve the quality of residential communities in Taiwan.

Keywords: community layout, neighborhood relationship, space syntax, mixed-method

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3305 Urban Neighborhood Center Location Evaluating Method Based On UNA the GIS Spatial Analysis Tools: Kerman's Neighborhood in Tehran Case

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Shadabeh Gashtasbi Iraei, Elnaz Mohsenin, MohammadAli Aghajani

Abstract:

Urban neighborhoods, as important urban forming cells, play a key role in creating urban texture and integrated form. Nowadays, most of neighborhood divisions are based on urban management systems but without considering social issues and the other aspects of urban life. This can cause problems such as providing inappropriate services for city dwellers, the loss of local identity and etc. In this regard for regenerating of such neighborhoods, it is essential to locate neighborhood centers with appropriate access and services for all residents. The main objective of this article is reaching to the location of neighborhood centers in a way that, most of issues relating to the physical features (such as the form of access network and texture permeability and etc.) and other qualities such as land uses, densities and social and economic features can be done simultaneously. This paper attempts to use methods of spatial analysis in order to surveying spatial structure and space syntax of urban textures and Urban Network Analysis Systems. This can be done by one of GIS toolbars which is named UNA (Urban Network Analysis) with the use of its five functions (include: Reach, Betweenness, Gravity, Closeness, Straightness).These functions were written according to space syntax theory and offer its relating output. This paper tries to locate and evaluate the optimal location of neighborhood centers in order to create local centers. This is done through weighing of each of these functions and taking into account of spatial features.

Keywords: evaluate optimal location, Local centers, location of neighborhood centers, Spatial analysis, Urban network

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3304 A Constrained Neural Network Based Variable Neighborhood Search for the Multi-Objective Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk, Ozan Bahadir

Abstract:

In this paper, a new neural network based variable neighborhood search is proposed for the multi-objective dynamic, flexible job shop scheduling problems. The neural network controls the problems' constraints to prevent infeasible solutions, while the Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) applies moves, based on the critical block concept to improve the solutions. Two approaches are used for managing the constraints, in the first approach, infeasible solutions are modified according to the constraints, after the moves application, while in the second one, infeasible moves are prevented. Several neighborhood structures from the literature with some modifications, also new structures are used in the VNS. The suggested neighborhoods are more systematically defined and easy to implement. Comparison is done based on a multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem that is dynamic because of the jobs different release time and machines breakdowns. The results show that the presented method has better performance than the compared VNSs selected from the literature.

Keywords: constrained optimization, neural network, variable neighborhood search, flexible job shop scheduling, dynamic multi-objective optimization

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3303 An Overview of Sustainable Development for Greening Roadmap in Asia

Authors: Robby Dwiko Juliardi, Queena K. Qian

Abstract:

Economic, environmental, and human considerations, as sustainable building design principles, are to be balanced and integrated into building design strategy. Building codes often suggest the efficient and sustainable building products, such as energy-efficient fixtures. However, building departments sometimes fail to manage the full range of requirements in the building assessment, such as siting, neighborhood proximity, and public facility, etc. Hence, it shows roadmap develops the future, an extended look at the future of a chosen field of inquiry composed from the collective knowledge and imagination of the brightest drivers of change in that field. This paper is taken from the best practice of green building implementation in a few countries of Asia (China, Malaysia, and India). Sustainable development will be presented on developing the roadmap of sustainability development of a country. Findings on the similarities and dissimilarities of those countries will show: (1) A general knowledge development on the sustainable green roadmap in Asia, (2) What are the components of developing the roadmap, and (3) What affects the government regulation in a political ecology.

Keywords: developing roadmap, green building, political ecology, sustainable development

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3302 New Mahalle – A More Urban Green Inclusive Neighborhood

Authors: Eirini Oikonomopoulou

Abstract:

Paper is dealing with gentrification of a poor central historic district of Fener and Balat in Istanbul, Turkey and propose ålans and principles of a neighborhood. Istanbul is located in a special geographic place, just in the meeting of Europe and Asia and it has a long and great history, facts that had affected the urban form of the city. Trough the time different civilizations inhabited in the city and they changed it by giving different character to its parts. The modernization of Istanbul brought western ideas into the historic organic urban fabric and put in the first priority the need for a clear and strong car-road/highway network in order to improve the car accessibility along the city. Following that model, transformation of public spaces was based on the driving experience. New public spaces was formulated to be the new symbol of Turkish Republic, to give a beautiful and clean image of the modern Turkish city, as well as work as landmarks across the highway network. Even if city is upgraded, bad quality neighborhoods still exist, far and near to the historic city center. One of them is Fener/Balat, which is located in Fatih district on the European side of Istanbul. This project aims to analyze the urban qualities of that neighborhood (mahalle) and propose a better, qualitative urban space towards a denser, greener and more inclusive neighborhood which could be an example for the whole city.

Keywords: urban design, upgrade neighborhood, Istanbul, sustanability

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3301 Neighborhood Linking Social Capital as a Predictor of Drug Abuse: A Swedish National Cohort Study

Authors: X. Li, J. Sundquist, C. Sjöstedt, M. Winkleby, K. S. Kendler, K. Sundquist

Abstract:

Aims: This study examines the association between the incidence of drug abuse (DA) and linking (communal) social capital, a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions. Methods: We present results from an 8-year population-based cohort study that followed all residents in Sweden, aged 15-44, from 2003 through 2010, for a total of 1,700,896 men and 1,642,798 women. Social capital was conceptualized as the proportion of people in a geographically defined neighborhood who voted in local government elections. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and between-neighborhood variance. Results: We found robust associations between linking social capital (scored as a three level variable) and DA in men and women. For men, the OR for DA in the crude model was 2.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-2.21] for those living in areas with the lowest vs. highest level of social capital. After accounting for neighborhood-level deprivation, the OR fell to 1.59 (1.51-1-68), indicating that neighborhood deprivation lies in the pathway between linking social capital and DA. The ORs remained significant after accounting for age, sex, family income, marital status, country of birth, education level, and region of residence, and after further accounting for comorbidities and family history of comorbidities and family history of DA. For women, the OR decreased from 2.15 (2.03-2.27) in the crude model to 1.31 (1.22-1.40) in the final model, adjusted for multiple neighborhood-level and individual-level variables. Conclusions: Our study suggests that low linking social capital may have important independent effects on DA.

Keywords: drug abuse, social linking capital, environment, family

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3300 Characteristics of New Town Planning between Neighborhood Unit and New Urbanism in Korea

Authors: In Su Na, Dongyeon Seo, Hwanyong Kim

Abstract:

This research focuses on new town planning methodology in aspects of Neighborhood Unit Formula and New Urbanism. In Korea, there were built many new towns since 1980’s. The urban design concepts also shifted variously in land use, transportation, open spaces and architectural design. This research aims to find out urban design planning and factors in each new town planning through comparison of four new town cases in aspects of land use, transportation and building design of metropolitan area of Seoul. In conclusion the recent new town has created an area with a unique place that has not been seen in the early new town, and it has a certain aspect that is in line with the planning principles of New Urbanism.

Keywords: compact city, neighborhood unit formula, new town planning, new urbanism

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3299 Prevention of Green Gentrification: The Case of the Sustainable Urban Policy in Paris

Authors: Elise Machline

Abstract:

In the late 1980’s, sustainable urban development emerged in Europe. Sustainable neighborhoods are one attempt to implement sustainable urban energy planning in the city. So, for twenty years, projects of sustainable neighborhoods (or ‘eco-neighborhoods’) have emerged in Europe. Debates about sustainability no longer restrict it to environmental concerns (to limit greenhouse gas emissions), but rather extend to the economic and social dimensions. A growing number of empirical studies demonstrate that sustainable urbanism yield rental/sale premia, as well as higher occupancy rates and thus higher asset values. For example, European eco neighborhood projects usually focus on the middle to upper classes, given the costs involved in renting or buying the dwellings built in such projects. As a result sustainable residential buildings are not affordable and their construction tends to have a gentrifying effect. An increasing number of countries are institutionalizing green strategies for affordable housing. In France, the sustainable neighborhoods ‘ecoquartier’ must meet environmental performance criteria, have a potential for economic development and, provide social and functional diversity. The issue of social diversity trough the provision of affordable housing has emerged as a dimension of public housing policies. Thus, the ecoquartier residential buildings must be both energy efficient and affordable. Through the Parisian example our study considers how the concept of social diversity and other elements of sustainability are illustrated in the ecoquartiers and whether the authorities have been able to avoid gentrification when implementing a sustainable urban policy.

Keywords: sustainable neighborhoods, social diversity, social housing policies, green buildings

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3298 Towards a Methodology for the Assessment of Neighbourhood Design for Happiness

Authors: Tina Pujara

Abstract:

Urban and regional research in the new emerging inter-disciplinary field of happiness is seemingly limited. However, it is progressively being recognized that there is enormous potential for social and behavioral scientists to add a spatial dimension to it. In fact, the happiness of communities can be notably influenced by the design and maintenance of the neighborhoods they inhabit. The probable key reasons being that places can facilitate human social connections and relationships. While it is increasingly being acknowledged that some neighborhood designs appear better suited for social connectedness than others, the plausible reasons for places to deter these characteristics and perhaps their influence on happiness are outwardly unknown. In addition, an explicit step wise methodology to assess neighborhood designs for happiness (of their communities) is not known to exist. This paper is an attempt towards developing such a methodological framework. The paper presents the development of a methodological framework for assessing neighborhood designs for happiness, with a particular focus on the outdoor shared spaces in neighborhoods. The developed methodological framework of investigation follows a mixed method approach and draws upon four different sources of information. The framework proposes an empirical examination of the contribution of neighborhood factors, particularly outdoor shared spaces, to individual happiness. One of the main tools proposed for this empirical examination is Jan Gehl’s Public Space Public Life (PSPL) Survey. The developed framework, as presented in the paper, is a contribution towards the development of a consolidated methodology for assessing neighborhood designs for happiness, which can further serve as a unique tool to inform urban designers, architects and other decision makers.

Keywords: happiness, methodology, neighbourhood design, outdoor shared spaces

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3297 The Influence of Neighborhood Centers of Tehran Municipality in Living Style of the Residents of Each Neighborhood

Authors: Fahimeh Rafiezade, Fatemeh Kakoyi Dinaki, Maryam Soufi

Abstract:

This research studies and identifies the important elements of the living style of the residents of one of the neighborhoods of Tehran. The study will also study the role, the degree, and extent of the influence of neighborhood trainings in the lives of these people. Saraymahaleh is one of the centers established by Tehran municipality in various neighborhoods of Tehran in order to provide educational, cultural, etc. services. We carried out our study according to demography, field study, observation, 30 interviews, and 2 focus group discussions (FGD) at Sahebalzaman neighborhood in district 18 of Tehran municipality. We interpreted our observations and interviews with the neighborhoods’ supervisors and city council assistants (Shorayar), supervisor of Saraymahaleh and people who refer to them. We used this information to study the citizens’ lifestyle, values, behavioral, motivational, and attitude preferences in their religious and environmental orientations, cultural consumptions, and spare times, and the influence of Saraymahaleh on these aspects according to specific economic, cultural, and ethnic characteristics. Sahebalzaman neighborhood is considered an underprivileged district in terms of economy, high illiteracy, and low but structured migration of young people. The interviews we made helped us classify the people referring to Saraymahaleh based on their demographic attributes and attitudes and the reason of referring and finally the influence of the rendered services on their lifestyles. The studies indicate that women made the most part of people referring to Saraymahaleh Sahebalzaman. They were mostly young, in their midlives, and generally unemployed without a specialized skill. People referred to Saraymahaleh Sahebalzaman mostly to receive services or for entertainment and recreation purposes, i.e. they did not take part actively. In addition to creating welfare and cultural facilities, Saraymahaleh increases the level of skill training, empowerment, innovation and creativity, and issues skill certificates and documents that helps to increase job and income producing opportunities for the neighborhood residents, improve the quality of their live, and increase their hope for life.

Keywords: lifestyle, living in neighborhood, Saraymahaleh, Tehran municipality, urban life, demography

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3296 Land Use Change Modeling Using Cellular Automata, Case Study: Karawang City, West Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Bagus Indrawan Hardi

Abstract:

Cellular Automata are widely used in land use modeling, it has been proven powerful to simulate land use change for small scale in many large cities in the world. In this paper, we try to implement CA for land use modeling in unique city in Indonesia, Karawang. Instead the complex numerical implementation, CA are simple, and it is accurate and also highly dependable on the on the rules (rule based). The most important to do in CA is how we form and calculate the neighborhood effect. The neighborhood effect represents the environment and relationship situation between the occupied cell and others. We adopted 196 cells of circular neighborhood with 8 cells of radius. For the results, CA works well in this study, we exhibit several analyzed and proceed of zoomed part in Karawang region. The rule set can handle the complexity in land use modeling. However, we cannot strictly believe of the result, many non-technical parameters, such as politics, natural disaster activities, etc. may change the results dramatically.

Keywords: cellular automata (CA), land use change, spatial dynamics, urban sprawl

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3295 Federal College of Education Kano

Authors: Mahnaz Babaei Morad, Mojtaba Zargarzadeh, Behnaz Babaei Morad, Najmeh Salari Nasab

Abstract:

Green roofs and walls are one of the key elements of sustainable design in ecology design of cities. Lack of open space and urban green at different scales from one neighborhood to district is as subject that has become challenge for urban management Use change from green space to other use is familiar for Iranian citizens. The high price of land in this area, it seems only justified reason for municipalities that reduce the green space per capita. In this paper, examines the rooftops of Iranian city as a fifth facade, as well as the opportunity to offset some of the capital's urban spaces that has been removed. Today green roof isn't a matter of taste in the world. Be proportional to the quantity and quality of the architecture become the first concern of urban professionals and ecological approaches such as "sustainable" and "green architecture" is checked. In this paper we review and present examples of green roofs have been executed in Iran over the past decade. Survey some of the urban management policies in leading province in this article constitutes the second dimension. The purpose of this paper is study example of green roof performance in different parts of Iran, along with criteria for sustainable urban development and achieves the policies and components collection of implementation sustainable development , specific of Iranian green roof and monitor the develops ways to it.

Keywords: sustainable development, green roofs, Iran, green architecture

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3294 Multi-Objective Variable Neighborhood Search Algorithm to Solving Scheduling Problem with Transportation Times

Authors: Majid Khalili

Abstract:

This paper deals with a bi-objective hybrid no-wait flowshop scheduling problem minimizing the makespan and total weighted tardiness, in which we consider transportation times between stages. Obtaining an optimal solution for this type of complex, large-sized problem in reasonable computational time by using traditional approaches and optimization tools is extremely difficult. This paper presents a new multi-objective variable neighborhood algorithm (MOVNS). A set of experimental instances are carried out to evaluate the algorithm by advanced multi-objective performance measures. The algorithm is carefully evaluated for its performance against available algorithm by means of multi-objective performance measures and statistical tools. The related results show that a variant of our proposed MOVNS provides sound performance comparing with other algorithms.

Keywords: no-wait hybrid flowshop scheduling; multi-objective variable neighborhood algorithm; makespan; total weighted tardiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 348