Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11689

Search results for: systemic methods

11689 Development of a Multi-Factorial Instrument for Accident Analysis Based on Systemic Methods

Authors: C. V. Pietreanu, S. E. Zaharia, C. Dinu


The present research is built on three major pillars, commencing by making some considerations on accident investigation methods and pointing out both defining aspects and differences between linear and non-linear analysis. The traditional linear focus on accident analysis describes accidents as a sequence of events, while the latest systemic models outline interdependencies between different factors and define the processes evolution related to a specific (normal) situation. Linear and non-linear accident analysis methods have specific limitations, so the second point of interest is mirrored by the aim to discover the drawbacks of systemic models which becomes a starting point for developing new directions to identify risks or data closer to the cause of incidents/accidents. Since communication represents a critical issue in the interaction of human factor and has been proved to be the answer of the problems made by possible breakdowns in different communication procedures, from this focus point, on the third pylon a new error-modeling instrument suitable for risk assessment/accident analysis will be elaborated.

Keywords: accident analysis, multi-factorial error modeling, risk, systemic methods

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11688 Local and Systemic Complications after Resection of Rectal Cancer in the Department of General and Abdominal Surgery University Clinical Center Maribor between 2004 and 2014

Authors: Nuhi Arslani, Stojan Potrc, Timotej Mikuljan


Background: In Department of Abdominal and General Surgery of University Medical Centre Maribor, we treated 578 patients for rectal cancer between 2004 and 2014. During and after treatment we especially concentrated on monitoring local and systemic complications. Methods: For analysis, we used data gathered from preoperative diagnostic tests, reports gathered during operation, reports from the pathohistologic review, and reports on complications after surgery and follow up. Results: In the case of 573 (out of 578) patients (99.1%) we performed resection. R0 was achieved in 551 patients (96,1%). R1 was achieved in 8 patients (1,4%). R2 was achieved in 14 patients (2,4%). Local complications were reported in 78 (13.5%) patients and systemic complications were reported in 68 (11.7%). We would like to point out the low number of local and systemic complications. Conclusions: With advances in surgical techniques, with a multimodal-multidisciplinary approach and with the use of total mesorectal excision we experienced a significant improvement in reducing the number of local and systemic complications in patients with rectal cancer. However, there still remains the question for truly optimal care for each patient with rectal cancer and his quality of life after surgical treatment.

Keywords: local complications, rectal cancer, resection, systemic complications

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11687 Credit Risk and Financial Stability

Authors: Zidane Abderrezzaq


In contrast to recent successful developments in macro monetary policies, the modelling, measurement and management of systemic financial stability has remained problematical. Indeed, the focus of most effort has been on improving individual, rather than systemic, bank risk management; the Basel II objective has been to bring regulatory bank capital into line with the (sophisticated) banks’ assessment of their own economic capital. Even at the individual bank level there are concerns over appropriate diversification allowances, differing objectives of banks and regulators, the need for a buffer over regulatory minima, and the distinction between expected and unexpected losses (EL and UL). At the systemic level the quite complex and prescriptive content of Basel II raises dangers of ‘endogenous risk’ and procyclicality. Simulations suggest that this latter could be a serious problem. In an extension to the main analysis we study how liquidity effects interact with banking structure to produce a greater chance of systemic breakdown. We finally consider how the risk of contagion might depend on the degree of asymmetry (tiering) inherent in the structure of the banking system. A number of our results have important implications for public policy, which this paper also draws out.

Keywords: systemic stability, financial regulation, credit risk, systemic risk

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11686 Cardiovascular Disease Is Common among Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Authors: Fathia Ehmouda Zaid, Reim Abudelnbi


Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and method: Cross-section study (68) patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who visited the outpatient clinic of rheumatology, these patients were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about their past and current clinically for presence of Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus and use SLEDAI, specific tests [ECG –ECHO –CXRAY] the data are analyzed statistically by Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05,during period (2013-2014). Objective: Estimation Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, correlation with disease activity, morbidity, and mortality. Result: (68) Patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus' age range from (18-48 years), M=(13±29Y), Sex were female 66/68 (97.1%), male 2/68 (2.9%),duration of disease range[1-15year], M =[7±8y], we found Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus 32/68 (47.1%), correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI,(r= 476** p=0.000),Morbidity,(r= .554**; p=0.000) and mortality (r=.181; p=.139), Cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus are pericarditis 8/68 (11.8%), pericardial effusion 6/68 (8.8%), myocarditis 4/68 (5.9 %), valvular lesions (endocarditis) 1/68 (1.5%), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) 12/68 (17.6%), coronary artery disease 1/68 (1.5%), none of patients have conduction abnormalities involvement. Correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI, pericarditis (r= .210, p=.086), pericardial effusion (r= 0.079, p=.520), myocarditis (r= 272*, p=.027), valvular lesions (endocarditis) (r= .112, p= .362), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r= .257*, p=.035) and coronary artery disease (r=.075, p=.544) correlation between cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and specific organ involvement we found Mucocutaneous (r=.091 p= .459), musculoskeletal (MSK) (r=.110 p=.373), Renal disease (r=.278*, p=.022), neurologic disease (r=.085, p=.489) and Hematologic disease (r=-.264*, p=.030). Conclusion: Cardiovascular manifestation is more frequent symptoms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is 47 % correlation with disease activity and morbidity but not with mortality. Recommendations: Focus research to evaluation and an adequate assessment of cardiovascular complications on the morbidity and mortality of the patients with SLE are still required.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, disease activity, mortality

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11685 Monitoring Systemic Risk in the Hedge Fund Sector

Authors: Frank Hespeler, Giuseppe Loiacono


We propose measures for systemic risk generated through intra-sectorial interdependencies in the hedge fund sector. These measures are based on variations in the average cross-effects of funds showing significant interdependency between their individual returns and the moments of the sector’s return distribution. The proposed measures display a high ability to identify periods of financial distress, are robust to modifications in the underlying econometric model and are consistent with intuitive interpretation of the results.

Keywords: hedge funds, systemic risk, vector autoregressive model, risk monitoring

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11684 A Method To Assess Collaboration Using Perception of Risk from the Architectural Engineering Construction Industry

Authors: Sujesh F. Sujan, Steve W. Jones, Arto Kiviniemi


The use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Architectural-Engineering-Construction (AEC) industry is a form of systemic innovation. Unlike incremental innovation, (such as the technological development of CAD from hand based drawings to 2D electronically printed drawings) any form of systemic innovation in Project-Based Inter-Organisational Networks requires complete collaboration and results in numerous benefits if adopted and utilised properly. Proper use of BIM involves people collaborating with the use of interoperable BIM compliant tools. The AEC industry globally has been known for its adversarial and fragmented nature where firms take advantage of one another to increase their own profitability. Due to the industry’s nature, getting people to collaborate by unifying their goals is critical to successful BIM adoption. However, this form of innovation is often being forced artificially in the old ways of working which do not suit collaboration. This may be one of the reasons for its low global use even though the technology was developed more than 20 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to develop a metric/method to support and allow industry players to gain confidence in their investment into BIM software and workflow methods. This paper departs from defining systemic risk as a risk that affects all the project participants at a given stage of a project and defines categories of systemic risks. The need to generalise is to allow method applicability to any industry where the category will be the same, but the example of the risk will depend on the industry the study is done in. The method proposed seeks to use individual perception of an example of systemic risk as a key parameter. The significance of this study lies in relating the variance of individual perception of systemic risk to how much the team is collaborating. The method bases its notions on the claim that a more unified range of individual perceptions would mean a higher probability that the team is collaborating better. Since contracts and procurement devise how a project team operates, the method could also break the methodological barrier of highly subjective findings that case studies inflict, which has limited the possibility of generalising between global industries. Since human nature applies in all industries, the authors’ intuition is that perception can be a valuable parameter to study collaboration which is essential especially in projects that utilise systemic innovation such as BIM.

Keywords: building information modelling, perception of risk, systemic innovation, team collaboration

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11683 The Role of the Basel Accords in Mitigating Systemic Risk

Authors: Wassamon Kun-Amornpong


When a financial crisis occurs, there will be a law and regulatory reform in order to manage the turmoil and prevent a future crisis. One of the most important regulatory efforts to help cope with systemic risk and a financial crisis is the third version of the Basel Accord. Basel III has introduced some measures and tools (e.g., systemic risk buffer, countercyclical buffer, capital conservation buffer and liquidity risk) in order to mitigate systemic risk. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of these measures in Basel III in adequately addressing the problem of contagious runs that can quickly spread throughout the financial system is questionable. This paper seeks to contribute to the knowledge regarding the role of the Basel Accords in mitigating systemic risk. The research question is to what extent the Basel Accords can help control systemic risk in the financial markets? The paper tackles this question by analysing the concept of systemic risk. It will then examine the weaknesses of the Basel Accords before and after the Global financial crisis in 2008. Finally, it will suggest some possible solutions in order to improve the Basel Accord. The rationale of the study is the fact that academic works on systemic risk and financial crises are largely studied from economic or financial perspective. There is comparatively little research from the legal and regulatory perspective. The finding of the paper is that there are some problems in all of the three pillars of the Basel Accords. With regards to Pillar I, the risk model is excessively complex while the benefits of its complexity are doubtful. Concerning Pillar II, the effectiveness of the risk-based supervision in preventing systemic risk still depends largely upon its design and implementation. Factors such as organizational culture of the regulator and the political context within which the risk-based supervision operates might be a barrier against the success of Pillar II. Meanwhile, Pillar III could not provide adequate market discipline as market participants do not always act in a rational way. In addition, the too-big-to-fail perception reduced the incentives of the market participants to monitor risks. There has been some development in resolution measure (e.g. TLAC and MREL) which might potentially help strengthen the incentive of the market participants to monitor risks. However, those measures have some weaknesses. The paper argues that if the weaknesses in the three pillars are resolved, it can be expected that the Basel Accord could contribute to the mitigation of systemic risk in a more significant way in the future.

Keywords: Basel accords, financial regulation, risk-based supervision, systemic risk

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11682 A CD40 Variant is Associated with Systemic Bone Loss Among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Rim Sghiri, Samia Al Shouli, Hana Benhassine, Nejla Elamri, Zahid Shakoor, Foued Slama, Adel Almogren, Hala Zeglaoui, Elyes Bouajina, Ramzi Zemni


Objectives: Little is known about genes predisposing to systemic bone loss (SBL) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we examined the association between SBL and a variant of CD40 gene, which is known to play a critical role in both immune response and bone homeostasis among patients with RA. Methods: CD40 rs48104850 was genotyped in 176 adult RA patients. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: Low BMD was observed in 116 (65.9%) patients. Among them, 60 (34.1%) had low femoral neck (FN) Z score, 72 (40.9%) had low total femur (TF) Z score, and 105 (59.6%) had low lumbar spine (LS) Z score. CD40 rs4810485 was found to be associated with reduced TF Z score with the CD40 rs4810485 T allele protecting against reduced TF Z score (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.23-0.68, p = 0.0005). This association was confirmed in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR=0.31, 95% CI= 0.16-0.59, p=3.84 x 10₋₄). Moreover, median FN BMD was reduced among RA patients with CD40 rs4810485 GG genotype compared to RA patients harbouring CD40 rs4810485 TT and GT genotypes (0.788± 0.136 versus 0.826± 0.146g/cm², p=0.001). Conclusion: This study, for the first time ever, demonstrated an association between a CD40 genetic variant and SBL among patients with RA.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, CD40 gene, bone mineral density, systemic bone loss, rs48104850

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11681 The Impact of the Cardiovascular Risk Factors on the Outcome in Patients With COVID-19

Authors: Noha Hassanin, Sameh Wadie, RedaHussain, Mohamed Omar


Introduction: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused significant morbidity and mortality to date.COVID-19 is more than a respiratory illness; it is now understood to have broad systemic effects, including cardiovascular manifestations such as acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias, andvenous thromboembolism. We aimed to study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with COVID- 19 and the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on the outcome of in patients newly discovered with COVID- 19. Methods: ThisCross sectional analytic studywas carried out on 200 patients recruited from different isolation hospitals, Cairo, Egyptduring the period extendingfrom January 2021 to September 2021. Patients with positive polymerase chain reaction for COVID 19 were subjected to history taking, physicalexamination, and cardiac examination. The cardiovascular risk profile was studied among the enrolled patients.Standard twelve-lead electrocardiogram, routine laboratory tests, and computed tomography chest study was done for all patients. Patients were grouped to two groups, A and B, for survivors and non survivors, respectively. Results: The study was conducted on two hundred patients aged 20 to 79 years with male predominance. The study found that 181 patients (90.5%) survived (Group A), and 19 patients (9.5%) died (Group B). Multivariate analysis revealed that significant predictors of death were age above 60 years old, systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Conclusion: Systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia were more prevalent in non-survivor patients with COVID 19.

Keywords: COVID-19, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, systemic hypertension

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11680 Psycholinguistic Analysis on Stuttering Treatment through Systemic Functional Grammar in Tom Hooper’s The King’s Speech

Authors: Nurvita Wijayanti


The movie titled The King’s Speech is based on a true story telling an English king suffers from stuttering and how he gets the treatment from the therapist, so that he can reduce the high frequency on stuttering. The treatment uses the unique approach implying the linguistic principles. This study shows how the language works significantly in order to treat the stuttering sufferer using psychological approach. Therefore, the linguistic study is done to analyze the treatment activity. Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar is used as the main approach in this study along with qualitative descriptive method. The study finds that the therapist though using the orthodox approach applies the psycholinguistic method to overcome the king’s stuttering.

Keywords: psycholinguistics, stuttering, systemic functional grammar, treatment

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11679 A Systemic Maturity Model

Authors: Emir H. Pernet, Jeimy J. Cano


Maturity models, used descriptively to explain changes in reality or normatively to guide managers to make interventions to make organizations more effective and efficient, are based on the principles of statistical quality control promulgated by Shewhart in the years 30, and on the principles of PDCA continuous improvement (Plan, Do, Check, Act) developed by Deming and Juran. Some frameworks developed over the concept of maturity models includes COBIT, CMM, and ITIL. This paper presents some limitations of traditional maturity models, most of them based on points of reflection and analysis done by some authors. Almost all limitations are related to the mechanistic and reductionist approach of the principles over those models are built. As Systems Theory helps the understanding of the dynamics of organizations and organizational change, the development of a systemic maturity model can help to overcome some of those limitations. This document proposes a systemic maturity model, based on a systemic conceptualization of organizations, focused on the study of the functioning of the parties, the relationships among them, and their behavior as a whole. The concept of maturity from the system theory perspective is conceptually defined as an emergent property of the organization, which arises from as a result of the degree of alignment and integration of their processes. This concept is operationalized through a systemic function that measures the maturity of an organization, and finally validated by the measuring of maturity in organizations. For its operationalization and validation, the model was applied to measure the maturity of organizational Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) processes.

Keywords: GRC, maturity model, systems theory, viable system model

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11678 The Systemic Approach to Risk Measurement of Drainage Systems in Urban Areas

Authors: Jadwiga Królikowska, Andrzej Królikowski, Jarosław Bajer


The work delineates the threats of maladjustment of the capacity of rain canals, designed and built in the early 20th century, in connection to heavy rainfall, especially in summer. This is the cause of the so called 'urban floods.' It directly relates to fierce raise of paving in the cities. Resolving this problem requires a change in philosophy of draining the rainfall by wider use of retention, infiltration and usage of rainwater. In systemic approach to managing the safety of urban drainage systems the risk, which is directly connected to safety failures, has been accepted as a measure. The risk level defines the probability of occurrence of losses grater than the ones forecast for a given time frame. The procedure of risk modelling, enabling its numeric analysis by using appropriate weights, is a significant issue in this paper.

Keywords: drainage system, urban areas, risk measurement, systemic approach

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11677 Systemic Functional Grammar Analysis of Barack Obama's Second Term Inaugural Speech

Authors: Sadiq Aminu, Ahmed Lamido


This research studies Barack Obama’s second inaugural speech using Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG). SFG is a text grammar which describes how language is used, so that the meaning of the text can be better understood. The primary source of data in this research work is Barack Obama’s second inaugural speech which was obtained from the internet. The analysis of the speech was based on the ideational and textual metafunctions of Systemic Functional Grammar. Specifically, the researcher analyses the Process Types and Participants (ideational) and the Theme/Rheme (textual). It was found that material process (process of doing) was the most frequently used ‘Process type’ and ‘We’ which refers to the people of America was the frequently used ‘Theme’. Application of the SFG theory, therefore, gives a better meaning to Barack Obama’s speech.

Keywords: ideational, metafunction, rheme, textual, theme

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11676 Glossematics and Textual Structure

Authors: Abdelhadi Nadjer


The structure of the text to the systemic school -(glossématique-Helmslev). At the beginning of the note we have a cursory look around the concepts of general linguistics The science that studies scientific study of human language based on the description and preview the facts away from the trend of education than we gave a detailed overview the founder of systemic school and most important customers and more methods and curriculum theory and analysis they extend to all humanities, practical action each offset by a theoretical and the procedure can be analyzed through the elements that pose as another method we talked to its links with other language schools where they are based on the sharp criticism of the language before and deflected into consideration for the field of language and its erection has outside or language network and its participation in the actions (non-linguistic) and after that we started our Valglosamatik analytical structure of the text is ejected text terminal or all of the words to was put for expression. This text Negotiable divided into types in turn are divided into classes and class should not be carrying a contradiction and be inclusive. It is on the same materials as described relationships that combine language and seeks to describe their relations and identified.

Keywords: text, language schools, linguistics, human language

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11675 Elevated Creatinine Clearance and Normal Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Systemic Lupus erythematosus

Authors: Stoyanka Vladeva, Elena Kirilova, Nikola Kirilov


Background: The creatinine clearance is a widely used value to estimate the GFR. Increased creatinine clearance is often called hyperfiltration and is usually seen during pregnancy, patients with diabetes mellitus preceding the diabetic nephropathy. It may also occur with large dietary protein intake or with plasma volume expansion. Renal injury in lupus nephritis is known to affect the glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular compartment. However high creatinine clearance has not been found in patients with SLE, Target: Follow-up of creatinine clearance values in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without history of kidney injury. Material and methods: We observed the creatinine, creatinine clearance, GFR and dipstick protein values of 7 women (with a mean age of 42.71 years) with systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients with active lupus have been monthly tested in the period of 13 months. Creatinine clearance has been estimated by Cockcroft-Gault Equation formula in ml/sec. GFR has been estimated by MDRD formula (The Modification of Diet in renal Disease) in ml/min/1.73 m2. Proteinuria has been defined as present when dipstick protein > 1+.Results: In all patients without history of kidney injury we found elevated creatinine clearance levels, but GFRremained within the reference range. Two of the patients were in remission while the other five patients had clinically and immunologically active Lupus. Three of the patients had a permanent presence of high creatinine clearance levels and proteinuria. Two of the patients had periodically elevated creatinine clearance without proteinuria. These results show that kidney disturbances may be caused by the vascular changes typical for SLE. Glomerular hyperfiltration can be result of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis caused by a reduction in renal mass. Probably lupus nephropathy is preceded not only by glomerular vascular changes, but also by tubular vascular changes. Using only the GFR is not a sufficient method to detect these primary functional disturbances. Conclusion: For early detection of kidney injury in patients with SLE we determined that the follow up of creatinine clearance values could be helpful.

Keywords: systemic Lupus erythematosus, kidney injury, elevated creatinine clearance level, normal glomerular filtration rate

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11674 Enabling Community Participation for Social Innovation in the Energy Sector

Authors: Budiman Ibnu


This study investigates about enabling conditions to facilitate social innovation in the energy sector. This is important to support the energy transition in Indonesia. This research provides appropriate project direction, including research (and action) gaps for the energy actors in Indonesia. The actors are allowed to work further with the result of this study to stimulate the energy transition in Indonesia. This report uses systemic change framework which recognizes four drivers of systemic change in a region: 1. transforming political ecologies; 2. configuring green economies; 3. building of adaptive communities; 4. social innovation. These drivers are interconnected, and this report particularly focuses on how social innovation can be supported by other drivers. This study used methods of interview and literature review as the main sources for data collection in this report. There were interviews with eight experts in the related topic which come from different countries which have experienced social innovation in the energy sector. Afterwards, this research reviewed related journal papers from last five years, to check the latest development within the topic, to support the interview result. The result found that the enabling condition can focus on one of the drivers of systemic change, which is building communities by increasing their participation, through several integrated actions. This can be implemented in two types of citizen energy initiatives which are energy cooperatives and sustainable consumption initiatives. This implementation requires study about its related policy and governance support, in order to create complete enabling conditions to facilitate social innovation in the energy transition.

Keywords: enabling condition, social innovation, citizen initiatives, community participation

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11673 Structural Vulnerability of Banking Network – Systemic Risk Approach

Authors: Farhad Reyazat, Richard Werner


This paper contributes to the existent literature by developing a framework that explains how to monitor potential threats to banking sector stability. The study explores structural vulnerabilities at the country level, but also look at bilateral exposures within a network context. The study contributes in analysing of the European banking systemic risk at aggregated level, which integrates the characteristics of bank size, and interconnectedness relative to the size of the economy which ultimate risk belong to, taking to account the concentration ratio of the banking industry within the whole economy. The nature of the systemic risk depends on the interplay of the network topology with the nature of financial transactions over the network, assets and buffer stemming from bank size, correlations, and the nature of the shocks to the financial system. The study’s results illustrate the contribution of banks’ size, size of economy and concentration of counterparty exposures to a given country’s banks in explaining its systemic importance, how much the banking network depends on a few traditional hubs activities and the changes of this dependencies over the last 9 years. The role of few of traditional hubs such as Swiss banks and British Banks and also Irish banks- where the financial sector is fairly new and grew strongly between 1990s till 2008- take the fourth position on 2014 reducing the relative size since 2006 where they had the first position. In-degree concentration index analysis in the study shows concentration index of banking network was not changed since financial crisis 2007-8. In-degree concentration index on first quarter of 2014 indicates that US, UK and Germany together, getting over 70% of the network exposures. The result of comparing the in-degree concentration index with 2007-4Q, shows the same group having over 70% of the network exposure, however the UK getting more important role in the hub and the market share of US and Germany are slightly diminished.

Keywords: systemic risk, counterparty risk, financial stability, interconnectedness, banking concentration, european banks risk, network effect on systemic risk, concentration risk

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11672 Development of a Context Specific Planning Model for Achieving a Sustainable Urban City

Authors: Jothilakshmy Nagammal


This research paper deals with the different case studies, where the Form-Based Codes are adopted in general and the different implementation methods in particular are discussed to develop a method for formulating a new planning model. The organizing principle of the Form-Based Codes, the transect is used to zone the city into various context specific transects. An approach is adopted to develop the new planning model, city Specific Planning Model (CSPM), as a tool to achieve sustainability for any city in general. A case study comparison method in terms of the planning tools used, the code process adopted and the various control regulations implemented in thirty two different cities are done. The analysis shows that there are a variety of ways to implement form-based zoning concepts: Specific plans, a parallel or optional form-based code, transect-based code /smart code, required form-based standards or design guidelines. The case studies describe the positive and negative results from based zoning, Where it is implemented. From the different case studies on the method of the FBC, it is understood that the scale for formulating the Form-Based Code varies from parts of the city to the whole city. The regulating plan is prepared with the organizing principle as the transect in most of the cases. The various implementation methods adopted in these case studies for the formulation of Form-Based Codes are special districts like the Transit Oriented Development (TOD), traditional Neighbourhood Development (TND), specific plan and Street based. The implementation methods vary from mandatory, integrated and floating. To attain sustainability the research takes the approach of developing a regulating plan, using the transect as the organizing principle for the entire area of the city in general in formulating the Form-Based Codes for the selected Special Districts in the study area in specific, street based. Planning is most powerful when it is embedded in the broader context of systemic change and improvement. Systemic is best thought of as holistic, contextualized and stake holder-owned, While systematic can be thought of more as linear, generalisable, and typically top-down or expert driven. The systemic approach is a process that is based on the system theory and system design principles, which are too often ill understood by the general population and policy makers. The system theory embraces the importance of a global perspective, multiple components, interdependencies and interconnections in any system. In addition, the recognition that a change in one part of a system necessarily alters the rest of the system is a cornerstone of the system theory. The proposed regulating plan taking the transect as an organizing principle and Form-Based Codes to achieve sustainability of the city has to be a hybrid code, which is to be integrated within the existing system - A Systemic Approach with a Systematic Process. This approach of introducing a few form based zones into a conventional code could be effective in the phased replacement of an existing code. It could also be an effective way of responding to the near-term pressure of physical change in “sensitive” areas of the community. With this approach and method the new Context Specific Planning Model is created towards achieving sustainability is explained in detail this research paper.

Keywords: context based planning model, form based code, transect, systemic approach

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11671 Comparison Between Conventional Ultrafiltration Combined with Modified Ultrafiltration and Conventional Ultrafiltration Only for Adult Open-heart Surgery: Perspective from Systemic Inflammation, Vascular Resistance, and Cardiac Index

Authors: Ratna Farida Soenarto, Anas Alatas, Made Ryan Kharmayani


Background: Conventional ultrafiltration (CUF) system was shown to be helpful in reducing anti-inflammatory mediators for patients who underwent open heart surgery. Additionally, modified ultrafiltration (MUF) has been shown to reduce anti-inflammatory mediators further while reducing interstitial fluid volume at the same time. However, there has been minimal data concerning the efficacy of combining both ultrafiltration methods. This study aims to compare inflammation marker, vascular resistance, and cardiac index on CUF+MUF patients with CUF only patients undergoing open heart surgery. Method: This is a single blind randomized controlled trial on patients undergoing open heart surgery between June 2021 - October 2021 in CiptoMangunkusumo National Referral Hospital and Jakarta Heart Hospital. Patients wererandomized using block randomization into modified ultrafiltration following conventional ultrafiltration (CUF+MUF) and conventional ultrafiltration (CUF) only. Outcome assessed in this study were 24-hoursinterleukin-6 levels, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and cardiac index. Results: A total of 38patients were included (19 CUF+MUF and 19 CUF subjects). There was no difference in postoperative IL-6 level between groups (p > 0.05).No difference in PVR was observed between groups.Higher difference in SVR was observed in CUF+MUF group (-646 vs. -261dyn/s/cm-5, p < 0.05). Higher cardiac index was observed on CUF+MUF group (0.93 vs. 0.48, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients undergoing open heart surgery with modified ultrafiltration following conventional ultrafiltration had similar systemic inflammatory response and better cardiac response than those having conventional ultrafiltration.

Keywords: open-heart, CUF, MUF, SVR, PVR, IL-6

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11670 Molecular Basis for Amyloid Inhibition by L-Dopa: Implication towards Systemic Amyloidosis

Authors: Rizwan H. Khan, Saima Nusrat


Despite the fact that amyloid associated neurodegenerative diseases and non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis have allured the research endeavors, as no curative drugs have been proclaimed up till now except for symptomatic cure. Therapeutic compounds which can diminish or disaggregate such toxic oligomers and fibrillar species have been examined and more are on its way. In the present study, we had reported an extensive biophysical, microscopic and computational study, revealing that L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) possess undeniable potency to inhibit heat induced human lysozyme (HL) amyloid fibrillation and also retain the fibril disaggregating potential. L-Dopa interferes in the amyloid fibrillogenesis process by interacting hydrophobically and also by forming hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues found in amyloid fibril forming prone region of HL as elucidated by molecular docking results. L-Dopa also disaggregates the mature amyloid fibrils into some unorganised species. Thus, L-Dopa and related compounds can work as a promising inhibitor for the therapeutic advancement prospective against systemic amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloids, disaggregation, human lysozyme, molecular docking

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11669 The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats

Authors: Abir O. El Sadik


Introduction: Wound healing involves the interaction of multiple biological processes among different types of cells, intercellular matrix and specific signaling factors producing enhancement of cell proliferation of the epidermis over dermal granulation tissue. Several studies investigated multiple strategies to promote wound healing and to minimize infection and fluid losses. However, burn crisis, and its related morbidity and mortality are still elevated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in accelerating wound healing and to compare the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, with focusing on the mechanisms producing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration. Material and methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into three equal groups (fourteen rats in each group): control group (group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group III: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 2, 6, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for fluorescent, histological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: The wounds of the control group did not reach complete closure up to the end of the experiment. In MSCs treated groups, better and faster healing of wounds were detected more than the control group. Moreover, the intradermal route of administration of stem cells increased the rate of healing of the wounds more than the systemic injection. In addition, the wounds were found completely healed by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment in all rats of the group injected intradermally. Microscopically, the wound areas of group III were hardly distinguished from the adjacent normal skin with complete regeneration of all skin layers; epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle layer. Fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous glands in the dermis of the healed areas surrounded by different arrangement of collagen fibers with a significant increase in their area percent were recorded in this group more than in other groups. Conclusion: MSCs accelerate the healing process of wound closure. The route of administration of MSCs has a great influence on wound healing as intradermal injection of MSCs was more effective in enhancement of wound healing than systemic injection.

Keywords: intradermal, mesenchymal stem cells, morphology, skin wound, systemic injection

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11668 Measuring Banking Systemic Risk Conditional Value-At-Risk and Conditional Coherent Expected Shortfall in Taiwan Using Vector Quantile GARCH Model

Authors: Ender Su, Kai Wen Wong, I-Ling Ju, Ya-Ling Wang


In this study, the systemic risk change of Taiwan’s banking sector is analyzed during the financial crisis. The risk expose of each financial institutions to the whole Taiwan banking systemic risk or vice versa under financial distress are measured by conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) and conditional coherent expected shortfall (CoES). The CoVaR and CoES are estimated by using vector quantile autoregression (MVMQ-CaViaR) with the daily stock returns of each banks included domestic and foreign banks in Taiwan. The daily in-sample data covered the period from 05/20/2002 to 07/31/2007 and the out-of-sample period until 12/31/2013 spanning the 2008 U.S. subprime crisis, 2010 Greek debt crisis, and post risk duration. All banks in Taiwan are categorised into several groups according to their size of market capital, leverage and domestic/foreign to find out what the extent of changes of the systemic risk as the risk changes between the individuals in the bank groups and vice versa. The final results can provide a guidance to financial supervisory commission of Taiwan to gauge the downside risk in the system of financial institutions and determine the minimum capital requirement hold by financial institutions due to the sensibility changes in CoVaR and CoES of each banks.

Keywords: bank financial distress, vector quantile autoregression, CoVaR, CoES

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11667 Prevalence of Lupus Glomerulonephritis in Renal Biopsies in an Eastern Region of the Arab World

Authors: M. Fayez Al Homsi, Reem Al Homsi


Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Glomerular diseases make a small portion of the renal disease. Lupus glomerulonephritis (GN) is the commonest among the GN of systemic diseases. More than a hundred and eighty-eight consecutive renal biopsies are performed and evaluated for clinically suspected glomerular diseases over a period of two years. As in a standard practice after receiving the ultrasound-guided renal biopsies, the fresh biopsy is divided to three parts, one part is frozen for immunofluorescence evaluation, the second part is placed in 4% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopic evaluation, and the third part is placed in 10% buffered formalin for light microscopic evaluation. Primary glomerular diseases are detected in 83 biopsies; glomerulonephritis (GN) of systemic diseases are identified in 88, glomerular lesions in vascular diseases in 3, glomerular lesions in metabolic diseases in 7, hereditary nephropathies in 2, end-stage kidney in 2, and glomerular lesions in transplantation in 3 biopsies. Among the primary lesions, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28) and mesangial proliferative GN (26) were the most common. Lupus GN (67) and Ig A nephropathy (20) were the most common of the GN of systemic diseases. Lupus nephritis biopsies included one biopsy diagnosed as class 1 (normal), 17 biopsies class 2 (mesangial proliferation), 5 biopsies class 3 (focal proliferative GN), 39 biopsies class 4 diffuse proliferative GN), 3 biopsies class 5 (membranous GN), and 2 biopsies class 6 (crescentic GN). Lupus GN is the most common among GN of systemic diseases. While diabetes is very common here, diabetic GN (3 biopsies) is not as common as might one expects. Most likely this is due to sampling and reluctance on part of nephrologists and patients in sampling the kidney in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes, glomerulonephritis, lupus, mesangial proliferation, nephropathy

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11666 Protective Effect of Bexarotene, a Selective RXRα Agonist, against Hypotension Associated with Inflammation and Tissue Injury Linked to Decreased Circulating iNOS Levels in A Rat Model of Septic Shock

Authors: Bahar Tunctan, Sefika Pinar Kucukkavruk, Meryem Temiz-Resitoglu, Demet Sinem Guden, Ayse Nihal Sari, Seyhan Sahan-Firat


We hypothesized that rexinoids such as bexarotene, a selective retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) agonist, may be beneficial for preventing mortality due to inflammation associated with increased expression/activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, we investigated effects of bexarotene on the changes in circulating protein levels of iNOS (an index for systemic iNOS expression), myeloperoxidase (MPO) (an index for systemic inflammation), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (an index for systemic tissue injury) in LPS-induced systemic inflammation model resulting in septic shock in rats. Rats were injected with saline (4 ml/kg; i.p.), LPS (10 mg/kg; i.p.), dimethylsulphoxide (4 ml/kg, 0.1%; s.c.) at time 0. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff device. Bexarotene (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg; s.c.) was administered to separate groups of rats 1 h after injection of saline or LPS. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after saline or LPS injection and blood was collected for measurement of serum iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels. Blood pressure decreased by 31 mmHg and heart rate increased by 63 bpm in the LPS-treated rats. Bexarotene at 0.3 and 1 mg/kg doses caused 20% mortality 4 h after LPS injection. In the LPS-treated rats, serum iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels were increased. Bexarotene only at 0.1 mg/kg dose prevented the LPS-induced hypotension and increased in iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels. These data are consistent with the view that a decrease in systemic iNOS levels contributes to the beneficial effect of bexarotene to prevent the hypotension associated with inflammation and tissue injury during rat endotoxemia. [This work was financially supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (SBAG-109S121)].

Keywords: bexarotene, inflammation, iNOS, lipopolisaccharide, RXRa

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11665 Optimal Risk and Financial Stability

Authors: Rahmoune Abdelhaq


Systemic risk is a key concern for central banks charged with safeguarding overall financial stability. In this work, we investigate how systemic risk is affected by the structure of the financial system. We construct banking systems that are composed of a number of banks that are connected by interbank linkages. We then vary the key parameters that define the structure of the financial system — including its level of capitalization, the degree to which banks are connected, the size of interbank exposures and the degree of concentration of the system — and analyses the influence of these parameters on the likelihood of contagious (knock-on) defaults. First, we find that the better-capitalized banks are, the more resilient is the banking system against contagious defaults and this effect is non-linear. Second, the effect of the degree of connectivity is non-monotonic, that is, initially a small increase in connectivity increases the contagion effect; but after a certain threshold value, connectivity improves the ability of a banking system to absorb shocks. Third, the size of interbank liabilities tends to increase the risk of knock-on default, even if banks hold capital against such exposures. Fourth, more concentrated banking systems are shown to be prone to larger systemic risk, all else equal. In an extension to the main analysis, we study how liquidity effects interact with banking structure to produce a greater chance of systemic breakdown. We finally consider how the risk of contagion might depend on the degree of asymmetry (tier) inherent in the structure of the banking system. A number of our results have important implications for public policy, which this paper also draws out. This paper also discusses why bank risk management is needed to get the optimal one.

Keywords: financial stability, contagion, liquidity risk, optimal risk

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11664 English Complex Aspectuality: A Functional Approach

Authors: Cunyu Zhang


Based on Systemic Functional Linguistics, this paper aims to explore the complex aspectuality system of English. This study shows that the complex aspectuality is classified into complex viewpoint aspect which refers to the homogeneous or heterogeneous ways continuously viewing on the same situation by the speaker and complex situation aspect which is the combined configuration of the internal time schemata of situation. Through viewpoint shifting and repeating, the complex viewpoint aspect is formed in two combination ways. Complex situation aspect is combined by the way of hypotactic verbal complex and the limitation of participant and circumstance in a clause.

Keywords: aspect series, complex situation aspect, complex viewpoint aspect, systemic functional linguistics

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11663 The Comparison of the Effects of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Delivery by Systemic and Intra-Tracheal Injection on Elastase-Induced Emphysema Model

Authors: Maryam Radan, Fereshteh Nejad Dehbashi, Vahid Bayati, Mahin Dianat, Seyyed Ali Mard, Zahra Mansouri


Pulmonary emphysema is a pathological respiratory condition identified by alveolar destruction which leads to limitation of airflow and diminished lung function. A substantial body of evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to induce tissue repair primarily through a paracrine effect. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of Intratracheal adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) therapy in comparison to this approach with that of Intravenous (Systemic) therapy. Fifty adult male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were used in this experiment. The animals were randomized to Control groups (Intratracheal or Intravenous vehicle), Elastase group (intratracheal administration of porcine pancreatic elastase; 25 U/kg on day 0 and day 10th), Elastase+Intratracheal ADSCs therapy (1x107 Cells, on day 28) and Elastase+Systemic ADSCs therapy (1x107 Cells, on day 28). The rats which not subjected to any treatment, considered as the control. All rats were sacrificed 3 weeks later. Morphometric findings in lung tissues (Mean linear intercept) confirmed the establishment of the emphysema model via alveolar disruption. Contrarily, ADSCs administration partially restored alveolar architecture. These results were associated with improving arterial oxygenation, reducing lung edema, and decreasing lung inflammation with higher significant effects in the Intratracheal therapy route. These results documented that the efficacy of intratracheal ADSCs was comparable with intravenous ADSCs therapy. Accordingly, the obtained data suggested that intratracheal delivery of ADSCs would enhance lung repair in pulmonary emphysema. Moreover, this method provides benefits over a systemic administration, such as the reduction of cell number and the low risk to engraft other organs.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, emphysema, Intratracheal, systemic

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11662 Relationship between the Development of Sepsis, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Body Mass Index among Adult Trauma Patients at University Hospital in Cairo

Authors: Mohamed Hendawy Mousa, Warda Youssef Mohamed Morsy


Background: Sepsis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Body mass index as an indicator of nutritional status was reported as a predictor of injury pattern and complications among critically ill injured patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body mass index and the development of sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome among adult trauma patients at emergency hospital - Cairo University. Research design: Descriptive correlational research design was utilized in the current study. Research questions: Q1. What is the body mass index profile of adult trauma patients admitted to the emergency hospital at Cairo University over a period of 6 months?, Q2. What is the frequency of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis among adult trauma patients admitted to the emergency hospital at Cairo University over a period of 6 months?, and Q3. What is the relationship between the development of sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and body mass index among adult trauma patients admitted to the emergency hospital at Cairo University over a period of 6 months?. Sample: A purposive sample of 52 adult male and female trauma patients with revised trauma score 10 to 12. Setting: The Emergency Hospital affiliated to Cairo University. Tools: Four tools were utilized to collect data pertinent to the study: Socio demographic and medical data tool, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome assessment tool, Revised Trauma Score tool, and Sequential organ failure assessment tool. Results: The current study revealed that, (61.5 %) of the studied subjects had normal body mass index, (25 %) were overweight, and (13.5 %) were underweight. 84.6% of the studied subjects had systemic inflammatory response syndrome and 92.3% were suffering from mild sepsis. No significant statistical relationship was found between body mass index and occurrence of Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (2= 2.89 & P = 0.23). However, Sequential organ failure assessment scores were affected significantly by body mass index was found mean of initial and last Sequential organ failure assessment score for underweight, normal and obese where t= 7.24 at p = 0.000, t= 16.49 at p = 0.000 and t= 9.80 at p = 0.000 respectively. Conclusion: Underweight trauma patients showed significantly higher rate of developing sepsis as compared to patients with normal body weight and obese. Recommendations: based on finding of this study the following are recommended: replication of the study on a larger probability sample from different geographical locations in Egypt; Carrying out of further studies in order to assess the other risk factors influencing trauma outcome and incidence of its complications; Establishment of standardized guidelines for managing underweight traumatized patients with sepsis.

Keywords: body mass index, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, adult trauma

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11661 Comparative Evaluation of Seropositivity and Patterns Distribution Rates of the Anti-Nuclear Antibodies in the Diagnosis of Four Different Autoimmune Collagen Tissue Diseases

Authors: Recep Kesli, Onur Turkyilmaz, Cengiz Demir


Objective: Autoimmune collagen diseases occur with the immune reactions against the body’s own cell or tissues which cause inflammation and damage the tissues and organs. In this study, it was aimed to compare seropositivity rates and patterns of the anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in the diagnosis of four different autoimmune collagen tissue diseases (Rheumatoid Arthritis-RA, Systemic Lupus Erythematous-SLE, Scleroderma-SSc and Sjogren Syndrome-SS) with each other. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight patients applied to different clinics in Afyon Kocatepe University ANS Practice and Research Hospital between 11.07.2014 and 14.07.2015 that thought the different collagen disease such as RA, SLE, SSc and SS have participated in the study retrospectively. All the data obtained from the patients participated in the study were evaluated according to the included criteria. The historical archives belonging to the patients have been screened, assessed in terms of ANA positivity. The obtained data was analysed by using the descriptive statistics; chi-squared, Fischer's exact test. The evaluations were performed by SPSS 20.0 version and p < 0.05 level was considered as significant. Results: Distribution rates of the totally one hundred eighty-eight patients according to the diagnosis were found as follows: 82 (43.6%) were RA, 38 (20.2%) were SLE, 22 (11.7%) were SSc, and 46 (24.5%) were SS. Distribution of ANA positivity rates according to the collagen tissue diseases were found as follows; for RA were 54 (65,9 %), for SLE were 36 (94,7 %), for SSc were 18 (81,8 %), and for SS were 43 (93,5 %). Rheumatoid arthritis should be evaluated and classified as a different class among all the other investigated three autoimmune illnesses. ANA positivity rates were found as differently higher (91.5 %) in the SLE, SSc, and SS, from the RA (65.9 %). Differences at ANA positivity rates for RA and the other three diseases were found as statistically significant (p=0.015). Conclusions: Systemic autoimmune illnesses show broad spectrum. ANA positivity was found as an important predictor marker in the diagnosis of the rheumatologic illnesses. ANA positivity should be evaluated as more valuable and sensitive a predictor diagnostic marker in the laboratory findings of the SLE, SSc, and SS according to RA.

Keywords: antinuclear antibody (ANA), rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus Erythemotosus

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11660 Existence of Systemic Risk in Turkish Banking Sector: An Evidence from Return Distributions

Authors: İlhami Karahanoglu, Oguz Ceylan


As its well-known definitions; systemic risk refers to whole economic system down-turn movement even collapse together in very severe cases. In fact, it points out the contagion effects of the defaults. Such a risk is can be depicted with the famous Chinese game of falling domino stones. During and after the Bear & Sterns and Lehman Brothers cases, it was well understood that there is a very strong effect of systemic risk in financial services sector. In this study, we concentrate on the existence of systemic risk in Turkish Banking Sector based upon the Halkbank Case during the end month of 2013; there was a political turmoil in Turkey in which the close relatives of the upper politicians were involved in illegal trading activities. In that operation, the CEO of Halkbank was also arrested and in investigation, Halkbank was considered as part of such illegal actions. That operation had an impact on Halkbanks stock value. The Halkbank stock value during that time interval decreased remarkably, the distributional profile of stock return changed and became more volatile as well as more skewed. In this study, the daily returns of 5 leading banks in Turkish banking sector were used to obtain 48 return distributions (for each month, 90-days-back stock value returns are used) of 5 banks for the period 12/2011-12/2013 (pre operation period) and 12/2013-12/2015 (post operation period). When those distributions are compared with timely manner, interestingly; the distribution of the 5 other leading banks in Turkey, public or private, had also distribution profiles which was different from the past 2011-2013 period just like Halkbank. Those 5 big banks, whose stock values are monitored with sub index in Istanbul stock exchange (BIST) as BN10, had more skewed distribution just following the Halkbank stock return movement during the post operation period, with lover mean value and as well higher volatility. In addition, the correlation between the stock value return distributions of the leading banks after Halkbank case, where the returns are more skewed to the left, increased (which is measured in monthly base before and after the operation). The dependence between those banks was stronger under the case where the stock values were falling compared with the normal market condition. Such distributional effect of stock returns between the leading banks in Turkey, which is valid for down sub-market (financial/banking sector) condition, can be evaluated as an evidence for the existence of contagious effect and systemic risk.

Keywords: financial risk, systemic risk, banking sector, return distribution, dependency structure

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