Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3512

Search results for: sustainability impacts

3512 Towards the Definition of New Instruments of Design and Evaluation of Environmental Impacts in Built Environment

Authors: Bernarette Soust Verdaguer

Abstract:

Sustainability applied to the built environment has been understood in practice as a strategy to improve efficiency. Its evolution into ecology closer visions are becoming more intense. So the paradigm of regeneration is presented as a complementary alternative to sustainability, emphasizing the association with nature, betting adaptation, recovery and resilience. New design tools and evaluation of built spaces, incorporating this strategy are necessary. In this sense, how it could contribute to the concept of regeneration in built environment design and environmental impacts assessment tools? This paper explores and analyzes some of these keys.

Keywords: sustainability, regeneration, environmental impacts assessment, built environment

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3511 Sustainable Building Technologies for Post-Disaster Temporary Housing: Integrated Sustainability Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: S. M. Amin Hosseini, Oriol Pons, Albert de la Fuente

Abstract:

After natural disasters, displaced people (DP) require important numbers of housing units, which have to be erected quickly due to emergency pressures. These tight timeframes can cause the multiplication of the environmental construction impacts. These negative impacts worsen the already high energy consumption and pollution caused by the building sector. Indeed, post-disaster housing, which is often carried out without pre-planning, usually causes high negative environmental impacts, besides other economic and social impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a suitable strategy to deal with this problem which also takes into account the instability of its causes, like changing ratio between rural and urban population. To this end, this study aims to present a model that assists decision-makers to choose the most suitable building technology for post-disaster housing units. This model focuses on the alternatives sustainability and fulfillment of the stakeholders’ satisfactions. Four building technologies have been analyzed to determine the most sustainability technology and to validate the presented model. In 2003, Bam earthquake DP had their temporary housing units (THUs) built using these four technologies: autoclaved aerated concrete blocks (AAC), concrete masonry unit (CMU), pressed reeds panel (PR), and 3D sandwich panel (3D). The results of this analysis confirm that PR and CMU obtain the highest sustainability indexes. However, the second life scenario of THUs could have considerable impacts on the results.

Keywords: sustainability, post-disaster temporary housing, integrated value model for sustainability assessment, life cycle assessment

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3510 Planning for Sustainability in the Built Environment

Authors: Adedayo Jeremiah Adeyekun, Samuel Oluwagbemiga Ishola

Abstract:

This paper aimed to identify the significance of sustainability in the built environment, the economic and environmental importance to building and construction projects. Sustainability in the built environment has been a key objective of research over the past several decades. Sustainability in the built environment requires reconciliation between economic, environmental and social impacts of design and planning decisions made during the life cycle of a project from inception to termination. Planning for sustainability in the built environment needs us to go beyond our individual disciplines to consider the variety of economic, social and environmental impacts of our decisions in the long term. A decision to build a green residential development in an isolated location may pass some of the test of sustainability through its reduction in stormwater runoff, energy efficiency, and ecological sustainability in the building, but it may fail to be sustainable from a transportation perspective. Sustainability is important to the planning, design, construction, and preservation of the built environment; because it helps these activities reflect multiple values and considerations. In fact, the arts and sciences of the built environment have traditionally integrated values and fostered creative expression, capabilities that can and should lead the sustainability movement as society seeks ways to live in dynamic balance with its own diverse needs and the natural world. This research aimed to capture the state-of-the-art in the development of innovative sustainable design and planning strategies for building and construction projects. Therefore, there is a need for a holistic selection and implication approach for identifying potential sustainable strategies applicable to a particular project and evaluating the overall life cycle impact of each alternative by accounting for different applicable impacts and making the final selection among various viable alternatives.

Keywords: sustainability, built environment, planning, design, construction

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3509 Material Choice Driving Sustainability of 3D Printing

Authors: Jeremy Faludi, Zhongyin Hu, Shahd Alrashed, Christopher Braunholz, Suneesh Kaul, Leulekal Kassaye

Abstract:

Environmental impacts of six 3D printers using various materials were compared to determine if material choice drove sustainability, or if other factors such as machine type, machine size, or machine utilization dominate. Cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessments were performed, comparing a commercial-scale FDM machine printing in ABS plastic, a desktop FDM machine printing in ABS, a desktop FDM machine printing in PET and PLA plastics, a polyjet machine printing in its proprietary polymer, an SLA machine printing in its polymer, and an inkjet machine hacked to print in salt and dextrose. All scenarios were scored using ReCiPe Endpoint H methodology to combine multiple impact categories, comparing environmental impacts per part made for several scenarios per machine. Results showed that most printers’ ecological impacts were dominated by electricity use, not materials, and the changes in electricity use due to different plastics was not significant compared to variation from one machine to another. Variation in machine idle time determined impacts per part most strongly. However, material impacts were quite important for the inkjet printer hacked to print in salt: In its optimal scenario, it had up to 1/38th the impacts coreper part as the worst-performing machine in the same scenario. If salt parts were infused with epoxy to make them more physically robust, then much of this advantage disappeared, and material impacts actually dominated or equaled electricity use. Future studies should also measure DMLS and SLS processes / materials.

Keywords: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, sustainability, life-cycle assessment, design for environment

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3508 Assessing Environmental Urban Sustainability Using Multivariate Analysis: A Case of Nagpur, India

Authors: Anusha Vaddiraj Pallapu

Abstract:

Measuring urban sustainable development is at the forefront in contributing to overall sustainability, and it refers to attaining social equity, environmental protection and minimizing the impacts of urbanization. Assessing performance of urban issues ranging from larger consumption of natural resources by humans in terms of lifestyle to creating a polluted nearby environment, social and even economic dimensions of sustainability major issues observed such as water quality, transportation, management of solid waste and traffic pollution. However, relying on the framework of the project to do the goals of sustainable development or minimization of urban impacts through management practices is not enough to deal with the present urban issues. The aim of the sustainability is to know how severely the resources are depleted because of human consumption and how issues are characterized. The paper aims to assign benchmarks for the selected sustainability indicators for research, and analysis is done through multivariate analysis in Indian context a case of Nagpur city to identify the play role of each urban issues in the overall sustainability. The main objectives of this paper are to examine the indicators over by time basis on various scenarios and how benchmarking is used, what and which categories of values should be considered as the performance of indicators function.

Keywords: environmental sustainability indicators, principal component analysis, urban sustainability, urban clusters, benchmarking

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3507 A Literature Review on Sustainability Appraisal Methods for Highway Infrastructure Projects

Authors: S. Kaira, S. Mohamed, A. Rahman

Abstract:

Traditionally, highway infrastructure projects are initiated based on their economic benefits, thereafter environmental, social and governance impacts are addressed discretely for the selected project from a set of pre-determined alternatives. When opting for cost-benefit analysis (CBA), multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) has been used as the default assessment tool. But this tool has been critiqued as it does not mimic the real-world dynamic environment. Indeed, it is because of the fact that public sector projects like highways have to experience intense exposure to dynamic environments. Therefore, it is essential to appreciate the impacts of various dynamic factors (factors that change or progress with the system) on project performance. Thus, this paper presents various sustainability assessment tools that have been globally developed to determine sustainability performance of infrastructure projects during the design, procurement and commissioning phase. Indeed, identification of the current gaps in the available assessment methods provides a potential to add prominent part of knowledge in the field of ‘road project development systems and procedures’ that are generally used by road agencies.

Keywords: dynamic impact factors, micro and macro factors, sustainability assessment framework, sustainability performance

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3506 Identify the Renewable Energy Potential through Sustainability Indicators and Multicriteria Analysis

Authors: Camila Lima, Murilo Andrade Valle, Patrícia Teixeira Leite Asano

Abstract:

The growth in demand for electricity, caused by human development, depletion and environmental impacts caused by traditional sources of electricity generation have made new energy sources are increasingly encouraged and necessary for companies in the electricity sector. Based on this scenario, this paper assesses the negative environmental impacts associated with thermoelectric power plants in Brazil, pointing out the importance of using renewable energy sources, reducing environmental aggression. This article points out the existence of an energy alternative, wind energy, of the municipalities of São Paulo, represented by georeferenced maps with the help of GIS, using as a premise the indicators of sustainability and multicriteria analysis in the decision-making process.

Keywords: GIS (geographic information systems), multicriteria analysis, sustainability, wind energy

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3505 Implementation of Environmental Sustainability into Event Management

Authors: Özlem Küçükakça

Abstract:

The world population is rapidly growing. In the last few decades, environmental protection and climate change have been remarked as a global concern. All events have their own ecological footprint. Therefore, all participants who take part in the events, from event organizer to audience should be responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Currently, there is a literature gap which investigates the relationship between events and environment. Hence, this study is conducted to investigate how to implement environmental sustainability in the event management. Therefore, a wide literature and also the UK festivals database have been investigated. Finally, environmental effects and the solution of reducing impacts at events were discussed.

Keywords: ecological footprint, environmental sustainability, events, sustainability

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3504 Economic and Ecological Implications in Agricultural Production Within the Strong and Weak Sustainability Framework

Authors: Mauricio Quintero Angel, Andrés A. Duque Nivia, Carlos H. Fajardo Toro

Abstract:

This paper analyzes two approaches of sustainability, the weak and strong, considering a case of study of oil palm production for an industry of biodegradable detergent. In this case, a company demand the oil palm as the active element for washing and through its trademark aims to supply 10% of the Colombian market of washing powders. Under each approach the economic and ecological implications of the palm oil production and especially the implications for crop management are described. The crop production under the weak sustainability implies plantations, intensive use of agrochemicals and the inclusion of new areas of cultivation as the market grows. Under the strong sustainability the production system is limited by the productive vocation of the ecosystem, so that new approaches and creativity for making viable the nature conservancy and the business development are require.

Keywords: agriculture, environmental impacts, oil palm, strong sustainability, weak sustainability

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3503 A Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Approach for Assessing the Sustainability Index of Building Façades

Authors: Golshid Gilani, Albert De La Fuente, Ana Blanco

Abstract:

Sustainability assessment of new and existing buildings has generated a growing interest due to the evident environmental, social and economic impacts during their construction and service life. Façades, as one of the most important exterior elements of a building, may contribute to the building sustainability by reducing the amount of energy consumption and providing thermal comfort for the inhabitants, thus minimizing the environmental impact on both the building and on the environment. Various methods have been used for the sustainability assessment of buildings due to the importance of this issue. However, most of the existing methods mainly concentrate on environmental and economic aspects, disregarding the third pillar of sustainability, which is the social aspect. Besides, there is a little focus on comprehensive sustainability assessment of facades, as an important element of a building. This confirms the need of developing methods for assessing the sustainable performance of building façades as an important step in achieving building sustainability. In this respect, this paper aims at presenting a model for assessing the global sustainability of façade systems. for that purpose, the Integrated Value Model for Sustainable Assessment (MIVES), a Multi-Criteria Decision Making model that integrates the main sustainability requirements (economic, environmental and social) and includes the concept of value functions, used as an assessment tool.

Keywords: façade, MCDM, MIVES, sustainability

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3502 Assessment of Environmental Impacts and Determination of Sustainability Level of BOOG Granite Mine Using a Mathematical Model

Authors: Gholamhassan Kakha, Mohsen Jami, Daniel Alex Merino Natorce

Abstract:

Sustainable development refers to the creation of a balance between the development and the environment too; it consists of three key principles namely environment, society and economy. These three parameters are related to each other and the imbalance occurs in each will lead to the disparity of the other parts. Mining is one of the most important tools of the economic growth and social welfare in many countries. Meanwhile, assessment of the environmental impacts has directed to the attention of planners toward the natural environment of the areas surrounded by mines and allowing for monitoring and controlling of the current situation by the designers. In this look upon, a semi-quantitative model using a matrix method is presented for assessing the environmental impacts in the BOOG Granite Mine located in Sistan and Balouchestan, one of the provinces of Iran for determining the effective factors and environmental components. For accomplishing this purpose, the initial data are collected by the experts at the next stage; the effect of the factors affects each environmental component is determined by specifying the qualitative viewpoints. Based on the results, factors including air quality, ecology, human health and safety along with the environmental damages resulted from mining activities in that area. Finally, the results gained from the assessment of the environmental impact are used to evaluate the sustainability by using Philips mathematical model. The results show that the sustainability of this area is weak, so environmental preventive measures are recommended to reduce the environmental damages to its components.

Keywords: sustainable development, environmental impacts' assessment, BOOG granite, Philips mathematical model

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3501 Corporate Governance and Corporate Sustainability: Evidence from a Developing Country

Authors: Edmund Gyimah

Abstract:

Using data from 146 annual reports of listed firms in Ghana for the period 2013-2020, this study presents indicative findings which inspire practical actions and future research. Firms which prepared and presented sustainability reports were excluded from this study for a coverage of corporate sustainability disclosures centred on annual reports. Also, corporate sustainability disclosures of the firms on corporate websites were not included in the study considering the tendency of updates which cannot easily be traced. The corporate sustainability disclosures in the annual reports since the commencement of the G4 Guidelines in 2013 have been below average for all the dimensions of sustainability and the general sustainability disclosures. Few traditional elements of the board composition such as board size and board independence could affect the corporate sustainability disclosures in the annual reports as well as the age of the firm, firm size, and industry classification of the firm. Sustainability disclosures are greater in sustainability reports than in annual reports, however, firms without sustainability reports should have a considerable amount of sustainability disclosures in their annual reports. Also, because of the essence of sustainability, this study suggests to firms to have sustainability committee perhaps, they could make a difference in disclosing the enough sustainability information even when they do not present sustainability information in stand-alone reports.

Keywords: disclosures, sustainability, board, reports

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3500 Monitoring of Key Indicators of Sustainable Tourism in the Jalapão State Park/Tocantins: A Case Study of Environmental Indicators

Authors: Veruska C. Dutra, Afonso R. Aquino

Abstract:

Since the 1980s, global tourism activity has consolidated worldwide to become an important economic contributor, and consequently, the sociocultural and environmental impacts are starting to become evidenced. This raises the need of discussing about actions for sustainable tourism that should be linked not only to the economy, but also to the environment and social aspects. The work that is going to be presented is part of a doctoral research project in Sciences undertaken at the Sao Paulo University, Brazil. It aims to analyze whether the monitoring of the tourism sector with a focus on sustainability is applicable or not, through those indicators, put in a case study in the Jalapão State Park (JSP) conservation unit, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. This is a study of an interdisciplinary nature that had the deductive method as its guide. We concluded that the key points of the sustainable tourism, when analyzed with the focal point in environmental indicators, are an important evaluation and quantification tool of that activity in the study locus. It displayed itself as an adequate tool for monitoring, thus decoding, the main environmental impacts that occur in tourism regions and their intensity, which is made possible through analysis, and has the objective to trace ways to prevent and correct the presented impacts.

Keywords: indicators, tourism, sustainability, Jalapão

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3499 Design for Sustainability as a Key Driver for Exploring the Potential of Cork Material

Authors: Spase Janevski

Abstract:

We, as designers, should be aware of the consequences of our material selection, at the early stages of the design process. Some of the designer’s decisions can have a very significant impact on design for sustainability. The influence of this concept has led to years of research studies into eco-friendly materials and their potentials for creating new sustainable products. In order to answer the question, 'how cork has become a design trend', this paper will present an overview of the implications of the concept of design for sustainability on the potential uses of cork material. A decade ago, cork as a material had an association with wine stoppers, but with the evolution of sustainable product design as part of the concept of design for sustainability, cork now offers product designers a wide range of new materials and applications. The purpose of this paper is to show how the phenomenon of sustainability has had an impact on the progress of the material which is currently not being an integral component of the design material palette. At the beginning, the nature of the relationship between cork and sustainability will be explained through the following stages: 1) fundamental understanding of the concept of Design for Sustainability and the importance of material selection for sustainable product design, and 2) the importance of cork oak trees for the environment and the environmental impacts of cork products. In order to examine and present the influence of the sustainability on the innovation in cork applications, the paper will provide a historical overview of designing with cork. The overview will consist of four stages: 1) pre-industrial period - the period when ancient nations used cork and amphoras to store their wine; 2) industrial period - emergence and industrialization of well-known wine stoppers; 3) post-industrial period - commercializing cork products in the area of floors and coverings and first developments in industrial research; and 4) the period when large cork realized the importance of sustainability and started to focus more markedly on research and development. The existence of new cork materials, the investigation in new applications and the investment in new innovations have proved that the sustainability approach has had a great influence on the revival of this material. In addition, the paper will present some of the new cork innovative materials and applications and their potentials for designing promising and sustainable solutions with additive manufacturing technologies, such as 3D printing. Lastly, the paper will introduce some questions for further study, such as the environmental impacts of the new hybrid materials and the gap between cork industry and cork research and development teams. The paper concludes by stating that cork is not only a material for wine stoppers anymore, thanks to the awareness of the concept of design for sustainability.

Keywords: cork, design for sustainability, innovation, sustainable materials

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3498 Analysing the Applicability of a Participatory Approach to Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: Case Study of a Housing Estate Regeneration in London

Authors: Sahar Navabakhsh, Rokia Raslan, Yair Schwartz

Abstract:

Decision-making on regeneration of housing estates, whether to refurbish or re-build, has been mostly triggered by economic factors. To enable sustainable growth, it is vital that environmental and social impacts of different scenarios are also taken into account. The methodology used to include all the three sustainable development pillars is called Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), which comprises of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the assessment of environmental impacts of buildings. Current practice of LCA is regularly conducted post design stage and by sustainability experts. Not only is undertaking an LCA at this stage less effective, but issues such as the limited scope for the definition and assessment of environmental impacts, the implication of changes in the system boundary and the alteration of each of the variable metrics, employment of different Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methods and use of various inventory data for Life Cycle Inventory Analysis can result in considerably contrasting results. Given the niche nature and scarce specialist domain of LCA of buildings, the majority of the stakeholders do not contribute to the generation or interpretation of the impact assessment, and the results can be generated and interpreted subjectively due to the mentioned uncertainties. For an effective and democratic assessment of environmental impacts, different stakeholders, and in particular the community and design team should collaborate in the process of data collection, assessment and analysis. This paper examines and evaluates a participatory approach to LCSA through the analysis of a case study of a housing estate in South West London. The study has been conducted throughout tier-based collaborative methods to collect and share data through surveys and co-design workshops with the community members and the design team as the main stakeholders. The assessment of lifecycle impacts is conducted throughout the process and has influenced the decision-making on the design of the Community Plan. The evaluation concludes better assessment transparency and outcome, alongside other socio-economic benefits of identifying and engaging the most contributive stakeholders in the process of conducting LCSA.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, participatory LCA, life cycle sustainability assessment, participatory processes, decision-making, housing estate regeneration

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3497 Sustainable Development Variables to Assess Transport Infrastructure in Remote Destinations

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki

Abstract:

The assessment variables of the accessibility and the sustainability of access infrastructure for remote regions may vary significant by location and a wide range of factors may affect the decision process. In this paper, the environmental disturbance implications of transportation system to key demand and supply variables impact the economic system in remote destination are descripted. According to a systemic approach, the key sustainability variables deals with decision making process that have to be included in strategic plan for the critical transport infrastructure development and their relationship to regional socioeconomic system are presented. The application deals with the development of railway in remote destinations, where the traditional CBA not include the external cost generated by the environmental impacts that may have a range of diverse impacts on transport infrastructure and services. The analysis output provides key messages to decision and policy makers towards sustainable development of transport infrastructure, especially for remote destinations where accessibility is a key factor of regional economic development and social stability. The key conclusion could be essential useful for relevant applications in remote regions in the same latitude.

Keywords: sustainable development in remote regions, transport infrastructure, strategic planning, sustainability variables

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3496 A Niche Sustainable Tourism Product: Stakeholder Perceptions on Sustainable Conference Tourism in Cyprus

Authors: Xenia I. Loizidou, Anthi Gavriel, Demetra Petsa

Abstract:

The tourism industry is a significant contributor to Cyprus's Gross Domestic Product. However, as the main tourism product is 'sun and sea', the industry is significantly unsustainable, with the majority of tourists (approx. 90%) concentrated in coastal areas over a short period of time, causing negative environmental, social, and economic impacts. The newly established Cypriot Deputy Ministry of Tourism aims to diversify the Cypriot tourism industry by focusing on the development of niche tourism products that will elongate the touristic season and divert visitors to inland mountainous and rural areas. In this respect, conference and event tourism is an ideal product for development. The current paper presents the results of fieldwork carried out between January and March 2020 in Cyprus, with key stakeholders within the conference and event tourism sector. The work consisted of a survey and semi-structured interviews to determine the current level of sustainability within the conference tourism sector, the main barriers to the sector's development, as well as key stakeholder insights and suggestions for measures to improve the sector's sustainability. The results suggest that there is a general lack of understanding of the negative economic, environmental and social impacts associated with the organization of conventional conferences and events, compared to the positive impacts of sustainable conferences/events. There also seems to be a lack of awareness of actions that can be taken to make the conference and event sector more sustainable. Incentives, marketing, branding, and training are identified as some of the effective means to improve the sustainability of the Cypriot conference and event sector, as is the development of country-wide sustainability policy and a review and enforcement of national waste management legislation. The research outputs will be utilized for the development of targeted toolkits, training, and awareness-raising activities that will drive Cyprus towards becoming an international sustainable tourism destination.

Keywords: conference, event, sustainability, tourism

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3495 A Model of Sustainability in the Accommodation Sector

Authors: L. S. Zavodna, J. Zavodny Pospisil

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to identify the factors for sustainability in the accommodation sector. Although sustainability is a current trend in tourism, not many facilities know how to apply the concept in practice. This paper presents a model for the implementation of sustainability in hotels, hostels, campgrounds, or other facilities. First, there are identified sections of each accommodation facility, which can contribute to sustainability. Furthermore, concrete steps are presented to transfer this model into reality.

Keywords: accommodation sector, model, sustainable tourism, sustainability

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3494 Analyzing the Impacts of Sustainable Tourism Development on Residents’ Well-Being Based on Stakeholder Perception: Evidence from a Coastal-Hinterland Region

Authors: Elham Falatoonitoosi, Vikki Schaffer, Don Kerr

Abstract:

Over-development for tourism and its consequences on residents’ well-being turn into a critical issue in tourism destinations. Learning about undesirable impacts of tourism has led many people to seek more sustainable and responsible tourism. The main objective of this research is to understand how and to what extent sustainable tourism development enhances locals’ well-being regarding stakeholder perception. The research was conducted in a coastal-hinterland tourism region through two sequential phases. At the first phase, a unique set of 19 sustainable tourism indicators resulted from a triplex model was used to examine the sustainability effects on the main factors of residents’ well-being including equity and living condition, life satisfaction, health condition, and education quality. The triplex model including i) systematic literature search, ii) convergent interviewing, and iii) DEMATEL aimed to develop sustainability indicators, specify them for a particular destination, and identify the dominant sustainability issues acting as key predictors in sustainable development. At the second phase, a hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between sustainable development and local residents’ well-being. A number of 167 participants from five different groups of stakeholders perceived the importance level of each sustainability indicators regarding well-being factors on 5-point Likert scale. Results from the first phase indicated that sustainability training, government support, tourism sociocultural effects, tourism revenue, and climate change are the top dominant sustainability issues in the regional sustainable development. Results from the second phase showed that sustainable development considerably improves the overall residents’ well-being and has positive relationships with all well-being factors except life satisfaction. It explains that it was difficult for stakeholders to recognize a link between sustainable development and their overall life satisfaction and happiness. Among well-being’s factors, health condition was influenced the most by sustainability indicators that indicate stakeholders believed sustainability development can promote public health, health sector performance, quality of drinking water, and sanitation. For the future research, it is highly recommended to analysis the effects of sustainable tourism development on the other features of a tourism destination’s well-being including residents sociocultural empowerment, local economic growth, and attractiveness of the destination.

Keywords: residents' well-being, stakeholder perception, sustainability indicators, sustainable tourism

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3493 Assessing Social Sustainability for Biofuels Supply Chains: The Case of Jet Biofuel in Brazil

Authors: Z. Wang, F. Pashaei Kamali, J. A. Posada Duque, P. Osseweijer

Abstract:

Globally, the aviation sector is seeking for sustainable solutions to comply with the pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Jet fuels derived from biomass are generally perceived as a sustainable alternative compared with their fossil counterparts. However, the establishment of jet biofuels supply chains will have impacts on environment, economy, and society. While existing studies predominantly evaluated environmental impacts and techno-economic feasibility of jet biofuels, very few studies took the social / socioeconomic aspect into consideration. Therefore, this study aims to provide a focused evaluation of social sustainability for aviation biofuels with a supply chain perspective. Three potential jet biofuel supply chains based on different feedstocks, i.e. sugarcane, eucalyptus, and macauba were analyzed in the context of Brazil. The assessment of social sustainability is performed with a process-based approach combined with input-output analysis. Over the supply chains, a set of social sustainability issues including employment, working condition (occupational accident and wage level), labour right, education, equity, social development (GDP and trade balance) and food security were evaluated in a (semi)quantitative manner. The selection of these social issues is based on two criteria: (1) the issues are highly relevant and important to jet biofuel production; (2) methodologies are available for assessing these issues. The results show that the three jet biofuel supply chains lead to a differentiated level of social effects. The sugarcane-based supply chain creates the highest number of jobs whereas the biggest contributor of GDP turns out to be the macauba-based supply chain. In comparison, the eucalyptus-based supply chain stands out regarding working condition. It is also worth noting that biojet fuel supply chain with high level of social benefits could result in high level of social concerns (such as occupational accident, violation of labour right and trade imbalance). Further research is suggested to investigate the possible interactions between different social issues. In addition, the exploration of a wider range of social effects is needed to expand the comprehension of social sustainability for biofuel supply chains.

Keywords: biobased supply chain, jet biofuel, social assessment, social sustainability, socio-economic impacts

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3492 The Sustainable Development for Coastal Tourist Building

Authors: D. Avila

Abstract:

The tourism industry is a phenomenon that has become a growing presence in international socio-economic dynamics, which in most cases exceeds the control parameters in the various environmental regulations and sustainability of existing resources. Because of this, the effects on the natural environment at the regional and national levels represent a challenge, for which a number of strategies are necessary to minimize the environmental impact generated by the occupation of the territory. The hotel tourist building and sustainable development in the coastal zone, have an important impact on the environment and on the physical and psychological health of the inhabitants. Environmental quality associated with the comfort of humans to the sustainable development of natural resources; applied to the hotel architecture this concept involves the incorporation of new demands on all of the constructive process of a building, changing customs of developers and users. The methodology developed provides an initial analysis to determine and rank the different tourist buildings, with the above it will be feasible to establish methods of study and environmental impact assessment. Finally, it is necessary to establish an overview regarding the best way to implement tourism development on the coast, containing guidelines to improve and protect the natural environment. This paper analyzes the parameters and strategies to reduce environmental impacts derived from deployments tourism on the coast, through a series of recommendations towards sustainability, in the context of the Bahia de Banderas, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. The environmental impact caused by the implementation of tourism development, perceived in a coastal environment, forcing a series of processes, ranging from the identification of impacts, prediction and evaluation of them. For this purpose are described below, different techniques and valuation procedures: Identification of impacts. Methods for the identification of damage caused to the environment pursue general purpose to obtain a group of negative indicators that are subsequently used in the study of environmental impact. There are several systematic methods to identify the impacts caused by human activities. In the present work, develops a procedure based and adapted from the Ministry of works public urban reference in studies of environmental impacts, the representative methods are: list of contrast, arrays, and networks, method of transparencies and superposition of maps.

Keywords: environmental impact, physical health, sustainability, tourist building

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3491 Integration of LCA and BIM for Sustainable Construction

Authors: Laura Álvarez Antón, Joaquín Díaz

Abstract:

The construction industry is turning towards sustainability. It is a well-known fact that sustainability is based on a balance between environmental, social and economic aspects. In order to achieve sustainability efficiently, these three criteria should be taken into account in the initial project phases, since that is when a project can be influenced most effectively. Thus the aim must be to integrate important tools like BIM and LCA at an early stage in order to make full use of their potential. With the synergies resulting from the integration of BIM and LCA, a wider approach to sustainability becomes possible, covering the three pillars of sustainability.

Keywords: building information modeling (BIM), construction industry, design phase, life cycle assessment (LCA), sustainability

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3490 Is Materiality Determination the Key to Integrating Corporate Sustainability and Maximising Value?

Authors: Ruth Hegarty, Noel Connaughton

Abstract:

Sustainability reporting has become a priority for many global multinational companies. This is associated with ever-increasing expectations from key stakeholders for companies to be transparent about their strategies, activities and management with regard to sustainability issues. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) encourages reporters to only provide information on the issues that are really critical in order to achieve the organisation’s goals for sustainability and manage its impact on environment and society. A key challenge for most reporting organisations is how to identify relevant issues for sustainability reporting and prioritise those material issues in accordance with company and stakeholder needs. A recent study indicates that most of the largest companies listed on the world’s stock exchanges are failing to provide data on key sustainability indicators such as employee turnover, energy, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), injury rate, pay equity, waste and water. This paper takes an indepth look at the approaches used by a select number of international sustainability leader corporates to identify key sustainability issues. The research methodology involves performing a detailed analysis of the sustainability report content of up to 50 companies listed on the 2014 Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI). The most recent sustainability report content found on the GRI Sustainability Disclosure Database is then compared with 91 GRI Specific Standard Disclosures and a small number of GRI Standard Disclosures. Preliminary research indicates significant gaps in the information disclosed in corporate sustainability reports versus the indicator content specified in the GRI Content Index. The following outlines some of the key findings to date: Most companies made a partial disclosure with regard to the Economic indicators of climate change risks and infrastructure investments, but did not focus on the associated negative impacts. The top Environmental indicators disclosed were energy consumption and reductions, GHG emissions, water withdrawals, waste and compliance. The lowest rates of indicator disclosure included biodiversity, water discharge, mitigation of environmental impacts of products and services, transport, environmental investments, screening of new suppliers and supply chain impacts. The top Social indicators disclosed were new employee hires, rates of injury, freedom of association in operations, child labour and forced labour. Lesser disclosure rates were reported for employee training, composition of governance bodies and employees, political contributions, corruption and fines for non-compliance. The reporting on most other Social indicators was found to be poor. In addition, most companies give only a brief explanation on how material issues are defined, identified and ranked. Data on the identification of key stakeholders and the degree and nature of engagement for determining issues and their weightings is also lacking. Generally, little to no data is provided on the algorithms used to score an issue. Research indicates that most companies lack a rigorous and thorough methodology to systematically determine the material issues of sustainability reporting in accordance with company and stakeholder needs.

Keywords: identification of key stakeholders, material issues, sustainability reporting, transparency

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3489 Investigating the Systematic Implications of Plastic Waste Additions to Concrete Taking a Circular Approach

Authors: Christina Cheong, Naomi Keena

Abstract:

In the face of growing urbanization the construction of new buildings is inevitable and with current construction methods leading to environmental degradation much questioning is needed around reducing the environmental impact of buildings. This paper explores the global environmental issue of concrete production in parallel with the problem of plastic waste, and questions if new solutions into plastic waste additions in concrete is a viable sustainable solution with positive systematic implications to living systems, both human and non-human. We investigate how certification programs can be used to access the sustainability of the new concrete composition. With this classification we look to the health impacts as well as reusability of such concrete in a second or third life cycle. We conclude that such an approach has benefits to the environment and that taking a circular approach to its development, in terms of the overall life cycle of the new concrete product, can help understand the nuances in terms of the material’s environmental and human health impacts.

Keywords: Concrete, Plastic waste additions to concrete, sustainability ratings, sustainable materials

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3488 Diagnosis on Environmental Impacts of Tourism at Caju Beach in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska, C. Dutra, Jr., Keity L. F. Oliveira, Patrícia A. Santos, Alana C. M. Santana

Abstract:

Environmental impacts are the changes in the physical, chemical or biological properties of natural areas that are most often caused by human actions on the environment and which have consequences for human health, society and the elements of nature. The identification of the environmental impacts is important so that they are mitigated, and above all that the mitigating measures are applied in the area. This work aims to identify the environmental impacts generated in the Praia do Caju area in the city of Palmas/Brazil and show that the lack of structure on the beach intensifies the environmental impacts. The present work was carried out having as parameter, the typologies of exploratory and descriptive and quantitative research through a matrix of environmental impacts through direct observation and registration. The study took place during the holidays from August to December 2016 and photographic record of impacts. From the collected data it was possible to verify that Caju beach suffers constant degradation due to irregular deposition.

Keywords: leisure, tourism, environmental impacts, Brazil

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3487 A Case Study on Blended Pedagogical Approach by Leveraging on Digital Marketing Concepts towards Inculcating Concepts of Sustainability in Management Education

Authors: Narendra Babu Bommenahalli Veerabhadrappa

Abstract:

Teaching sustainability concepts along with profit maximizing philosophy of business in management education is a challenge. This paper explores and evaluates various learning models to inculcate sustainability concepts in management education. The paper explains about a new pedagogy that was tested in a business management school (Indus Business Academy, Bangalore, India) to teach sustainability. The pedagogy was designed by intertwining concepts related to sustainability with digital marketing concepts. As part of this experimental method, students (in groups) were assigned with various topics of sustainability and were asked to work with concepts of digital marketing and thus market the concepts of sustainability. The paper explains as a case study as to how sustainability was integrated with digital marketing tools and how learning towards sustainability was facilitated. It also explains the outcomes of this pedagogical method, in terms of inculcating sustainability concepts amongst management students as well as marketing and proliferation of sustainability concepts to bring about the behavioral changes amongst target audience towards sustainability.

Keywords: management-education, pedagogy, sustainability, behavior

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3486 Sustainability Modelling and Sustainability Evaluation of a Mechanical System in a Concurrent Engineering Environment: A Digraph and Matrix Approach

Authors: Anand Ankush, Wani Mohammed Farooq

Abstract:

A procedure based on digraph and matrix method is developed for modelling and evaluation of sustainability of Mechanical System in a concurrent engineering environment.The sustainability parameters of a Mechanical System are identified and are called sustainability attributes. Consideration of attributes and their interrelations is rudiment in modeling and evaluation of sustainability index. Sustainability attributes of a Mechanical System are modelled in termsof sustainability digraph. The graph is represented by a one-to-one matrix for sustainability expression which is based on sustainability attributes. A variable sustainability relationship permanent matrix is defined to develop sustainability expression(VPF-t) which is also useful in comparing two systems in a concurrent environment. The sustainability index of Mechanical System is obtained from permanent of matrix by substituting the numerical values of attributes and their interrelations. A higher value of index implies better sustainability of system.The ideal value of index is obtained from matrix expression which is useful in assessing relative sustainability of a Mechanical System in a concurrent engineering environment. The procedure is not only useful for evaluation of sustainability of a Mechanical System at conceptual design stage but can also be used for design and development of systems at system design stage. A step-by-step procedure for evaluation of sustainability index is also suggested and is illustrated by means of an example.

Keywords: digraph, matrix method, mechanical system, sustainability

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3485 An Index to Measure Transportation Sustainable Performance in Construction Projects

Authors: Sareh Rajabi, Taha Anjamrooz, Salwa Bheiry

Abstract:

The continuous increase in the world population, resource shortage and the warning of climate change cause various environmental and social issues to the world. Thus, sustainability concept is much needed nowadays. Organizations are progressively falling under strong worldwide pressure to integrate sustainability practices into their project decision-making development. Construction projects in the industry are amongst the most significant, since it is one of the biggest divisions and of main significance for the national economy and hence has a massive effect on the environment and society. So, it is important to discover approaches to incorporate sustainability into the management of those projects. This study presents a combined sustainability index of projects with sustainable transportation which has been formed as per a comprehensive literature review and survey study. Transportation systems enable the movement of goods and services worldwide, and it is leading to economic growth and creating jobs while creating negative impacts on the environment and society. This research is study to quantify the sustainability indicators, through 1) identifying the importance of sustainable transportation indicators that are based on the sustainable practices used for the construction projects and 2) measure the effectiveness of practices through these indicators on the three sustainable pillars. A total 26 sustainability indicators have been selected and grouped under each related sustainability pillars. A survey was used to collect the opinion about the sustainability indicators by a scoring system. A combined sustainability index considering three sustainable pillars can be helpful in evaluating the transportation sustainable practices of a project and making decisions regarding project selection. In addition to focus on the issue of financial resource allocation in a project selection, the decision-maker could take into account the sustainability as an important key in addition to the project’s return and risk. The purpose of this study is to measure the performance of transportation sustainability which allow companies to assess multiple projects selection. This is useful to decision makers to rank and focus more on future sustainable projects.

Keywords: sustainable transportation, transportation performances, sustainable indicators, sustainable construction practice, sustainability

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3484 Purpose in Procurement: Much Discussed, Less Conceptualized – An Exploratory Study of CPO Perceptions Based on the Gioia Methodology

Authors: Laurin Zemmrich, Nicolai Stickler

Abstract:

With the ongoing debate over how to incorporate sustainability, resilience, and value creation into business strategies, many procurement departments are put under pressure by governments, consumers, non-governmental organizations, and other stakeholders to disclose more information about their supply chains. According to practitioners and experts, procurement benefits the supply chain by increasing transparency and accountability, recruiting new suppliers, and supporting sustainable and ethical sourcing strategies. While most procurement departments establish these objectives, the bulk of activities are not carried out or are not regularly monitored. With the full potential of targeted sourcing still to be realized, procurement executives, in particular, are seeking for short-term cost-cutting impacts to appease external shareholders. We overcome this limitation by using an abductive approach to research and integrating empirical data from a Gioia methodology study design with relevant literature. Our analysis demonstrates that the procurement department has six essential levers aligned with sustainability, resilience, and value creation objectives and contributes to developing a new intra- and interorganizational purpose within the supply chain. Three enablers are identified as having a value-creating effect on supply chain interactions. Additionally, we discovered two impacts that alter the power balance between buyers and suppliers during transactions and have a cost-cutting or cost-avoiding effect. While cost-cutting, cost-avoidance, and dependency-reduction impacts are desirable, redistributing power may also have negative consequences. The article establishes a first strategy framework for evaluating the influence of the procurement department on supply chain transactions, allowing managers to understand better and apply the sourcing function inside a supply chain and embed it throughout the business.

Keywords: supply chain management, resilience, sustainability, value creation, purpose

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3483 Conceptualizing IoT Based Framework for Enhancing Environmental Accounting By ERP Systems

Authors: Amin Ebrahimi Ghadi, Morteza Moalagh

Abstract:

This research is carried out to find how a perfect combination of IoT architecture (Internet of Things) and ERP system can strengthen environmental accounting to incorporate both economic and environmental information. IoT (e.g., sensors, software, and other technologies) can be used in the company’s value chain from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacturing products, distribution, use, repair, maintenance, and disposal or recycling products (Cradle to Grave model). The desired ERP software then will have the capability to track both midpoint and endpoint environmental impacts on a green supply chain system for the whole life cycle of a product. All these enable environmental accounting to calculate, and real-time analyze the operation environmental impacts, control costs, prepare for environmental legislation and enhance the decision-making process. In this study, we have developed a model on how to use IoT devices in life cycle assessment (LCA) to gather emissions, energy consumption, hazards, and wastes information to be processed in different modules of ERP systems in an integrated way for using in environmental accounting to achieve sustainability.

Keywords: ERP, environmental accounting, green supply chain, IOT, life cycle assessment, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 97