Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Vikki Schaffer

3 Analyzing the Impacts of Sustainable Tourism Development on Residents’ Well-Being Based on Stakeholder Perception: Evidence from a Coastal-Hinterland Region

Authors: Elham Falatoonitoosi, Vikki Schaffer, Don Kerr

Abstract:

Over-development for tourism and its consequences on residents’ well-being turn into a critical issue in tourism destinations. Learning about undesirable impacts of tourism has led many people to seek more sustainable and responsible tourism. The main objective of this research is to understand how and to what extent sustainable tourism development enhances locals’ well-being regarding stakeholder perception. The research was conducted in a coastal-hinterland tourism region through two sequential phases. At the first phase, a unique set of 19 sustainable tourism indicators resulted from a triplex model was used to examine the sustainability effects on the main factors of residents’ well-being including equity and living condition, life satisfaction, health condition, and education quality. The triplex model including i) systematic literature search, ii) convergent interviewing, and iii) DEMATEL aimed to develop sustainability indicators, specify them for a particular destination, and identify the dominant sustainability issues acting as key predictors in sustainable development. At the second phase, a hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between sustainable development and local residents’ well-being. A number of 167 participants from five different groups of stakeholders perceived the importance level of each sustainability indicators regarding well-being factors on 5-point Likert scale. Results from the first phase indicated that sustainability training, government support, tourism sociocultural effects, tourism revenue, and climate change are the top dominant sustainability issues in the regional sustainable development. Results from the second phase showed that sustainable development considerably improves the overall residents’ well-being and has positive relationships with all well-being factors except life satisfaction. It explains that it was difficult for stakeholders to recognize a link between sustainable development and their overall life satisfaction and happiness. Among well-being’s factors, health condition was influenced the most by sustainability indicators that indicate stakeholders believed sustainability development can promote public health, health sector performance, quality of drinking water, and sanitation. For the future research, it is highly recommended to analysis the effects of sustainable tourism development on the other features of a tourism destination’s well-being including residents sociocultural empowerment, local economic growth, and attractiveness of the destination.

Keywords: residents' well-being, stakeholder perception, sustainability indicators, sustainable tourism

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2 The Response of 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid on Kv1.4 Potassium Channel Subunit Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes

Authors: Fatin H. Mohamad, Jia H. Wong, Muhammad Bilal, Abdul A. Mohamed Yusoff, Jafri M. Abdullah, Jingli Zhang

Abstract:

Kv1.4 is a Shaker-related member of voltage-gated potassium channel which can be associated with cardiac action potential but can also be found in Schaffer collateral and dentate gyrus. It has two inactivation mechanisms; the fast N-type and slow C-type. Kv1.4 produces rapid current inactivation. This A type potential of Kv1.4 makes it as a target in antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) selection. In this study, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, which can be naturally found in bamboo shoots, were tested on its enhancement effect on potassium current of Kv1.4 channel expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp method. Current obtained were recorded and analyzed with pClamp software whereas statistical analysis were done by student t-test. The ratio of final / peak amplitude is an index of the activity of the Kv1.4 channel. The less the ratio, the greater the function of Kv1.4. The decrease of ratio of which by 1µM 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (n= 7), compared with 0.1% DMSO (vehicle), was mean= 47.62%, SE= 13.76%, P= 0.026 (statistically significant). It indicated more opening of Kv1.4 channels under 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In conclusion, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid can enhance the function of Kv1.4 potassium channels, which is regarded as one of the mechanisms of antiepileptic treatment.

Keywords: antiepileptic, Kv1.4 potassium channel, two-microelectrode voltage clamp, Xenopus laevis oocytes, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid

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1 Oleic Acid Enhances Hippocampal Synaptic Efficacy

Authors: Rema Vazhappilly, Tapas Das

Abstract:

Oleic acid is a cis unsaturated fatty acid and is known to be a partially essential fatty acid due to its limited endogenous synthesis during pregnancy and lactation. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of oleic acid in neuronal differentiation and brain phospholipid synthesis. These evidences indicate a major role for oleic acid in learning and memory. Interestingly, oleic acid has been shown to enhance hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP), the physiological correlate of long term synaptic plasticity. However the effect of oleic acid on short term synaptic plasticity has not been investigated. Short term potentiation (STP) is the physiological correlate of short term synaptic plasticity which is the key underlying molecular mechanism of short term memory and neuronal information processing. STP in the hippocampal CA1 region has been known to require the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). The NMDAR dependent hippocampal STP as a potential mechanism for short term memory has been a subject of intense interest for the past few years. Therefore in the present study the effect of oleic acid on NMDAR dependent hippocampal STP was determined in mouse hippocampal slices (in vitro) using Multi-electrode array system. STP was induced by weak tetanic Stimulation (one train of 100 Hz stimulations for 0.1s) of the Schaffer collaterals of CA1 region of the hippocampus in slices treated with different concentrations of oleic acid in presence or absence of NMDAR antagonist D-AP5 (30 µM) . Oleic acid at 20 (mean increase in fEPSP amplitude = ~135 % Vs. Control = 100%; P<0.001) and 30 µM (mean increase in fEPSP amplitude = ~ 280% Vs. Control = 100%); P<0.001) significantly enhanced the STP following weak tetanic stimulation. Lower oleic acid concentrations at 10 µM did not modify the hippocampal STP induced by weak tetanic stimulation. The hippocampal STP induced by weak tetanic stimulation was completely blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 (30µM) in both oleic acid and control treated hippocampal slices. This lead to the conclusion that the hippocampal STP elicited by weak tetanic stimulation and enhanced by oleic acid was NMDAR dependent. Together these findings suggest that oleic acid may enhance the short term memory and neuronal information processing through the modulation of NMDAR dependent hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity. In conclusion this study suggests the possible role of oleic acid to prevent the short term memory loss and impaired neuronal function throughout development.

Keywords: oleic acid, short-term potentiation, memory, field excitatory post synaptic potentials, NMDA receptor

Procedia PDF Downloads 262