Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9659

Search results for: micro and macro factors

9659 Sustainable Micro Architecture: A Pattern for Urban Release Areas

Authors: Saber Fatourechian

Abstract:

People within modern cities have faced macro urban values spreads rapidly through current style of living. Unexpected phenomena without any specific features of micro scale, humanity and urban social/cultural patterns. The gap between micro and macro scale is unidentified and people could not recognize where they are especially in the interaction between life and city. Urban life details were verified. Micro architecture is a pattern in which human activity derives from human needs in an unconscious position. Sustainable attitude via micro architecture causes flexibility in decision making through micro urbanism essentially impacts macro scale. In this paper the definition of micro architecture and its relation with city and human activity are argued, there after the interaction between micro and macro scale is presented as an effective way for urban sustainable development.

Keywords: micro architecture, sustainability, human activity, city

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
9658 Investigation of the Addition of Macro and Micro Polypropylene Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Concrete Pavement

Authors: Seyed Javad Vaziri Kang Olyaei, Asma Sadat Dabiri, Hassan Fazaeli, Amir Ali Amini

Abstract:

Cracks in concrete pavements are places for the entrance of water and corrosive substances to the pavement, which can reduce the durability of concrete in the long term as well as the serviceability of road. The use of fibers in concrete pavement is one of the effective methods to control and mitigate cracking. This study investigates the effect of the addition of micro and macro polypropylene fibers in different types and volumes and also in combination with the mechanical properties of concrete used in concrete pavements, including compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, and average residual strength. The fibers included micro-polypropylene, macro-polypropylene, and hybrid micro and micro polypropylene in different percentages. The results showed that macro polypropylene has the most significant effect on improving the mechanical properties of concrete. Also, the hybrid micro and macro polypropylene fibers increase the mechanical properties of concrete more. It was observed that according to the results of the average residual strength, macro polypropylene fibers alone and together with micro polypropylene fibers could have excellent performance in controlling the sudden formation of cracks and their growth after the formation of cracking which is an essential property in concrete pavements.

Keywords: concrete pavement, mechanical properties, macro polypropylene fibers, micro polypropylene fibers

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9657 A Descriptive Study of ‎Translated Texts from Socio-Cultural Aspects ‎through Polysystem Theory and Patronage Framework

Authors: Reza Nozadheravi, Masoud Hasanzade Novin

Abstract:

Those techniques of translation which are engaged with short textual segments and mostly are prescriptive can be considered as micro level elements. Macro levels, however, refer to those translation strategies and those external factors that affect the translator’s decisions and have descriptive nature. What was scrutinized in details in the paper reveals the ‎macro-elements which are crucial in canonized translated texts, moreover, different aspects ‎of the patronage, which can be considered as the important factors from having the texts ‎chosen to the final translation products, have been observed in translated texts of Najaf ‎Darya-Bandarie, the well-known Iranian Translator. What is probed in this paper ‎reveals that marco-elements along with the linguistic aspects of the texts, micro-elements, ‎are considered as the significant aspects in translation process and even final translated ‎texts.

Keywords: canolized translated texts‎, culture‎, macro-elements‎, patronage

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
9656 Peak Data Rate Enhancement Using Switched Micro-Macro Diversity in Cellular Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois, Yvette Antar

Abstract:

With the exponential growth of cellular users, a new generation of cellular networks is needed to enhance the required peak data rates. The co-channel interference between neighboring base stations inhibits peak data rate increase. To overcome this interference, multi-cell cooperation known as coordinated multipoint transmission is proposed. Such a solution makes use of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems under two different structures: Micro- and macro-diversity. In this paper, we study the capacity and bit error rate in cellular networks using MIMO technology. We analyse both micro- and macro-diversity schemes and develop a hybrid model that switches between macro- and micro-diversity in the case of hard handoff based on a cut-off range of signal-to-noise ratio values. We conclude that our hybrid switched micro-macro MIMO system outperforms classical MIMO systems at the cost of increased hardware and software complexity.

Keywords: cooperative multipoint transmission, ergodic capacity, hard handoff, macro-diversity, micro-diversity, multiple-input-multiple output systems, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

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9655 Study on Influencing Factors of Walkability of Rail Transit Station Area

Authors: Yang Wenjuan, Xu Yilun

Abstract:

Based on the comparative analysis of the relevant evaluation methods of walking environment, this paper selects the combined evaluation method of macro urban morphology analysis and micro urban design quality survey, then investigates and analyzes the walking environment of three rail transit station area in Nanjing to explore the influence factor and internal relation of walkability of rail transit station area. Analysis shows that micro urban design factors have greater impact on the walkability of rail transit station area compared with macro urban morphology factors, the convenience is the key factor in the four aspects of convenience, security, identity and comfortability of the urban design factors, the convenience is not only affected by the block network form, but also related to the quality of the street space. The overall evaluation of walkability comes from the overlapping and regrouping of the walking environment at different levels, but some environmental factors play a leading role. The social attributes of pedestrians also partly influence their walking perception and evaluation.

Keywords: rail transit station area, walkability, evaluation, influence factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
9654 Effects of the Macro-Scale Investments/Projects to Planning System in Izmir

Authors: Neslihan Karatas, Sibel Ecemis Kilic

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine macro-scale plans and projects/investments which have been prepared for İzmir since The Republican Period. Macro projects that were proposed by central government, local government, industry and urban actors such as the chamber of commerce will be discussed and these projects and its reflections to the city's macro scale planning decisions will be evaluated based on existing development. Effects of macro plans, the related private and public investments, the developments of unplanned/specific projects to the current city form will be discussed. The factors and plans which determine urban form and the problems caused by unanticipated/uncontrolled developments will be evaluated. The proposals will be developed about more efficient planning process.

Keywords: Izmir, macro projects, macro investments, planning

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9653 Habits: Theoretical Foundations and a Conceptual Framework on a Managerial Trap and Chance

Authors: K. Piórkowska

Abstract:

The overarching aim of the paper is to incorporate the micro-foundations perspective in strategic management and offering possibilities to bridge the macro–micro divide, to review the concept of habits, as well as to propose research findings and directions in terms of further exploring the habit construct and its impact on higher epistemological level phenomena (for instance organizational routines, which is a domain inherently multilevel in nature). To realize this aim, the following sections have been developed: (1) habits’ origins, (2) habits – cognitive constellations, (3) interrelationships between habits and mental representations, intentions, (4) habits and organizational routines, and (5) habits and routines linkages with adaptation. The conclusions that have been made support recent and current studies linking the level of individual heterogeneous agents with the level of macro (organizational) outcomes.

Keywords: behaviorism, habits, micro-foundations, routines

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9652 Impact of Foliar Application of Zinc on Micro and Macro Elements Distribution in Phyllanthus amarus

Authors: Nguyen Cao Nguyen, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction of foliar applied zinc with other elements in Phyllanthus amarus plants. The plant samples for our experiment were collected from Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Seven suspension solutions of nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) with different Zn concentration were used. Fertilization and irrigation were the same for all variants. The Zn content and the content of selected micro (Cu, Fe, Mn) and macro (Ca, Mg, P and K) nutrients in plant roots, and stems and leaves were determined. It was concluded that the zinc content of plant roots varies narrowly, with no significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The same trend can be seen in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients. The zinc content of plant stems and leaves varies within wide limits, with the significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The trends in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients are kept the same as in the root, whereas the iron trends to increase its content at increasing the zinc content.

Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus, Zinc, Micro and macro elements, foliar fertilizer

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9651 Visualization of Flow Behaviour in Micro-Cavities during Micro Injection Moulding

Authors: Reza Gheisari, Paulo J. Bartolo, Nicholas Goddard

Abstract:

Polymeric micro-cantilevers (Cs) are rapidly becoming popular for MEMS applications such as chemo- and bio-sensing as well as purely electromechanical applications such as microrelays. Polymer materials present suitable physical and chemical properties combined with low-cost mass production. Hence, micro-cantilevers made of polymers indicate much more biocompatibility and adaptability of rapid prototyping along with mechanical properties. This research studies the effects of three process and one size factors on the filling behaviour in micro cavity, and the role of each in the replication of micro parts using different polymer materials i.e. polypropylene (PP) SABIC 56M10 and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Magnum 8434. In particular, the following factors are considered: barrel temperature, mould temperature, injection speed and the thickness of micro features. The study revealed that the barrel temperature and the injection speed are the key factors affecting the flow length of micro features replicated in PP and ABS. For both materials, an increase of feature sizes improves the melt flow. However, the melt fill of micro features does not increase linearly with the increase of their thickness.

Keywords: flow length, micro cantilevers, micro injection moulding, microfabrication

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9650 Computational Experiment on Evolution of E-Business Service Ecosystem

Authors: Xue Xiao, Sun Hao, Liu Donghua

Abstract:

E-commerce is experiencing rapid development and evolution, but traditional research methods are difficult to fully demonstrate the relationship between micro factors and macro evolution in the development process of e-commerce, which cannot provide accurate assessment for the existing strategies and predict the future evolution trends. To solve these problems, this paper presents the concept of e-commerce service ecosystem based on the characteristics of e-commerce and business ecosystem theory, describes e-commerce environment as a complex adaptive system from the perspective of ecology, constructs a e-commerce service ecosystem model by using Agent-based modeling method and Java language in RePast simulation platform and conduct experiment through the way of computational experiment, attempt to provide a suitable and effective researching method for the research on e-commerce evolution. By two experiments, it can be found that system model built in this paper is able to show the evolution process of e-commerce service ecosystem and the relationship between micro factors and macro emergence. Therefore, the system model constructed by Agent-based method and computational experiment provides proper means to study the evolution of e-commerce ecosystem.

Keywords: e-commerce service ecosystem, complex system, agent-based modeling, computational experiment

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9649 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

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9648 Longitudinal Vibration of a Micro-Beam in a Micro-Scale Fluid Media

Authors: M. Ghanbari, S. Hossainpour, G. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, longitudinal vibration of a micro-beam in micro-scale fluid media has been investigated. The proposed mathematical model for this study is made up of a micro-beam and a micro-plate at its free end. An AC voltage is applied to the pair of piezoelectric layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the micro-beam in order to actuate it longitudinally. The whole structure is bounded between two fixed plates on its upper and lower surfaces. The micro-gap between the structure and the fixed plates is filled with fluid. Fluids behave differently in micro-scale than macro, so the fluid field in the gap has been modeled based on micro-polar theory. The coupled governing equations of motion of the micro-beam and the micro-scale fluid field have been derived. Due to having non-homogenous boundary conditions, derived equations have been transformed to an enhanced form with homogenous boundary conditions. Using Galerkin-based reduced order model, the enhanced equations have been discretized over the beam and fluid domains and solve simultaneously in order to obtain force response of the micro-beam. Effects of micro-polar parameters of the fluid as characteristic length scale, coupling parameter and surface parameter on the response of the micro-beam have been studied.

Keywords: micro-polar theory, Galerkin method, MEMS, micro-fluid

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9647 Sample Preparation and Coring of Highly Friable and Heterogeneous Bonded Geomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Khoshini, Arman Khoshghalb, Meghdad Payan, Nasser Khalili

Abstract:

Most of the Earth’s crust surface rocks are technically categorized as weak rocks or weakly bonded geomaterials. Deeply weathered, weakly cemented, friable and easily erodible, they demonstrate complex material behaviour and understanding the overlooked mechanical behaviour of such materials is of particular importance in geotechnical engineering practice. Weakly bonded geomaterials are so susceptible to surface shear and moisture that conventional methods of core drilling fail to extract high-quality undisturbed samples out of them. Moreover, most of these geomaterials are of high heterogeneity rendering less reliable and feasible material characterization. In order to compensate for the unpredictability of the material response, either numerous experiments are needed to be conducted or large factors of safety must be implemented in the design process. However, none of these approaches is sustainable. In this study, a method for dry core drilling of such materials is introduced to take high-quality undisturbed core samples. By freezing the material at certain moisture content, a secondary structure is developed throughout the material which helps the whole structure to remain intact during the core drilling process. Moreover, to address the heterogeneity issue, the natural material was reconstructed artificially to obtain a homogeneous material with very high similarity to the natural one in both micro and macro-mechanical perspectives. The method is verified for both micro and macro scale. In terms of micro-scale analysis, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), pore spaces and inter-particle bonds were investigated and compared between natural and artificial materials. X-Ray Diffraction, XRD, analyses are also performed to control the chemical composition. At the macro scale, several uniaxial compressive strength tests, as well as triaxial tests, were performed to verify the similar mechanical response of the materials. A high level of agreement is observed between micro and macro results of natural and artificially bonded geomaterials. The proposed methods can play an important role to cut down the costs of experimental programs for material characterization and also to promote the accuracy of the numerical modellings based on the experimental results.

Keywords: Artificial geomaterial, core drilling, macro-mechanical behavior, micro-scale, sample preparation, SEM photography, weakly bonded geomaterials

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9646 Effects of Macro and Micro Nutrients on Growth and Yield Performances of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.)

Authors: K. M. S. Weerasinghe, A. H. K. Balasooriya, S. L. Ransingha, G. D. Krishantha, R. S. Brhakamanagae, L. C. Wijethilke

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a major horticultural crop with an estimated global production of over 120 million metric tons and ranks first as a processing crop. The average tomato productivity in Sri Lanka (11 metric tons/ha) is much lower than the world average (24 metric tons/ha).To meet the tomato demand for the increasing population the productivity has to be intensified through the agronomic-techniques. Nutrition is one of the main factors which govern the growth and yield of tomato and the main nutrient source soil affect the plant growth and quality of the produce. Continuous cropping, improper fertilizer usage etc., cause widespread nutrient deficiencies. Therefore synthetic fertilizers and organic manures were introduced to enhance plant growth and maximize the crop yields. In this study, effects of macro and micronutrient supplementations on improvement of growth and yield of tomato were investigated. Selected tomato variety is Maheshi and plants were grown in Regional Agricultural and Research Centre Makadura under the Department of Agriculture recommended (DOA) macro nutrients and various combination of Ontario recommended dosages of secondary and micro fertilizer supplementations. There were six treatments in this experiment and each treatment was replicated in three times and each replicate consisted of six plants. Other than the DOA recommendation, five combinations of Ontario recommended dosage of secondary and micronutrients for tomato were also used as treatments. The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design. All cultural practices were carried out according to the DOA recommendations. The mean data was subjected to the statistical analysis using SAS package and mean separation (Duncan’s Multiple Range test at 5% probability level) procedures. Secondary and micronutrients containing treatments significantly increased most of the growth parameters. Plant height, plant girth, number of leaves, leaf area index etc. Fruits harvested from pots amended with macro, secondary and micronutrients performed best in terms of total yield; yield quality; to pots amended with DOA recommended dosage of fertilizer for tomato. It could be due to the application of all essential macro and micro nutrients that rise in photosynthetic activity, efficient translocation and utilization of photosynthates causing rapid cell elongation and cell division in actively growing region of the plant leading to stimulation of growth and yield were caused. The experiment revealed and highlighted the requirements of essential macro, secondary and micro nutrient fertilizer supplementations for tomato farming. The study indicated that, macro and micro nutrient supplementation practices can influence growth and yield performances of tomato fruits and it is a promising approach to get potential tomato yields.

Keywords: macro and micronutrients, tomato, SAS package, photosynthates

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9645 Wobbled Laser Beam Welding for Macro-to Micro-Fabrication Process

Authors: Farzad Vakili-Farahani, Joern Lungershausen, Kilian Wasmer

Abstract:

Wobbled laser beam welding, fast oscillations of a tiny laser beam within a designed path (weld geometry) during the laser pulse illumination, opens new possibilities to improve the marco-to micro-manufacturing process. The present work introduces the wobbled laser beam welding as a robust welding strategy for improving macro-to micro-fabrication process, e.g., the laser processing for gap-bridging and packaging industry. The typical requisites and relevant equipment for the development of a wobbled laser processing unit are addressed, including a suitable laser source, light delivery system, optics, proper beam deflection system and the design geometry. In addition, experiments have been carried out on titanium plate to compare the results of wobbled laser welding with conventional pulsed laser welding. As compared to the pulsed laser welding, the wobbled laser welding offers a much greater fusion area (i.e. additional molten material) while minimizing the HAZ and provides a better confinement of the material microstructural changes.

Keywords: wobbled laser beam welding, wobbling function, beam oscillation, micro welding

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9644 Coupled Space and Time Homogenization of Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Composites

Authors: Sarra Haouala, Issam Doghri

Abstract:

In this work, a multiscale computational strategy is proposed for the analysis of structures, which are described at a refined level both in space and in time. The proposal is applied to two-phase viscoelastic-viscoplastic (VE-VP) reinforced thermoplastics subjected to large numbers of cycles. The main aim is to predict the effective long time response while reducing the computational cost considerably. The proposed computational framework is a combination of the mean-field space homogenization based on the generalized incrementally affine formulation for VE-VP composites, and the asymptotic time homogenization approach for coupled isotropic VE-VP homogeneous solids under large numbers of cycles. The time homogenization method is based on the definition of micro and macro-chronological time scales, and on asymptotic expansions of the unknown variables. First, the original anisotropic VE-VP initial-boundary value problem of the composite material is decomposed into coupled micro-chronological (fast time scale) and macro-chronological (slow time-scale) problems. The former is purely VE, and solved once for each macro time step, whereas the latter problem is nonlinear and solved iteratively using fully implicit time integration. Second, mean-field space homogenization is used for both micro and macro-chronological problems to determine the micro and macro-chronological effective behavior of the composite material. The response of the matrix material is VE-VP with J2 flow theory assuming small strains. The formulation exploits the return-mapping algorithm for the J2 model, with its two steps: viscoelastic predictor and plastic corrections. The proposal is implemented for an extended Mori-Tanaka scheme, and verified against finite element simulations of representative volume elements, for a number of polymer composite materials subjected to large numbers of cycles.

Keywords: asymptotic expansions, cyclic loadings, inclusion-reinforced thermoplastics, mean-field homogenization, time homogenization

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9643 Macro Corruption: A Conceptual Analysis of Its Dimensions and Forward and Backward Linkages

Authors: Ahmed Sakr Ashour, Hoda Saad AboRemila

Abstract:

An attempt was made to fill the gap in the macro analysis of corruption by suggesting a conceptual framework that differentiates four types of macro corruption: state capture, political, bureaucratic and financial/corporate. The economic consequences or forward linkages (growth, inclusiveness and sustainability of development) and macro institutional determinants constituting the backward linkages of each type were delineated. The research implications of the macro perspective and proposed framework were discussed. Implications of the findings for theory, research and reform policies addressing macro corruption issues were discussed.

Keywords: economic growth, inclusive growth, macro corruption, sustainable development

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9642 Factors Determining the Women Empowerment through Microfinance: An Empirical Study in Sri Lanka

Authors: Y. Rathiranee, D. M. Semasinghe

Abstract:

This study attempts to identify the factors influencing on women empowerment of rural area in Sri Lanka through micro finance services. Data were collected from one hundred (100) rural women involving self employment activities through a questionnaire using direct personal interviews. Judgment and Convenience Random sampling technique was used to select the sample size from three Divisional Secretariat divisions of Kandawalai, Poonakari and Karachchi in Kilinochchi District. The factor analysis was performed on fourteen (14) variables for screening and reducing the variables to identify the influencing factors on empowerment. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between the three empowerment factors and the impact of micro-finance on overall empowerment of rural women. The result of this study summarized the variables into three factors namely decision making, freedom to mobility and family support and which are positively associated with empowerment. In addition to this the value of adjusted R2 is 0.248 indicates that all the variables extracted can be explained 24.8% of the variation in the women empowerment through microfinance. Independent variables of these three factors have a positive correlation with women empowerment as well as significant values at 5 percent level.

Keywords: influencing factors, micro finance, rural women, women empowerment

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9641 The Relationship of Fast Food Consumption Preference with Macro and Micro Nutrient Adequacy Students of SMP Negeri 5 Padang

Authors: Widari

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the relationship of fast food consumption preferences with macro and micro nutrient adequacy students of SMP Negeri 5 Padang. This study used a cross sectional study conducted on 100 students of SMP Negeri 5 Padang. The variables studied were fast food preferences, nutrition adequacy macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber) and micro nutrients (sodium, calcium, iron). Confounding factor in this study was the physical activity level because it was considered quite affecting food consumption of students. Data collected by using a questionnaire food recall as many as 2 x 24 hours to see the history of the respondents eat at school day and on holidays. Then, data processed using software Nutrisurvey and Microsoft Excel 2010. The analysis was performed on samples that have low and medium category on physical activity. The physical activity was not analyzed with another variable to see the strength of the relationship between independent and dependent variables. So that, do restrictions on physical activity variables in an attempt to get rid of confounding in design. Univariate and bivariate analyzes performed using SPSS 16.0 for Windows with Kolmogrov-Smirnov statistical tests, confidence level = 95% (α = 0,05). Results of univariate analysis showed that more than 70% of respondents liked fast food. On average, respondents were malnourished macro; malnourished fiber (100%), carbohydrates (72%), and protein (56%), whereas for fat, excess intake of the respondents (41%). Furthermor, many respondents who have micronutrient deficiencies; 98% for sodium, 96% for iron, and 91% for calcium. The results of the bivariate analysis showed no significant association between fast food consumption preferences with macro and micro nutrient adequacy (p > 0,05). This happens because in the fact not all students who have a preference for fast food actually eat them. To study better in the future, it is expected sampling really like and eat fast food in order to obtain better analysis results.

Keywords: fast food, nutritional adequacy, preferences, students

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9640 Impact of ‎Foliar ‎Formulations of Macro and Micro Nutrients on ‎the ‎Tritrophic Association of Wheat Aphid ‎and Entomophagous Insects

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad J. Arif, Muhammad Arshad, Usman Shoukat

Abstract:

In Pakistan, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is seriously attacked by the wheat ‎aphid. Naturally, bio control agents play an important role in managing wheat aphid. However, association ‎among pest, natural enemies and host plant is highly affected by food resource ‎concentration and predator/parasitoid factor of any ecosystem. The present ‎study was conducted to estimate the effect of different dose levels of macro ‎and micronutrients on the aphid population and its entomophagous insect ‎on wheat and their tri-trophic association. The experiment was laid out in ‎RCBD with six different combinations of macro and micronutrients and a control treatment. The data was initiated from the second week of ‎the February till the maturity of the crop. Data regarding aphid population and ‎coccinellids counts were collected on weekly basis and subjected to analysis of ‎variance and mean comparison. The data revealed that aphid ‎population was at peak in the last week of March. Coccinellids population ‎increased side by side with aphid population and declined after second week of ‎April. Aphid parasitism was maximum 25% on recommended dose of Double and ‎Flasher and minimum 8.67% on control treatment. Maximum aphid population was observed on first April with 687.2 specimens. However, this maximum population was shown against the application of Double + Flasher treatment. The minimum aphid population was recorded after the application of HiK Gold + Flasher recommended dose on 15th April. The coccinellids population was at peak level at on 8th April and against the treatment double recommended dose of HiK gold + Flasher. Amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium percentage dry leaves ‎components was maximum (2.33, 0.18 and 2.62 % dry leaves. respectively) in ‎plots treated with recommended double dose mixture of Double + Flasher and ‎Hi-K Gold + Flasher while it was minimum (1.43, 0.12 and 1.77 dry leaves ‎respectively) in plots where no nutrients applied. The result revealed that maximum parasitism was at recommended level of micro and macro nutrients application.‎ Maximum micro nutrients zinc, copper, manganese, iron and boron found with values 46.67 ppm, 21.81 ppm, 62.35 ppm, 152.69 ppm and 36.78 respectively. The result also showed that Over application of macro and micro nutrients should be avoided because it do not help in pest control, conversely it may cause stress on plant. The treatment Double and Flasher recommended dose ratio is almost comparable with recommended dose and present studies confirm its usefulness on wheat.

Keywords: entomophagous insects, macro and micro nutrients, tri-trophic, wheat aphid

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9639 Nutritional Composition of Selected Wild Fruits from Minna Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: John O. Jacob, Abdullahi Mann, Olanrewaju I. Adeshina, Mohammed M. Ndamitso

Abstract:

Strychnos spinosa, Detarium microcarpum, Diospyros mespiliformis, Dialium guineese and Gardenia ternifolia are some of the wild fruits consume in the villages around Minna, Niger State. This investigation was conducted to assess the nutritional potentials of these fruits both for human consumption and for possible application in animal feed formulations. Standard analytical methods were employed in the determination of the various nutritional parameters. The proximate analysis results showed that the moisture contents ranged between (6.17-10.70%); crude fat (2.04-8.85%); crude protein (5.16-6.80%); crude fibre (7.23-19.65%); Ash (3.46-5.56%); carbohydrate (57.77-69.79%); energy value (284.49-407 kcal/mg); Vitamin C (7.2-39.93 mg/100g). The mineral analysis shows that the selected wild fruits could contribute considerable amount of both micro and macro elements to human nutrition potassium, sodium and calcium range between; potassium (343.27-764.71%); sodium (155.04-348.44%); calcium (52.47-101%). The macro element for the fruits pulp were in the order K>Na>Mg>Ca, hence, they could be included in diet to supplement daily nutrient requirement and in animal feed formulations. The domestication of these fruits is also encouraged.

Keywords: mineral, micro-elements, macro-elements, feed suppleme

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9638 Mitigating Urban Flooding through Spatial Planning Interventions: A Case of Bhopal City

Authors: Rama Umesh Pandey, Jyoti Yadav

Abstract:

Flooding is one of the waterborne disasters that causes extensive destruction in urban areas. Developing countries are at a higher risk of such damage and more than half of the global flooding events take place in Asian countries including India. Urban flooding is more of a human-induced disaster rather than natural. This is highly influenced by the anthropogenic factors, besides metrological and hydrological causes. Unplanned urbanization and poor management of cities enhance the impact manifold and cause huge loss of life and property in urban areas. It is an irony that urban areas have been facing water scarcity in summers and flooding during monsoon. This paper is an attempt to highlight the factors responsible for flooding in a city especially from an urban planning perspective and to suggest mitigating measures through spatial planning interventions. Analysis has been done in two stages; first is to assess the impacts of previous flooding events and second to analyze the factors responsible for flooding at macro and micro level in cities. Bhopal, a city in Central India having nearly two million population, has been selected for the study. The city has been experiencing flooding during heavy rains in monsoon. The factors responsible for urban flooding were identified through literature review as well as various case studies from different cities across the world and India. The factors thus identified were analyzed for both macro and micro level influences. For macro level, the previous flooding events that have caused huge destructions were analyzed and the most affected areas in Bhopal city were identified. Since the identified area was falling within the catchment of a drain so the catchment area was delineated for the study. The factors analyzed were: rainfall pattern to calculate the return period using Weibull’s formula; imperviousness through mapping in ArcGIS; runoff discharge by using Rational method. The catchment was divided into micro watersheds and the micro watershed having maximum impervious surfaces was selected to analyze the coverage and effect of physical infrastructure such as: storm water management; sewerage system; solid waste management practices. The area was further analyzed to assess the extent of violation of ‘building byelaws’ and ‘development control regulations’ and encroachment over the natural water streams. Through analysis, the study has revealed that the main issues have been: lack of sewerage system; inadequate storm water drains; inefficient solid waste management in the study area; violation of building byelaws through extending building structures ether on to the drain or on the road; encroachments by slum dwellers along or on to the drain reducing the width and capacity of the drain. Other factors include faulty culvert’s design resulting in back water effect. Roads are at higher level than the plinth of houses which creates submersion of their ground floors. The study recommends spatial planning interventions for mitigating urban flooding and strategies for management of excess rain water during monsoon season. Recommendations have also been made for efficient land use management to mitigate water logging in areas vulnerable to flooding.

Keywords: mitigating strategies, spatial planning interventions, urban flooding, violation of development control regulations

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9637 A Literature Review on Sustainability Appraisal Methods for Highway Infrastructure Projects

Authors: S. Kaira, S. Mohamed, A. Rahman

Abstract:

Traditionally, highway infrastructure projects are initiated based on their economic benefits, thereafter environmental, social and governance impacts are addressed discretely for the selected project from a set of pre-determined alternatives. When opting for cost-benefit analysis (CBA), multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) has been used as the default assessment tool. But this tool has been critiqued as it does not mimic the real-world dynamic environment. Indeed, it is because of the fact that public sector projects like highways have to experience intense exposure to dynamic environments. Therefore, it is essential to appreciate the impacts of various dynamic factors (factors that change or progress with the system) on project performance. Thus, this paper presents various sustainability assessment tools that have been globally developed to determine sustainability performance of infrastructure projects during the design, procurement and commissioning phase. Indeed, identification of the current gaps in the available assessment methods provides a potential to add prominent part of knowledge in the field of ‘road project development systems and procedures’ that are generally used by road agencies.

Keywords: dynamic impact factors, micro and macro factors, sustainability assessment framework, sustainability performance

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9636 Measurement of CES Production Functions Considering Energy as an Input

Authors: Donglan Zha, Jiansong Si

Abstract:

Because of its flexibility, CES attracts much interest in economic growth and programming models, and the macroeconomics or micro-macro models. This paper focuses on the development, estimating methods of CES production function considering energy as an input. We leave for future research work of relaxing the assumption of constant returns to scale, the introduction of potential input factors, and the generalization method of the optimal nested form of multi-factor production functions.

Keywords: bias of technical change, CES production function, elasticity of substitution, energy input

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9635 Study on the Relationship between the Emission Property of Barium-Tungsten Cathode and Micro-Area Activity

Authors: Zhen Qin, Yufei Peng, Jianbei Li, Jidong Long

Abstract:

In order to study the activity of the coated aluminate barium-tungsten cathodes during activation, aging, poisoning and long-term use. Through a set of hot-cathode micro-area emission uniformity study device, we tested the micro-area emission performance of the cathode under different conditions. The change of activity of cathode micro-area was obtained. The influence of micro-area activity on the performance of the cathode was explained by the ageing model of barium-tungsten cathode. This helps to improve the design and process of the cathode and can point the way in finding the factors that affect life in the cathode operation.

Keywords: barium-tungsten cathode, ageing model, micro-area emission, emission uniformity

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9634 Successes on in vitro Isolated Microspores Embryogenesis

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

The In Vitro isolated micro spore culture is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce doubled haploid plants in the short time. To deviate a micro spore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the micro spore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of micro spore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. As haploid single cells, micro spore became a strategy to achieve various objectives particularly in genetic engineering. In this study we would show the most recent advances in the producing haploid embryos via In Vitro isolated micro spore culture.

Keywords: haploid cells, In Vitro isolated microspore culture, success

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9633 Bounded Rational Heterogeneous Agents in Artificial Stock Markets: Literature Review and Research Direction

Authors: Talal Alsulaiman, Khaldoun Khashanah

Abstract:

In this paper, we provided a literature survey on the artificial stock problem (ASM). The paper began by exploring the complexity of the stock market and the needs for ASM. ASM aims to investigate the link between individual behaviors (micro level) and financial market dynamics (macro level). The variety of patterns at the macro level is a function of the AFM complexity. The financial market system is a complex system where the relationship between the micro and macro level cannot be captured analytically. Computational approaches, such as simulation, are expected to comprehend this connection. Agent-based simulation is a simulation technique commonly used to build AFMs. The paper proceeds by discussing the components of the ASM. We consider the roles of behavioral finance (BF) alongside the traditionally risk-averse assumption in the construction of agent's attributes. Also, the influence of social networks in the developing of agents’ interactions is addressed. Network topologies such as a small world, distance-based, and scale-free networks may be utilized to outline economic collaborations. In addition, the primary methods for developing agents learning and adaptive abilities have been summarized. These incorporated approach such as Genetic Algorithm, Genetic Programming, Artificial neural network and Reinforcement Learning. In addition, the most common statistical properties (the stylized facts) of stock that are used for calibration and validation of ASM are discussed. Besides, we have reviewed the major related previous studies and categorize the utilized approaches as a part of these studies. Finally, research directions and potential research questions are argued. The research directions of ASM may focus on the macro level by analyzing the market dynamic or on the micro level by investigating the wealth distributions of the agents.

Keywords: artificial stock markets, market dynamics, bounded rationality, agent based simulation, learning, interaction, social networks

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9632 Flow inside Micro-Channel Bounded by Superhydrophobic Surface with Eccentric Micro-Grooves

Authors: Yu Chen, Weiwei Ren, Xiaojing Mu, Feng Zhang, Yi Xu

Abstract:

The superhydrophobic surface is widely used to reduce friction for the flow inside micro-channel and can be used to control/manipulate fluid, cells and even proteins in lab-on-chip. Fabricating micro grooves on hydrophobic surfaces is a common method to obtain such superhydrophobic surface. This study utilized the numerical method to investigate the effect of eccentric micro-grooves on the friction of flow inside micro-channel. A detailed parametric study was conducted to reveal how the eccentricity of micro-grooves affects the micro-channel flow under different grooves sizes, channel heights, Reynolds number. The results showed that the superhydrophobic surface with eccentric micro-grooves induces less friction than the counter part with aligning micro-grooves, which means requiring less power for pumps.

Keywords: eccentricity, micro-channel, micro-grooves, superhydrophobic surface

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9631 Examining Ethiopian Banking Industry in Relation to Factors Affecting Profitability: From 2008 to 2012

Authors: Zelalem Zerihun

Abstract:

In this study, attempts were made to assess the bank-specific, industry-specific, and macro-economic factors affecting bank profitability. Data were collected from ten commercial banks in Ethiopia, covering the period of 2008-2012. A mixed method research approach was adopted for this research. Documentary analysis and in-depth interview were also used to substantiate the data. The study found out that capital strength, income diversification, bank size and gross domestic product are statistically significant and they have a positive relationship with banks’ profitability. However, operational efficiency and asset quality have a negative relationship with banks’ profitability. The relationship for liquidity risk, concentration and inflation were found to be statistically insignificant. The study revealed that focusing and reengineering the banks in light of the key internal drivers could enhance the profitability as well as the performance of the commercial banks in Ethiopia. In addition to this, the study suggests that banks in Ethiopia should not only be concerned about internal structures but also they must consider both the internal environment and the macro-economic environment in designing strategies to improve their profit or their performance.

Keywords: Ethiopian banking industry, macro-economic factors, documentary analysis, capital strength, income diversification

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9630 Towards the Integration of a Micro Pump in μTAS

Authors: Y. Haik

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to present a micro mechanical pump that was fabricated using SwIFT™ microfabrication surface micromachining process and to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating such micro pump into a micro analysis system. The micropump circulates the bio-sample and magnetic nanoparticles through different compartments to separate and purify the targeted bio-sample. This article reports the flow characteristics in the microchannels and in a crescent micro pump.

Keywords: crescent micropumps, microanalysis, nanoparticles, MEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 137