Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Nayeli Remigio-Alvarado

2 Antifungal Susceptibility of Yeasts Isolated from Clinical Samples from a Tertiary Hospital from State of Puebla

Authors: Ricardo Munguia-Perez, Nayeli Remigio-Alvarado, M.Miriam Hernandez-Arroyo, Elsa Castañeda-Roldan

Abstract:

Fungi have emerged as important pathogens causing morbidity and mortality mainly in immunosuppressed, malnourished and elderly patients. It has detected an increase in resistance to azoles primarily to fluconazol. The fungal infections have become a problem of public health for the resistance to antifungal agents, they have developed new antifungals with broad-spectrum. The aim of this study was determine the antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated from clinical samples (respiratory secretions, exudates, wounds, blood cultures, urine cultures) obtained from inpatients and outpatients of a tertiary hospital from State of Puebla. The antifungal susceptibility of the yeast from several clinical samples were determined by the CLS M44-A disk diffusion methods. 149 samples of yeast were analyzed. All species were 100% susceptible to nystatin and amphotericin B. Candida albicans showed resistance of 95.5 % to fluconazole, 50.7 % to 5-flurocytosine and 55.2 % intermediate susceptibility to ketoconazole. Candida glabrata 81.3 % was susceptibility to ketoconazole and 75 % to fluconazole, for the case of 5-flurocytosine the 56.3 % was susceptible. Candida krusei 100 % was susceptible to ketoconazole, 50 % to fluconazole and 37.5 % to 5-flurocytosine. The internal medicine have greater diversity of yeast, the samples have susceptibility of 64.7% to ketoconazole, 47.1 % to fluconazole and 27.5 % to 5-flurocytosine. Hospitalized patients are more resistant to fluconazole and nystatin, but in the case of outpatients presents resistance to ketoconazole.

Keywords: antifungal, susceptibility, yeast, clinical samples

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1 Effect of Self-Lubricating Carbon Materials on the Tribological Performance of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

Authors: Nayeli Camacho, Fernanda Lara-Perez, Carolina Ortega-Portilla, Diego G. Espinosa-Arbelaez, Juan M. Alvarado-Orozco, Guillermo C. Mondragon-Rodriguez

Abstract:

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the gold standard material for total knee replacements for almost five decades. Wear damage to UHMWPE articulating surface is inevitable due to the natural sliding and rolling movements of the knee. This generates a considerable amount of wear debris, which results in mechanical instability of the joint, reduces joint mobility, increases pain with detrimental biologic responses, and causes component loosening. The presence of wear particles has been closely related to adverse reactions in the knee joint surrounding tissue, especially for particles in the range of 0.3 to 2 μm. Carbon-based materials possess excellent mechanical properties and have shown great promise in tribological applications. In this study, diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to decrease the wear rate of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. A titanium doped DLC (Ti-DLC) was deposited by magnetron sputtering on stainless steel precision spheres while CNTs were used as a second phase reinforcement in UHMWPE at a concentration of 1.25 wt.%. A comparative tribological analysis of the wear of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-CNTs with a stainless steel counterpart with and without Ti-DLC coating is presented. The experimental wear testing was performed on a pin-on-disc tribometer under dry conditions, using a reciprocating movement with a load of 1 N at a frequency of 2 Hz for 100,000 and 200,000 cycles. The wear tracks were analyzed with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy to determine wear modes and observe the size and shape of the wear debris. Furthermore, profilometry was used to study the depth of the wear tracks and to map the wear of the articulating surface. The wear tracks at 100,000 and 200,000 cycles on all samples were relatively shallow, and they were in the range of average roughness. It was observed that the Ti-DLC coating decreases the mass loss in the UHMWPE and the depth of the wear track. The combination of both carbon-based materials decreased the material loss compared to the system of stainless steel and UHMWPE. Burnishing of the surface was the predominant wear mode observed with all the systems, more subtle for the systems with Ti-DLC coatings. Meanwhile, in the system composed of stainless steel-UHMWPE, the intrinsic surface roughness of the material was completely replaced by the wear tracks.

Keywords: CNT reinforcement, self-lubricating materials, Ti-DLC, UHMWPE tribological performance

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