Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1017

Search results for: eastern Nepal

1017 Lung Cancer Patients in Eastern Region of Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta

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The number of new cancer cases annually is estimated to rise from 10.9 million in 2002 to more than 16 million by 2020, if current trends continue. Much of this increase in absolute numbers derives from the ageing of populations worldwide. The objectives of this study were to find out the demographic characteristics of the admitted cancer patients in BPKIHS. It was hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted reviewing all the records of admitted diagnosed cancer patients in BPKIHS from 15th October 2004 to 14th October 2012. Using total enumerative sampling technique all 1379 diagnosed cancer patients record were reviewed after obtaining the permission from concerned authorities. Using SPSS-15 software package data was analyzed. It was found that majority (71%) of cancer patients were of age more than 40 years and equal of both sexes. Most of the clients were form Sunsari (31.1%), Morang (16.6%) and Jhapa (17%) districts. The mean hospitalization day is 8.32 and very few patients (5.2%) were only cured. The numbers of cancer patients are markedly increases in BPKIHS, especially in advanced stage. It is mandatory to start the cancer information and education programme in eastern region of Nepal and proper management of cancer patients using chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery at BPKIHS for quality patient care.

Keywords: lung, cancer, patients, Nepal

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1016 Opportunities of Clean Development Mechanism through Hydropower in Nepal

Authors: Usha Khatiwada

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Nepal’s overall energy baseline: It has been proposed that hydropower projects for domestic consumption can earn CDM revenue in Nepal if a new methodology is established that takes into account not only consumption in Nepal of grid electricity but also other fuels such as kerosene, diesel, and firewood, used by a vast majority of the population for their lighting and other needs. However, this would mean that we would be trying to combine grid electricity supply and consumers not supplied from the grid into one methodology. Such a sweeping baseline may have a very small chance of success with the CDM Executive Board.

Keywords: environment, clean development mechanism, hydropower, Nepal

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1015 Factors Affecting Nutritional Status of Elderly People of Rural Nepal: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Man Kumar Tamang, Uday Narayan Yadav

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Background and objectives: Every country in the world is facing a demographic challenge due to drastic growth of population over 60 years. Adequate diet and nutritional status are important determinants of health in elderly populations. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status among the elderly population and factors associated with malnutrition at the community setting in rural Nepal. Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study among elderly of age 60 years or above in the three randomly selected VDCs of Morang district in eastern Nepal, between August and November, 2016. A multi stage cluster sampling was adopted with sample size of 345 of which 339 participated in the study. Nutritional status was assessed by MNA tool and associated socio-economic, demographic, psychological and nutritional factors were checked by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 339 participants, 24.8% were found to be within normal nutritional status, 49.6% were at risk of malnutrition and 24.8% were malnourished. Independent factors associated with malnutrition status among the elderly people after controlling the cofounders in the bivariate analysis were: elderly who were malnourished were those who belonged to backward caste according to traditional Hindu caste system [OR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.17-6.21), being unemployed (OR=3.23, 95% CI: 1.63-6.41),who experienced any mistreatment from caregivers (OR=4.05, 95% CI: 1.90-8.60), being not involved in physical activity (OR=4.67, 95% CI: 1.87-11.66) and those taking medication for any co-morbidities. Conclusion: Many socio-economic, psychological and physiological factors affect nutritional status in our sample population and these issues need to be addressed for bringing improvement in elderly nutrition and health status.

Keywords: elderly, eastern Nepal, malnutrition, nutritional status

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1014 The Last of Centuries Old Cardamom Farming in Eastern Nepal: Crop Disease, Coping Strategies and Institutional Innovation

Authors: K. C. Sony

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This paper investigates the coping strategies of households confronting disease in large cardamom (Amomum Subulatum Roxb.) in eastern Nepal. Cardamom farmers draw on various coping strategies to reduce the impact of crop disease in their livelihoods. Yet farmers face tremendous decline in production with a constant effort for revival. Past evidences provides dearth of information about coping strategies employed by farmers and institutional intervention to combat disease. Using factual data from Ilam district, and conducting a political economic analysis, this research addresses the gap by 1) understanding the impact of crop disease in farmers’ livelihoods, 2) identifying the coping strategies adopted by farmers and, 3) examining the existing institutional arrangements to address the disease. Coping strategies vary by household’s status defined by size of land, alternative income, and access to supporting institutions. Measures adopted are burning the cardamom field, changing land use pattern, diversifying crops, and visiting institutions for support. The local government’s support is limited to providing trainings and producing new varieties of cardamom. During crisis, farmers expect institutions to help revive the cardamom production, despite customary practice to combat disease. To retain and improve the livelihoods of farmers, there needs to be institutional innovation at the community level and policies that endorse immediate and sustainable support during hazards.

Keywords: cardamom, coping strategy, disease, institutions, Nepal

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1013 Community Forestry Programme through the Local Forest Users Group, Nepal

Authors: Daniyal Neupane

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Establishment of community forestry in Nepal is a successful step in the conservation of forests. Community forestry programme through the local forest users group has shown its positive impacts in the society. This paper discusses an overview of the present scenario of the community forestry in Nepal. It describes the brief historical background, some important forest legislations, and organization of forest. The paper also describes the internal conflicts between forest users and district forest offices, and possible resolution. It also suggests some of the aspects of community forestry in which the research needs to be focused for the better management of the forests in Nepal.

Keywords: community forest, conservation of forest, local forest users group, better management, Nepal

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1012 Telephone Health Service to Improve the Quality of Life of the People Living with AIDS in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Naveen Kumar Pandey, Binod Kumar Deo

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Quality of Life (QOL) is an important component in the evaluation of the well-being of People Living with AIDS (PLWA). This study assessed the effectiveness of education intervention programme in improving the QOL of PLWA on ART attaining the ART-clinics at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Nepal. A pre-experimental research design was used to conduct the study among the PLWA on ART at BPKIHS from June to August 2013 involving 60 PLWA on pre-test randomly. The mean age of the respondents was 36.70 ± 9.92, and majority of them (80%) were of age group of 25-50 years and Male (56.7%). After education intervention programme there is significant change in the QOL in all the four domains i.e. Physical (p=0.008), Psychological (p=0.019), Social (p=0.046) and Environmental (p=0.032) using student t-test at 0.05 level of significance. There is significant (p= 0.016) difference in the mean QOL scores of pre-test and post-test. High QOL scores in post-test after education intervention programme may reflective of the effectiveness of planned education interventions programme.

Keywords: telephone, AIDS, health service, Nepal

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1011 Household Size and Poverty Rate: Evidence from Nepal

Authors: Basan Shrestha

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The relationship between the household size and the poverty is not well understood. Malthus followers advocate that the increasing population add pressure to the dwindling resource base due to increasing demand that would lead to poverty. Others claim that bigger households are richer due to availability of household labour for income generation activities. Facts from Nepal were analyzed to examine the relationship between the household size and poverty rate. The analysis of data from 3,968 Village Development Committee (VDC)/ municipality (MP) located in 75 districts of all five development regions revealed that the average household size had moderate positive correlation with the poverty rate (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.44). In a regression analysis, the household size determined 20% of the variation in the poverty rate. Higher positive correlation was observed in eastern Nepal (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.66). The regression analysis showed that the household size determined 43% of the variation in the poverty rate in east. The relation was poor in far-west. It could be because higher incidence of poverty was there irrespective of household size. Overall, the facts revealed that the bigger households were relatively poorer. With the increasing level of awareness and interventions for family planning, it is anticipated that the household size will decrease leading to the decreased poverty rate. In addition, the government needs to devise a mechanism to create employment opportunities for the household labour force to reduce poverty.

Keywords: household size, poverty rate, nepal, regional development

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1010 Pattern of Biopsy Proven Renal Disease and Association between the Clinical Findings with Renal Pathology in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Manish Subedi, Bijay Bartaula, Ashok R. Pant, Purbesh Adhikari, Sanjib K. Sharma

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Background: The pattern of glomerular disease varies worldwide. In absence of kidney disease/Kidney biopsy registry in Nepal, the exact etiology of different forms of glomerular disease is primarily unknown in our country. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 175 cases of renal biopsies performed from dated September 2014 to August 2016 at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Results: The commonest indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (34.9%), followed by Systemic lupus erythematosus with suspected renal involvement (22.3%). Majority of patients were in the 30-60 year bracket (57.2%), with the mean age of the patients being 35.37 years. The average number of glomeruli per core was 13, with inadequate sampling in 5.1%. IgA nephropathy (17%) was found to be the most common primary glomerular disease, followed by membranous nephropathy (14.6%) and FSGS (14.6%). The commonest secondary glomerular disease was lupus nephritis. Complications associated with renal biopsy were pain at biopsy site in 18% of cases, hematuria in 6% and perinephric hematoma in 4% cases. Conclusion: The commonest primary and secondary glomerular disease was IgA nephropathy and lupus nephritis respectively. The high prevalence of Systemic lupus erythematosus with lupus nephritis among Nepalese in comparison with other developing countries warrants further evaluation. As an initial attempt towards documentation of glomerular diseases in the national context, this study should serve as a stepping stone towards the eventual establishment of a full-fledged national registry of glomerular diseases in Nepal.

Keywords: glomerular, Nepal, renal biopsy, systemic lupus erythematoses

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1009 Lessons Learnt from Moment Magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake

Authors: Narayan Gurung, Fawu Wang, Ranjan Kumar Dahal

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Nepal is highly prone to earthquakes and has witnessed at least one major earthquake in 80 to 90 years interval. The Gorkha earthquake, that measured 7.8 RS in magnitude and struck Nepal on 25th April 2015, after 81 years since Mw 8.3 Nepal Bihar earthquake in 1934, was the largest earthquake after Mw 8.3 Nepal Bihar earthquake. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the lessons learnt from the MwW 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake. Several types of damage patterns in buildings were observed for reinforced concrete buildings, as well as for unreinforced masonry and adobe houses in the earthquake of 25 April 2015. Many field visits in the affected areas were conducted, and thus, associated failure and damage patterns were identified and analyzed. Damage patterns in non-engineered buildings, middle and high-rise buildings, commercial complexes, administrative buildings, schools and other critical facilities are also included from the affected districts. For most buildings, the construction and structural deficiencies have been identified as the major causes of failure; however, topography, local soil amplification, foundation settlement, liquefaction associated damages and buildings built in hazard-prone areas were also significantly observed for the failure or damages to buildings and hence are reported. Finally, the lessons learnt from Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake are presented in order to mitigate impacts of future earthquakes in Nepal.

Keywords: Gorkha earthquake, reinforced concrete structure, Nepal, lesson learnt

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1008 Ad Hocism Aiding Sufferings of Urban Refugees in Nepal: A Case Study of Pakistani Ahmadi Refugees

Authors: Shishir Lamichhane

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Nepal neither is a party to any international refugee instruments nor does it have a national legislation to govern the refugee concerns legislated in the international legal instruments. In the absence of both of these, Nepal has adopted a rather ad hoc approach to dealing with refugees. Whereas Nepali state’s ad hocism seems to be paying off well with prominent (and mainstream) refugee populations of Bhutanese and Tibetans, urban refugees like Pakistani Ahmadiyya refugees have been left mostly at the odds. This paper is an attempt to reflect how the ad hoc approach taken by the host country (Nepal) is resulting in the further persecution of the Pakistani Ahmadiyya refugees and is lined up with arguments about how the basic rights of these refugees are being violated in the absence of a proper law. Relevant information regarding urban refugees residing in Kathmandu has been gathered by applying Empirical Research Methodology, while the paper also reviews pertinent literature already available on the case of Ahmadiya community.

Keywords: Pakistan, Ahmadiya community, Nepal, urban refugees

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1007 PSS®E Based Modelling, Simulation and Synchronous Interconnection of Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India

Authors: Toushik Maiti, Saibal Chatterjee, Kamaljyoti Gogoi, Arijit Basuray

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Eastern Regional(ER) Grid and North Eastern Regional (NER) Grid are two major grids of Eastern Part of India. Both of the grid consists of voltage level 765kV, 400 kV, 220 kV and numerous buses at lower voltage range. Eastern Regional Grid and North Eastern Regional Grid are not only connected among themselves but are also connected to various other grids of India. ER and NER Grid having various HVDC lines or back to back systems which form the total network. The studied system comprises of 340 buses of different voltage levels and transmission lines running over a length of 32089 km. The validation of load flow has been done using IEEE STANDARD 30 bus system. The power flow simulation analysis has been performed after synchronizing both the Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India using Power System Simulators for Engineering (PSS®E) Important inferences has been drawn from the study.

Keywords: HVDC, load flow, PSS®E, unsymmetrical and symmetrical faults

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1006 The Scenario of Disaster Management in Nepal: A Case Study of Nepal Earthquakes, 2015

Authors: Sandesh Yadav

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Earthquake constitutes one of the most terrible natural hazards which often turn into a disaster or causing extensive devastation and loss of human lives and their properties. In the year 2015, Nepal experienced the most devastating earthquakes on 25th April, 2015 and 12th May, 2015 respectively. Several villages, towns, human constructions and their properties, lives were completely damaged. The hazardous effect of Nepal earthquakes depends not only on their magnitude of Richter Scale on intensity alone, but also on so many factors, such as geology of earth crust (lithology, elasticity, soil condition, permissible stress, rock structures etc.). The unscientifically and non-seismically designed buildings resulted in huge loss of life and property. Further, the loss due to earthquake can be grouped into three broad categories namely agriculture sector (loss of livestock, poultry and food stocks), industrial sector (mainly brick production industry) and infrastructural sector (transportation infrastructure). The present research study begins with the tracing of Geological history of earthquakes in Nepal along with identification of causes of Nepal earthquakes, 2015. Secondly, research study identifies the extent of tremors of earthquakes of 2015 in Nepal and surrounding areas along with their sphere of impact. Thirdly, the research study tries to assess the agricultural loss, industrial loss and infrastructural loss due to earthquakes in Nepal. Lastly, the research study ends with the various recommendations and suggestions in order to minimize the loss due to earthquakes in the future.

Keywords: earthquake, richter scale, sphere of impact, tremors

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1005 Dalit Struggle in Nepal: From Invoking Dalit to Becoming Part of the Nepalese Power

Authors: Mom Bishwakarma

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This research traces out how the Dalit in Nepal evolved from the early 1950s to the current day, from invoking Dalit against caste discrimination through to the asserting proportional representation in state structures. The research focused most closely on the formation of Dalit association and resistance, as well as on the different struggles throughout this period. It then discusses the expansion of Dalit movement in NGOs, its internationalization and responses. The research sees that Dalit movement has been influenced by its network with the national and international civil rights movement particularly Dalit movement in India and argues that Dalit movement in Nepal have in many ways, challenged the orthodox based caste stratification for Dalit equality and justice. It can be seen that at the same time as Dalit participation was increasing, divisions by caste line also emerged. Rather reshaping the power structures, Dalit movement encircled into division and contentious politics.

Keywords: Dalit, equality, justice, movements, Nepal

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1004 The UN Mediation in the Armed Conflict of Nepal and El Salvador: A Cross-Regional Comparative Perspective Study

Authors: Anu S. Krishna

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The paper tries to analyse the UN involvement/intervention in the case of intra-state armed conflict of El Salvador and Nepal comparatively. The peace mission in El Salvador is considered to be the most successful missions of UN ever since it started involving in the peace-building activities. Meanwhile, in the armed conflict of South Asian country, Nepal, the result seemed to be disappointing in comparison with its counterpart. The study on this paper takes three variables as the success or failure of international mediation, i.e., a) signing of the peace agreement, b) disarmament/demobilization and c) constitutional mechanism. A significant amount of scholarship looks at the case of ONUSAL (United Nations Mission in El Salvador). Meanwhile, the armed conflict of Nepal and the role of UNMIN (United Nations Mediation in Nepal) are under researched so far. The paper thus tries to throw light on these cross-regional contexts that share certain similarities and dissimilarities in the nature of conflict. In addition, the international third-party involvement and their way of approaching both the cases differ, which again affected the mediation outcome. The paper tries to argue that, since the approach of the UN led international mediation in theses peace missions were contextual and varied from case to case, thus, finally affected the mediation outcome too.

Keywords: Nepal, UNMIN, El Salvador, ONUSAL, international mediation, armed conflict

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1003 Genesis and Achievements of Madhesh Movement in Nepal

Authors: Deepak Chaudhary

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The main objective of the study is to explore the genesis and achievements of the Madhesh movement. Madhesh Movement is a social movement that brought massive political changes and contributed a lot to the nation-building process in the modern history of Nepal. This movement erupted in January 2007 in the Tarai/Madhesh region following the promulgation of the Interim Constitution that left the incorporation of federalism and proportional representation in the Constitution. The most excluded community in Nepal- Madheshi community, seemed to have angered against state-sponsored discrimination and exclusion that have been occurred for centuries. Since Madheshis were treated as non-Nepali, though the history of Nepal’s Tarai/Madhesh has been ancient. In the beginning, this movement was against Maoist, but later, it went against the state's prejudices and discriminations. It extended across the Tarai/Madhesh region of Nepal for a month. The movement was spontaneous to a large extent. A researcher himself is a witness to the movement. Key Informant Interviews with participants, including politicians, journalists, and activists, have mainly carried out for the study. This movement ensured Madheshi identity first. Secondly, the number of electoral constituencies was increased as it reached 120 in Tarai/Madhesh while it was 80 only. As a result, Madheshi representation in the Constitution Assembly reached 35 %, while it was 20% only. The main thing that this movement played a major role in ensuring the federalism as a political system in Nepal.

Keywords: dignity, exclusion, federalism, inclusion, Madhesh movement, nation-building

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1002 Ocular Manifestations and Biometrics in Marfan’s Syndrome from Eastern Nepal

Authors: Rinkal Suwal, Simanta Khadka, Purushottam Joshi

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Purpose: To evaluate the ocular characteristics of Marfan’s syndrome (MFS), fulfilling the revised Ghent-2 nosology in Eastern Nepal. Methods: A hospital-based observational and cross-sectional study was conducted. Ocular manifestations and biometrics were incorporated. Patients were subdivided into adults (16 years or older) and children (5-15 years). Ocular biometric parameters consisted of values of refractive error, keratometry readings, anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT), lens thickness (LT) and axial length (AL). Results: A total of 34 eyes of 17 patients with MFS were included, where 32 eyes were phakic. The mean age of the study participants was 14.5 ± 9.1 years. The mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of phakic eyes was 0.99 ± 0.82 LogMAR. Myopia greater than -3 Diopters (D) was present in 28/34 (82.35%) eyes. The average spherical equivalent was -12.34 ± 8.85 D. Ectopia lentis (EL) was present in 24/32 (75%) eyes where superonasal was the most common subluxation in 10/24 (41.7%) eyes. AL was longer in adults, 26.54 ± 4.42 mm, compared to 25.21 ± 1.93 mm in children. Likewise, LT in adults was 4.9 ± 0.70 mm and 4.40 ± 0.59 mm in pediatric participants. Flat corneas were noted in both the groups with an average of 41.53 ± 2.21 D. The mean CCT and ACD were 524.62 ± 21.74 μm and 3.64 ± 0.80 mm respectively. There was a negative association between the AL and the average corneal curvature (Kmed, correlation coefficient -0.11, p = 0.54). Conclusion: Myopia is the foremost ocular involvement with significant visual disability in MFS. Though AL and corneal curvature are not included in revised Ghent-2 nosology, we strongly recommend these parameters to be considered during ophthalmic evaluation in suspected and diagnosed cases of MFS in the absence of genetic testing.

Keywords: corneal astigmatism, ectopia lentis, flattened cornea, Marfan’s syndrome, ocular biometry

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1001 Slow pace towards Teaching Mathematical Science in Nepal: A Historical Perspective

Authors: Dammar Bahadur Adhikari

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Mathematics teaching begins with human civilization. The rular used to choose mathematician as prime adviser in many tribes and country. Mathematics was powerful tool for understanding economial situation and strength of rular. In ancient Nepal teaching of mathematics starts with informal education provided by religious leaders there after in modern education system seems to follow the world’s educational system. The aim of this paper is to present a brief historical background of the Nepalese mathematicians up to nineteenth century and highlight the transformation in mathematical science in the line with modern world. Secondary data and formal papers and informal publications were studied to explore the present situation of education. The study concluded that there is remarcable change in quality of education and there are sufficient human powers in the mathematical sciences in Nepal.

Keywords: human development, mathematics, Nepal, science, traditional

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1000 Political Transition in Nepal: Challenges and Limitations to Post-Conflict Peace-Building

Authors: Sourina Bej

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Since the process of decolonization in 1940, several countries in South Asia have witnessed intra-state conflicts owing to ineffective political governance. The conflicts have remained protracted as the countries have failed to make a holistic transition to a democratic state. Nepal is one such South Asian country facing a turmultous journey from monarchy to republicanism. The paper aims to focus on the democratic transition in the context of Nepal’s political, legal and economic institutions. The presence of autocratic feudalistic and centralised state structure with entrenched socio-economic inequalities has resulted in mass uprising only to see the country slip back to the old order. Even a violent civil war led by the Maoists could not overhaul the political relations or stabilize the democratic space. The paper aims to analyse the multiple political, institutional and operational challenges in the implementation of the peace agreement with the Maoist. Looking at the historical background, the paper will examine the problematic nation-building that lies at the heart of fragile peace process in Nepal. Regional dynamics have played a big role in convoluting the peace-building. The new constitution aimed at conflict resolution brought to the open, deep seated hatred among different ethnic groups in Nepal. Apart from studying the challenges to the peace process and the role of external players like India and China in the political reconstruction, the paper will debate on a viable federal solution to the ethnic conflict in Nepal. If the current government fails to pass a constitution accepted by most ethnic groups, Nepal will remain on the brink of new conflict outbreaks.

Keywords: democratisation, ethnic conflict, Nepal, peace process

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999 Nepal Himalaya: Status of Women, Politics, and Administration

Authors: Tulasi Acharya

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The paper is a qualitative analysis of status of women and women in politics and administration in Nepal Himalaya. The paper reviews data of women in civil service and in administrative levels. Looking at the Nepali politics and administration from the social constructivist perspective, the paper highlights some social and cultural issues that have othered women as “second sex.” As the country is heading towards modernity, gender friendly approaches are being instituted. Although the data reflects on the progress on women’s status and on women’s political and administrative participation, the data is not enough to predict the democratic gender practices in political and administrative levels. The political and administrative culture of Nepal Himalaya should be changed by promoting gender practices and deconstructing gender images in administrative culture through representative bureaucracy and by introducing democratic policies.

Keywords: politics, policy, administration, culture, women, Nepal, democracy

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998 Snow Leopard Conservation in Nepal: Peoples` Perception on the Verge of Rural Livelihood

Authors: Bishnu Prasad Devkota

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Peoples` perception is reflected in their attitudes and presumably their behavior towards wildlife conservation. The success of wildlife conservation initiatives in the mountains of Nepal is heavily dependent on local people. Therefore, Nepal has emphasized the involvement of local people in wildlife conservation, especially in the mountainous region. Local peoples` perception towards snow leopard conservation in six mountainous protected area of Nepal was carried out conducting 300 household surveys and 90 face to face key informant interviews. The average livestock holding was 27.74 animals per household with depredation rate of 10.6 % per household per annum. Livestock was the source of 32.74% of the total mean annual income of each household. In average, the economic loss per household per annum due to livestock depredation was US $ 490. There was significant difference in people´s perception towards snow leopard conservation in protected areas of mountainous region of Nepal. These differences were due to economic, educational and cultural factors. 54.4% local people showed preference for snow leopard conservation. The perception of local people toward snow leopard was significantly difference by the economic status of local people. Involvement of local people in conservation activities had positive impact towards wildlife conservation in the mountain region of Nepal. Timely introducing incentive programs can be a supportive way for sustaining the conservation of snow leopards in the Nepalese Himalayas.

Keywords: economic loss, livestock depredation, local people, perception, snow leopard

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997 An Eastern Philosophical Dimension of an English Language Teacher's Professionalism: A Narrative Analysis

Authors: Siddhartha Dhungana

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This article primarily explores dimensions in English language teacher's professionalism so that a teacher could reflect and make a strategic professional devotion to implement effective educational programs for the present and the future. The paper substantially incorporates the eastern Hindu practices, especially life values from the Bhagavad Gita, as a basis of teacher’s professional enrichment. Basically, it applies three categorical practices, i.e., Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga, in teachers’ professionality to illustrate, ignite further ahead and sharpen academic journey, professional journey, and professional devotion reflecting common practices. In this journey, a teacher comes to a stage of professional essence as s/he surpasses Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga with their basic quality formation. To illustrate their essence-making process, the three narrative stories for each category mentioned above are analyzed. The data collected from a research participant who has a high level of professional success and who inspires all English Language teachers in Nepal to develop stories for narrative analysis. The narrative analysis is based on eastern themes that are supported by Vygotsky's concept of developmental psychology. Moreover, the structural analysis is based on Gary Barkhuizen's narrative analysis.

Keywords: Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Vygotsky's concepts, narrative analysis

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996 A Review on the Challenge and Need of Goat Semen Production and Artificial Insemination in Nepal

Authors: Pankaj K. Jha, Ajeet K. Jha, Pravin Mishra

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Goat raising is a popular livestock sub-commodity of mixed farming system in Nepal. Besides food and nutritional security, it has an important role in the economy of many peoples. Goat breeding through AI is commonly practiced worldwide. It is a very basic tool to speed up genetic improvement and increase productivity. For the goat genetic improvement program, the government of Nepal has imported some specialized exotic goat breeds and semen. Some progress has been made in the initiation of selective breeding within the local breeds and practice of AI with imported semen. Importance of AI in goats has drawn more attention among goat farmers. However, importing semen is not a permanent solution at national level; rather, it is more important to develop and establish its own frozen semen production technique. Semen quality and its relationship with fertility are said to be a major concern in animal production, hence accurate measurement of semen fertilizing potential is of great importance. The survivability of sperm cells depends on semen quality. Survivability of sperm cells is assessed through visual and microscopic evaluation of spermatozoal progressive motility and morphology. In Nepal, there is lack of scientific information on seminal attributes of buck semen, its dilution, cooling and freezing technique under management conditions of Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this review was to provide brief information about breeding system, semen production and artificial insemination in Nepalese goat.

Keywords: artificial insemination, goat, Nepal, semen

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995 Occupational Health Hazards of Itinerant Waste Buyers (IWBs) in Kathmandu, Nepal

Authors: Ashish Khanal, Suja Giri

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The scrap collection work is associated with multiple health hazards. Cut and scratches during collection and transportation of scraps are common. IWBs purchase the scraps mainly papers, cartoons, glass bottles and metals from the households. This study was conducted in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. The location was chosen because Kathmandu is the biggest city of Nepal with highest number of IWBs. The research used a case study strategy to examine the occupational health hazards of IWBs. The only mode of collecting and transporting of scraps in Kathmandu is the bicycle. They have to do this regular work even during the scorching sun and chilled winter. The musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal disorders are the common health problem shared by IWBs in Kathmandu, Nepal. Despite of these problems, IWBs don’t take it seriously and rarely goes for the health check-up. There is need of personal protective equipment and guidance for safety of IWBs. IWBs need to wear closed shoes and use gloves to avoid cuts during the collection and transportation of the recyclables.

Keywords: itinerant waste buyers, Kathmandu, occupational health, scrap

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994 Accessible Tourism: A Novel Idea for Promoting Tourism in Nepal

Authors: Pankaj Pradhananga

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Inclusive Tourism is a relatively new topic in Nepal. Though the effort of creating accessible and inclusive tourism has already begun, it is still in its infancy. A major concern for Destination Nepal is the lack of awareness and absence of mandatory law in place to encourage Tourism operating sectors for coming up with accessible Tourism products. Given the number economic and social benefits to may be derived from inclusive tourism, it is a critical time for the tourism industry to understand and develop measures towards inclusivity in the gateway to Himalaya. Nepal was struck with a devastating earthquake on April 25th, 2015 which concurrently left more than 4,000 Nepalese with physical disabilities. Nepal has had to rebuild and is continuing to rebuild a lot of infrastructure and the process of rebuilding should be barrier free and use universal design measures. With universal design in place, this would allow access for minority groups such as people with disabilities and the elderly to the historic monuments in Kathmandu valley. Four Seasons Travel ( 4ST) has been a key player in not only creating accessible tourism experiences in Nepal, but also promoting accessible tourism to other tourism operators. Dr. Scott Rains had worked closely with 4ST on accessible tourism. Additionally, it organised an accessible trek which was field tested with a traveler with vision impairment in August 2015. Another accessible trekking experience, in partnership with Washington DC based International Development Institute, was coined as ‘Wounded Heroes Trek to Nepal’, where a group of Veterans that are amputees went trekking in the Annapurna Region. The event made it to the list of UNWTO World Tourism Day celebrations. Such initiatives led by private sector in partnership with various organizations have worked to create a ‘Destination Nepal for all’. However, there is still a lot of work that needs to be done to make Nepal a truly inclusive destination. Partnerships between the private sector and DPOs ( Disabled People’s Organizations) as well as the government are also a sound opportunity for employment creation for people with disabilities. Further, partnerships between the state, tourism service providers and DPOs need to be fostered to create job opportunities for people with disabilities. This can be exemplified through the social Entrepreneurship model with the help of accessible Tourism.

Keywords: accessible tourism, disability, earthquake, inclusion

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993 Skin Diseases in the Rural Areas in Nepal; Impact on Quality of Life

Authors: Dwarika P. Shrestha, Dipendra Gurung, Rushma Shrestha, Inger Rosdahl

Abstract:

Introduction: Skin diseases are one of the most common health problems in Nepal. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of skin diseases and impact on quality of life in rural areas in Nepal. Materials and methods: A house-to-house survey was conducted, to obtain socio-demographic data and identify individuals with skin diseases, followed by health camps, where the villagers were examined. A pilot study was conducted in one village, which was then extended to 10 villages in 4 districts. To assess the impact on quality of life, the villagers were interviewed with Skin Disease Disability Index. This is a questionnaire developed and validated by the authors for use in Nepal. Results: In the pilot study, the overall prevalence of skin diseases was 20.1% (645/3207). In the additional 10 villages with 7348 (3651/3787 m/f) inhabitants, 1862 (721/1141 m/f, mean age 31.4 years) had one or more skin diseases. The overall prevalence of skin diseases was 25%. The most common skin disease categories were eczemas (13.7%, percentage among all inhabitants) pigment disorders (6.8%), fungal infections (4.9%), nevi (3.7%) and urticaria (2.9%). These five most common skin disease categories comprise 71% of all skin diseases seen in the study. The mean skin disease disability index score was 13.7, indicating very large impact on the quality of life. Conclusions: This population-based study shows that skin diseases are very common in the rural areas of Nepal and have significant impact on quality of life. Targeted intervention at the primary health care level should help to reduce the health burden due to skin diseases.

Keywords: prevalence and pattern of skin diseases, impact on quality of life, rural Nepal, interventions

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992 An Evaluation of People’s Susceptibility to Phishing Attacks in Nepal and Effectiveness of the Applied Countermeasures

Authors: Sunil Chaudhary, Rajendra Bahadur Thapa, Eleni Berki, Marko Helenius

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The increasing number of Internet and mobile phone users, and essentially those, who use these electronic media to perform online transactions makes Nepal lucrative for phishing attacks. It is one of the reasons behind escalating phishing attacks in the country. Therefore, in this paper we examine various phishing attempts and real scenarios in Nepal to determine the seriousness of the problem. We also want to find out how prepared are the Internet and mobile phone users and how well-equipped are the private sector and government authorities responsible to handle cybercrime in the country. We considered five areas of research study, i.e., legal measures, technical and procedural measures, organizational structure, capacity building and international cooperation. These constitute important factors in cyber security and are recommended by the Global Cyber security Agenda (GCA). On the basis of our findings, we provide essential suggestions to make anti-phishing measures more appropriate to Nepalese State and society.

Keywords: internet banking, mobile banking, e-commerce, phishing, anti-phishing, Nepal

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991 Migration and Displacement: A Study on the Impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali Migration to North-Eastern India

Authors: Sri Mahan Borah

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The issue of migration and displacement is considered so sensitive that states have often linked it with their sovereignty, independence and even existence. Therefor, even in the era of globalisation no nation-state is ready to compromise with its territorial boundaries. The problem of migration and displacement has generated a range of socio-political, economic, ethnic, and communal tensions in India in general and northeastern States in particular. In such situation it becomes unpreventable to look over the issue so that a viable elucidation may emerge. The present paper is an attempt to understand the impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali migration to North-Eastern states of India through historical and analytical methods. In this course it will look into the emergence of the migration and displacement problem, its causes, impacts on security and other issues of national interest especially when the migration is illegal and poses multi-layered challenges to the Indian state. The nature of migration from these countries to India has been dissimilar. This is because of their different historical backgrounds, geographical variants, ethno-religious affinities, political systems and bilateral arrangements with India. It concludes inter alia that, India’s borders with Bangladesh and Nepal must be regulated and that resident migrants need to be strategically dealt with, keeping in mind age-old relationships with these countries and, more importantly, the nature and construct of our geography.

Keywords: migration, displacement, North-East, India

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990 Role of Community Forestry to Address Climate Change in Nepal

Authors: Laxmi Prasad Bhattarai

Abstract:

Climate change is regarded as one of the most fundamental threats to sustainable livelihood and global development. There is a growing global concern in linking community-managed forests as potential climate change mitigation projects. This study was conducted to explore local people’s perception on climate change and the role of community forestry (CF) to combat climate change impacts. Two active community forest user groups (CFUGs) from Kaski and Syangja Districts in Nepal were selected as study sites, and various participatory tools were applied to collect primary data. Although most of the respondents were unaware about the words “Climate Change” in study sites, they were quite familiar with the irregularities in rainfall season and other weather extremities. 60% of the respondents had the idea that, due to increase in precipitation, there is a frequent occurrence of erosion, floods, and landslide. Around 85% of the people agreed that community forests help in stabilizing soil, reducing the natural hazards like erosion, landslide. Biogas as an alternative source of cooking energy, and changes in crops and their varieties are the common adaptation measures that local people start practicing in both CFUGs in Nepal.

Keywords: community forestry, climate change, global warming, adaptation, Nepal

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989 Prevalence and Determinants of Depression among Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Child Care Homes in Nepal

Authors: Kumari Bandana Bhatt, Navin Bhatt

Abstract:

Background: Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are high risk of physical, mental, sexual and emotional abuse and face social stigma and discrimination which significantly increase the risk of mental and behavioral disorders such as anxiety, depression or emotional problems even they stay in well run child care homes. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and determine the determinants among OVC in child care homes in Nepal. Methods: An institutional-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in twenty orphanages of five districts of Nepal. Six hundred two children were recruited into the study. After the informed consent form obtaining, the guardian and assent were interviewed by a semi-structured questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Logistic regression was used for detecting the association between variables at the significant level of =0.05. Results: The study revealed that 33.20% of OVC had depression. Among them 66.80% of children experienced minimal depression, 17.40% had mild depression, 11.30% had moderate depression 4.50% had severe depression. Sex, alcohol drinking, congenital problem, social support and bully were the main variables associated with depression among OVC of the child care homes in Nepal. Conclusion: Prevalence of depression was high among the orphans and vulnerable children living in child care homes especially among the female children in Nepal. Therefore, early identification and instituting of preventive measures of depression are essential to reduce this problem in this special group of children living in child care homes.

Keywords: Mental health, Depression, Orphans and vulnerable children, child care homes

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988 The Role of Community Forestry to Combat Climate Change Impacts in Nepal

Authors: Ravi Kumar Pandit

Abstract:

Climate change is regarded as one of the most fundamental threats to sustainable livelihood and global development. There is growing a global concern in linking community-managed forests as potential climate change mitigation projects. This study was conducted to explore the local people’s perception on climate change and the role of community forestry (CF) to combat climate change impacts. Two active community forest user groups (CFUGs) from Kaski and Syangja Districts in Nepal were selected as study sites, and various participatory tools were applied to collect primary data. Although most of the respondents were unaware about the words “Climate Change” in study sites, they were quite familiar with the irregularities in rainfall season and other weather extremities. 60% of the respondents had the idea that, due to increase in precipitation, there is a frequent occurrence of erosion, floods and landslide. Around 85% of the people agreed that community forests help in stabilizing soil, reducing the natural hazards like erosion, landslide. Biogas as an alternative source of cooking energy, and changes in crops and their varieties are the common adaptation measures that local people start practicing in both CFUGs in Nepal.

Keywords: climate change, community forestry, global warming, adaptation in Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 184