Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: mutagenicity

14 Investigation of Mutagenicity and DNA Binding Properties of Metal-Free and Metallophthalocyanines Containing α-Napththolbenzein Groups on the Peripheral Positions

Authors: Meltem Betül Sağlam, Halil İbrahim Güler, Aykut Sağlam


In this work, phthalocyanine compounds containing α-naphtholbenzeinunits have been synthesized. Mutagenicity and DNA binding properties of the compounds were investigated by Salmonella/Microsome Assay and spectrophotometer. According to the results of the preliminary range finding tests, the compounds gave no toxic effect to all tester strain S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 at doses of 500, 1100, 350, 500 and 750 µg/plate in the presence and absence of S9, respectively. This study showed that all compounds exhibited efficient DNA-binding activity. In conclusion, these non-toxic compounds may be used as effective DNA dyes for molecular biology studies.

Keywords: dye, mutagenicity, phthalocyanine, toxicity

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13 Mutagenicity Evaluation of Locally Produced Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Using Ames Test

Authors: Nur Fathin Alia Che Wahab, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Zuliani Mahmood, Ismail Ab. Rahman, Hanafi Ismail


Locally produced Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) which is a promising material for dentin and bone regeneration as well as in tissue engineering applications. The study was carried out to investigate the mutagenic effect of locally produced BCP using Ames test. Mutagenicity was evaluated with and without the addition of metabolic activation system (S9). This study was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA102, TA1537, and TA1538 strains using preincubation assay method. The doses tested were 5000, 2500, 1250, 625, 313 µg/plate. Negative and positive controls were also included. The bacteria were incubated for 48 hours at 37 ± 0.5 °C. Then, the revertant colonies were counted. Data obtained were evaluated using non-statistical method. The mean number of revertant colonies in strains with and without S9 mix treated with locally produced BCP was less than double when compared to negative control for all the tested concentrations. The results from this study indicate that the locally produced BCP is non-mutagenic under the present test conditions.

Keywords: ames test, biphasic calcium phosphate, dentin regeneration, mutagenicity

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12 Toxicological Analysis of Some Plant Combinations Used for the Treatment of Hypertension by Lay People in Northern Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Mmbulaheni Ramulondi, Sandy Van Vuuren, Helene De Wet


The use of plant combinations to treat various medical conditions is not a new concept, and it is known that traditional people do not only rely on a single plant extract for efficacy but often combine various plant species for treatment. The knowledge of plant combinations is transferred from one generation to the other in the belief that combination therapy may enhance efficacy, reduce toxicity, decreases adverse effects, increase bioavailability and result in lower dosages. However, combination therapy may also be harmful when the interaction is antagonistic, since it may result in increasing toxicity. Although a fair amount of research has been done on the toxicity of medicinal plants, there is very little done on the toxicity of medicinal plants in combination. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity potential of 19 plant combinations which have been documented as treatments of hypertension in northern KwaZulu-Natal by lay people. The aqueous extracts were assessed using two assays; the Brine shrimp assay (Artemia franciscana) and the Ames test (Mutagenicity). Only one plant combination (Aloe marlothii with Hypoxis hemerocallidea) in the current study has been previously assessed for toxicity. With the Brine shrimp assay, the plant combinations were tested in two concentrations (2 and 4 mg/ml), while for mutagenicity tests, they were tested at 5 mg/ml. The results showed that in the Brine shrimp assay, six combinations were toxic at 4 mg/ml. The combinations were Albertisia delagoensis with Senecio serratuloides (57%), Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (98%), Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea (66%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (89%), Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (99%) and Aloe marlothii with Trichilia emetica and Hyphaene coriacea (50%). However when the concentration was reduced to 2 mg/ml, only three combinations were toxic which were Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (76%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (66%) and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (73%). For the mutagenicity assay, only the combinations between Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina were mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Most of the combinations which were toxic involve C. roseus which was also toxic when tested singularly. It is worth noting that C. roseus was one of the most frequently used plant species both to treat hypertension singularly and in combination and some of the individuals have been using this for the last 20 years. The mortality percentage of the Brine shrimp showed a significant correlation between dosage and toxicity thus toxicity was dosage dependant. A combination which is worth noting is the combination between A. delagoensis and S. serratuloides. Singularly these plants were non-toxic towards Brine shrimp, however their combination resulted in antagonism with the mortality rate of 57% at the total concentration of 4 mg/ml. Low toxicity was mostly observed, giving some validity to combined use, however the few combinations showing increased toxicity demonstrate the importance of analysing plant combinations.

Keywords: dosage, hypertension, plant combinations, toxicity

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11 Effect of Water Activity, Temperature, and Incubation Time on Growth and Ochratoxin a Production by Aspergillus fresenii and Aspergillus sulphureus on Niger Seeds

Authors: Yung-Chen Hsu, Juan Hernandez, W. T. Evert Ting, Dawit Gizachew


Mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds poses a high risk for human and animal health. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a ubiquitous mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. It exhibits nephrotoxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and immunotoxicity in both humans and animals. OTA has been detected in foods such as cereals, coffee, grapes, cocoa, wine, and spices. Consumption of food contaminated with OTA has been linked to kidney and liver diseases. Niger (Guizotia abyssinica) is an oil seed that is used for extracting cooking oil in countries like Ethiopia and India. The seed cake (a byproduct from oil extraction) is also used as dairy cattle feed in Ethiopia. It is also exported to North America and Europe to be used mainly as bird feed. To our knowledge, there have been no studies on the growth and production of OTA on niger seeds. In this study, the environment conditions that support OTA production including effects of water activity, temperature, and incubation time on growth and OTA production by A. fresenii and A. sulphureus were investigated.

Keywords: mycotoxin, ochratoxin A, aspergillus, niger seed

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10 Chemopreventive Properties of Cannabis sativa L. var. USO31 in Relation to Its Phenolic and Terpenoid Content

Authors: Antonella Di Sotto, Cinzia Ingallina, Caterina Fraschetti, Simone Circi, Marcello Locatelli, Simone Carradori, Gabriela Mazzanti, Luisa Mannina, Silvia Di Giacomo


Cannabis sativa L. is one of the oldest cultivated plant species known not only for its voluptuous use but also for the wide application in food, textile, and therapeutic industries. Recently, the progress of biotechnologies applied to medicinal plants has allowed to produce different hemp varieties with low content of psychotropic phytoconstituents (tetrahydrocannabinol < 0.2% w/v), thus leading to a renewed industrial and therapeutic interest for this plant. In this context, in order to discover new potential remedies of pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical interest, the chemopreventive properties of different organic and hydroalcoholic extracts, obtained from the inflorescences of C. sativa L. var. USO31, collected in June and September harvesting, were assessed. Particularly, the antimutagenic activity towards the oxidative DNA-damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) was evaluated, and the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging power of the samples were assessed as possible mechanisms of antimutagenicity. Furthermore, the ability of the extracts to inhibit the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), whose overexpression has been found to play a critical role in neoplastic transformation and tumor progression, has been studied as a possible chemopreventive strategy. A careful phytochemical characterization of the extracts for phenolic and terpenoid composition has been obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Under our experimental condition, all the extracts were found able to interfere with the tBOOH-induced mutagenicity in WP2uvrAR strain, although with different potency and effectiveness. The organic extracts from both the harvesting periods were found to be the main effective antimutagenic samples, reaching about a 55% inhibition of the tBOOH-mutagenicity at the highest concentration tested (250 μg/ml). All the extracts exhibited radical scavenger activity against DPPH and ABTS radicals, with a higher potency of the hydroalcoholic samples. The organic extracts were also able to inhibit the G6PD enzyme, being the samples from September harvesting the highly potent (about 50% inhibition respect to the vehicle). At the phytochemical analysis, all the extracts resulted to contain both polar and apolar phenolic compounds. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of catechin and rutin as the major constituents of the hydroalcoholic extracts, with lower levels of quercetin and ferulic acid. The monoterpene carvacrol was found to be an ubiquitarian constituent. At GC-MS analysis, different terpenoids, among which caryophyllene sesquiterpenes, were identified. This evidence suggests a possible role of both polyphenols and terpenoids in the chemopreventive properties of the extracts from the inflorescences of C. sativa var. USO31. According to the literature, carvacrol and caryophyllene sesquiterpenes can contribute to the strong antimutagenicity although the role of all the hemp phytocomplex cannot be excluded. In conclusion, present results highlight a possible interest for the inflorescences of C. sativa var. USO31 as source of bioactive molecules and stimulate further studies in order to characterize its possible application for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical purposes.

Keywords: antimutagenicity, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hemp inflorescences, nutraceuticals, sesquiterpenes

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9 Decolorization and Degradation of Ponceau Red P4R in Aqueous Solution by Ferrate (Vi)

Authors: Chaimaan Benhsinat, Amal Tazi, Mohammed Azzi


Synthetic azo-dyes are widely used in food industry, they product intense coloration, high toxicity and mutagenicity for wastewater; Causing serious damage to aquatic biota and risk factors for humans. The treatment of these effluents remains a major challenge especially for third world countries that have not yet all possibilities to integrate the concept of sustainable development. These aqueous effluents require specific treatment to preserve natural environments. For these reasons and in order to contribute to the fight against this danger, we were interested in this study to the degradation of the dye Ponceau Red E124 'C20H11N2Na3O10S3' 'used in a food industry Casablanca-Morocco, by the super iron ferrate (VI) K3FexMnyO8; Synthesized in our laboratory and known for its high oxidizing and flocculants. The degradation of Ponceau red is evaluated with the objectives of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and discoloration reductions. The results are very satisfying. In fact, we achieved 90% reduction of COD and 99% of discoloration. The recovered floc are subject to various techniques for spectroscopic analysis (UV-visible and IR) to identify by-products formed after the degradation. Moreover, the results will then be compared with those obtained by the application of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4, 7H2O) used by the food industry for the degradation of P4R. The results will be later compared with those obtained by the application of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4, 7H2O) used by the food industry, in the degradation of the P4R.

Keywords: COD removal, color removal, dye ponceau 4R, oxydation by ferrate (VI)

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8 Adverse Effects of Natural Pesticides on Human and Animals: An Experimental Analysis

Authors: Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa


Synthetic pesticides are widely used in large-scale worldwide for control pests in agriculture and public health sectors in both developed and developing countries. Although the positive role of pesticides, they have many adverse toxic effects on humans, animals, and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last few years, scientists have been searching for new active compounds from natural resources as an alternative to synthetic pesticides. Currently, many commercial natural pesticides are available commercially worldwide. These products are recommended for uses in organic farmers and considered as safe pesticides. This paper focuses on the adverse effects of natural pesticides on mammals. Available commercial pesticides in the market contain essential oils (e.g. pepper, cinnamon, and garlic), plant extracts, microorganism (e.g. bacteria, fungi or their toxin), mineral oils and some active compounds from natural recourses e.g. spinosad, neem, pyrethrum, rotenone, abamectin and other active compounds from essential oils (EOs). Some EOs components, e.g., thujone, pulegone, and thymol have high acute toxicity (LD50) is 87.5, 150 and 980 mg/kg. B.wt on mice, respectively. Natural pesticides such as spinosad, pyrethrum, neem, abamectin, and others have toxicological effects to mammals and ecosystem. These compounds were found to cause hematotoxicity, hepato-renal toxicity, biochemical alteration, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity. It caused adverse effects on the ecosystem. Therefore, natural pesticides in general not safe and have high acute toxicity and can induce adverse effects at long-term exposure.

Keywords: natural pesticides, toxicity, safety, genotoxicity, ecosystem, biochemical

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7 Study of the Genotoxic Potential of Plant Growth Regulator Ethephon

Authors: Mahshid Hodjat, Maryam Baeeri, Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar, Mohammad Abdollahi


Ethephon is one of the most widely used plant growth regulator in agriculture that its application has been increased in recent years. The toxicity of organophosphate compounds is mostly attributed to their potent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and their involvement in neurodegenerative disease. Although there are few reports on butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory role of ethephon, still there is no evidence on neurotoxicity and genotoxicity of this compound. The aim of the current study is to assess the potential genotoxic effect of ethephon using two genotoxic endpoints; γH2AX expression and comet assay on embryonic murine fibroblast. γH2AX serves as an early and sensitive biomarker for evaluating the genotoxic effects of chemicals. Oxidative stress biomarkers, including intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity were also examined. The results showed a significant increase in cell proliferation 24h post-treatment with 10, 40,160µg/ml ethephon. The γH2AX expression and γH2AX foci count per cell were increased at low concentration of ethephon that was concomitant with increased DNA damage break at 40 and 160 µg/ml as illustrated by increased comet tail moment. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and ROS formation were observed at 160 µg/ml and higher doses. The results showed that low-dose of ethephon promoted cell proliferation while induce DNA damage, raising the possibility of ethephon mutagenicity. Ethephon-induced genotoxic effect of low dose might not related to oxidative damage. However, ethephon was found to increase oxidative stress at higher doses, lead to cellular cytotoxicity. Taken together, all data indicated that ethylene, deserves more attention as a plant regulator with potential genotoxicity for which appropriate control is needed to reduce its usage.

Keywords: ethephon, DNA damage, γH2AX, oxidative stress

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6 Phytoremediation-A Plant Based Cleansing Method to Obtain Quality Medicinal Plants and Natural Products

Authors: Hannah S. Elizabeth, D. Gnanasekaran, M. R. Manju Gowda, Antony George


Phytoremediation a new technology of remediating the contaminated soil, water and air using plants and serves as a green technology with environmental friendly approach. The main aim of this technique is cleansing and detoxifying of organic compounds, organo-phosphorous pesticides, heavy metals like arsenic, iron, cadmium, gold, radioactive elements which cause teratogenic and life threatening diseases to mankind and animal kingdom when consume the food crops, vegetables, fruits, cerals, and millets obtained from the contaminated soil. Also, directly they may damage the genetic materials thereby alters the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites and other phytoconstituents which may have different pharmacological activities which lead to lost their efficacy and potency as well. It would reflect in mutagenicity, drug resistance and affect other antagonistic properties of normal metabolism. Is the technology for real clean-up of contaminated soils and the contaminants which are potentially toxic. It reduces the risks produced by a contaminated soil by decreasing contaminants using plants as a source. The advantages are cost-effectiveness and less ecosystem disruption. Plants may also help to stabilize contaminants by accumulating and precipitating toxic trace elements in the roots. Organic pollutants can potentially be chemically degraded and ultimately mineralized into harmless biological compounds. Hence, the use of plants to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more attention and preferred for its cost-effective when compared to other chemical methods. The introduction of harmful substances into the environment has been shown to have many adverse effects on human health, agricultural productivity, and natural ecosystems. Because the costs of growing a crop are minimal compared to those of soil removal and replacement, the use of plants to remediate hazardous soils is seen as having great promise.

Keywords: cost effective, eco-friendly, phytoremediation, secondary metabolites

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5 Abridging Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Discovery via LC-MS-TOF, NMR, in-silico Toxicity-Bioactivity Profiling for Therapeutic Purposing Zileuton Impurities: Need of Hour

Authors: Saurabh B. Ganorkar, Atul A. Shirkhedkar


The need for investigations protecting against toxic impurities though seems to be a primary requirement; the impurities which may prove non - toxic can be explored for their therapeutic potential if any to assist advanced drug discovery. The essential role of pharmaceutical analysis can thus be extended effectively to achieve it. The present study successfully achieved these objectives with characterization of major degradation products as impurities for Zileuton which has been used for to treat asthma since years. The forced degradation studies were performed to identify the potential degradation products using Ultra-fine Liquid-chromatography. Liquid-chromatography-Mass spectrometry (Time of Flight) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies were utilized effectively to characterize the drug along with five major oxidative and hydrolytic degradation products (DP’s). The mass fragments were identified for Zileuton and path for the degradation was investigated. The characterized DP’s were subjected to In-Silico studies as XP Molecular Docking to compare the gain or loss in binding affinity with 5-Lipooxygenase enzyme. One of the impurity of was found to have the binding affinity more than the drug itself indicating for its potential to be more bioactive as better Antiasthmatic. The close structural resemblance has the ability to potentiate or reduce bioactivity and or toxicity. The chances of being active biologically at other sites cannot be denied and the same is achieved to some extent by predictions for probability of being active with Prediction of Activity Spectrum for Substances (PASS) The impurities found to be bio-active as Antineoplastic, Antiallergic, and inhibitors of Complement Factor D. The toxicological abilities as Ames-Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity and Skin Irritancy were evaluated using Toxicity Prediction by Komputer Assisted Technology (TOPKAT). Two of the impurities were found to be non-toxic as compared to original drug Zileuton. As the drugs are purposed and repurposed effectively the impurities can also be; as they can have more binding affinity; less toxicity and better ability to be bio-active at other biological targets.

Keywords: UFLC, LC-MS-TOF, NMR, Zileuton, impurities, toxicity, bio-activity

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4 Plasma Technology for Hazardous Biomedical Waste Treatment

Authors: V. E. Messerle, A. L. Mosse, O. A. Lavrichshev, A. N. Nikonchuk, A. B. Ustimenko


One of the most serious environmental problems today is pollution by biomedical waste (BMW), which in most cases has undesirable properties such as toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, fire. Sanitary and hygienic survey of typical solid BMW, made in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and other countries shows that their risk to the environment is significantly higher than that of most chemical wastes. Utilization of toxic BMW requires use of the most universal methods to ensure disinfection and disposal of any of their components. Such technology is a plasma technology of BMW processing. To implement this technology a thermodynamic analysis of the plasma processing of BMW was fulfilled and plasma-box furnace was developed. The studies have been conducted on the example of the processing of bone. To perform thermodynamic calculations software package Terra was used. Calculations were carried out in the temperature range 300 - 3000 K and a pressure of 0.1 MPa. It is shown that the final products do not contain toxic substances. From the organic mass of BMW synthesis gas containing combustible components 77.4-84.6% was basically produced, and mineral part consists mainly of calcium oxide and contains no carbon. Degree of gasification of carbon reaches 100% by the temperature 1250 K. Specific power consumption for BMW processing increases with the temperature throughout its range and reaches 1 kWh/kg. To realize plasma processing of BMW experimental installation with DC plasma torch of 30 kW power was developed. The experiments allowed verifying the thermodynamic calculations. Wastes are packed in boxes weighing 5-7 kg. They are placed in the box furnace. Under the influence of air plasma flame average temperature in the box reaches 1800 OC, the organic part of the waste is gasified and inorganic part of the waste is melted. The resulting synthesis gas is continuously withdrawn from the unit through the cooling and cleaning system. Molten mineral part of the waste is removed from the furnace after it has been stopped. Experimental studies allowed determining operating modes of the plasma box furnace, the exhaust gases was analyzed, samples of condensed products were assembled and their chemical composition was determined. Gas at the outlet of the plasma box furnace has the following composition (vol.%): CO - 63.4, H2 - 6.2, N2 - 29.6, S - 0.8. The total concentration of synthesis gas (CO + H2) is 69.6%, which agrees well with the thermodynamic calculation. Experiments confirmed absence of the toxic substances in the final products.

Keywords: biomedical waste, box furnace, plasma torch, processing, synthesis gas

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3 Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy: Preliminary Results of MAPEC_LIFE Project

Authors: Elisabetta Ceretti, Silvia Bonizzoni, Alberto Bonetti, Milena Villarini, Marco Verani, Maria Antonella De Donno, Sara Bonetta, Umberto Gelatti


Introduction: Air pollution is a global problem. In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to human. The study of the health effects of air pollution in children is very important because they are a high-risk group in terms of the health effects of air pollution and early exposure during childhood can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. The MAPEC_LIFE (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy) is a project founded by EU Life+ Programme which intends to evaluate the associations between air pollution and early biological effects in children and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. Methods: The study was carried out on 6-8-year-old children living in five Italian towns in two different seasons. Two biomarkers of early biological effects, primary DNA damage detected with the comet assay and frequency of micronuclei, were investigated in buccal cells of children. Details of children diseases, socio-economic status, exposures to other pollutants and life-style were collected using a questionnaire administered to children’s parents. Child exposure to urban air pollution was assessed by analysing PM0.5 samples collected in the school areas for PAHs and nitro-PAHs concentration, lung toxicity and in vitro genotoxicity on bacterial and human cells. Data on the chemical features of the urban air during the study period were obtained from the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection. The project created also the opportunity to approach the issue of air pollution with the children, trying to raise their awareness on air quality, its health effects and some healthy behaviors by means of an educational intervention in the schools. Results: 1315 children were recruited for the study and participate in the first sampling campaign in the five towns. The second campaign, on the same children, is still ongoing. The preliminary results of the tests on buccal mucosa cells of children will be presented during the conference as well as the preliminary data about the chemical composition and the toxicity and genotoxicity features of PM0.5 samples. The educational package was tested on 250 children of the primary school and showed to be very useful, improving children knowledge about air pollution and its effects and stimulating their interest. Conclusions: The associations between levels of air pollutants, air mutagenicity and biomarkers of early effects will be investigated. A tentative model to calculate the global absolute risk of having early biological effects for air pollution and other variables together will be proposed and may be useful to support policy-making and community interventions to protect children from possible health effects of air pollutants.

Keywords: air pollution exposure, biomarkers of early effects, children, public health policy

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2 Effect of Time on Stream on the Performances of Plasma Assisted Fe-Doped Cryptomelanes in Trichloroethylene (TCE) Oxidation

Authors: Sharmin Sultana, Nicolas Nuns, Pardis Simon, Jean-Marc Giraudon, Jean-Francois Lamonior, Nathalie D. Geyter, Rino Morent


Environmental issues, especially air pollution, have become a huge concern of environmental legislation as a consequence of growing awareness in our global world. In this regard, control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission has become an important issue due to their potential toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity. The research of innovative technologies for VOC abatement is stimulated to accommodate the new stringent standards in terms of VOC emission. One emerging strategy is the coupling of 2 existing complementary technologies, namely here non-thermal plasma (NTP) and heterogeneous catalysis, to get a more efficient process for VOC removal in air. The objective of this current work is to investigate the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE-highly toxic chlorinated VOC) from moist air (RH=15%) as a function of time by combined use of multi-pin-to-plate negative DC corona/glow discharge with Fe-doped cryptomelanes catalyst downstream i.e. post plasma-catalysis (PPC) process. For catalyst alone case, experiments reveal that, initially, Fe doped cryptomelane (regardless the mode of Fe incorporation by co-precipitation (Fe-K-OMS-2)/ impregnation (Fe/K-OMS-2)) exhibits excellent activity to decompose TCE compared to cryptomelane (K-OMS-2) itself. A maximum obtained value of TCE abatement after 6 min is as follows: Fe-KOMS-2 (73.3%) > Fe/KOMS-2 (48.5) > KOMS-2 (22.6%). However, with prolonged operation time, whatever the catalyst under concern, the abatement of TCE decreases. After 111 min time of exposure, the catalysts can be ranked as follows: Fe/KOMS-2 (11%) < K-OMS-2 (12.3%) < Fe-KOMS-2 (14.5%). Clearly, this phenomenon indicates catalyst deactivation either by chlorination or by blocking the active sites. Remarkably, in PPC configuration (energy density = 60 J/L, catalyst temperature = 150°C), experiments reveal an enhanced performance towards TCE removal regardless the type of catalyst. After 6 min time on stream, the TCE removal efficiency amount as follows: K-OMS-2 (60%) < Fe/K-OMS-2 (79%) < Fe-K-OMS-2 (99.3%). The enhanced performances over Fe-K-OMS-2 catalyst are attributed to its high surface oxygen mobility and structural defects leading to high O₃ decomposition efficiency to give active species able to oxidize the plasma processed hazardous\by-products and the possibly remaining VOC into CO₂. Moreover, both undoped and doped catalysts remain strongly capable to abate TCE with time on stream. The TCE removal efficiencies of the PPC processes with Fe/KOMS-2 and KOMS-2 catalysts are not affected by time on stream indicating an excellent catalyst stability. When using the Fe-K-OMS-2 as catalyst, TCE abatement slightly reduces with time on stream. However, it is noteworthy to stress that still a constant abatement of 83% is observed during at least 30 minutes. These results prove that the combination of NTP with catalysts not only increases the catalytic activity but also allows to avoid, to some extent, the poisoning of catalytic sites resulting in an enhanced catalyst stability. In order to better understand the different surface processes occurring in the course of the total TCE oxidation in PPC experiments, a detailed X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) study on the fresh and used catalysts is in progress.

Keywords: Fe doped cryptomelane, non-thermal plasma, plasma-catalysis, stability, trichloroethylene

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1 Antifungal Activity of Processed Sulfur Solution as Potential Eco-Friendly Disinfectant against Saprolegnia parasitica and Its Safety in Freshwater-Farmed Fish

Authors: Hye-Hyun Lee, Hyo-Kon Chun, Kyung-Hee Kim Kim, Mi-Hee Kim, Saet-Byul Chu, Sang-Jong Lee, Seung-Hyeop Lee, Seung-Won Yi


Some chemicals such as malachite green, methylene blue, and copper sulfate had been used frequently as disinfectants controlling fungal infection in aquaculture. However, their carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity were reported in mammals. After their accumulation in food fish and its consumers was confirmed, concerns about public health has resulted in enhanced monitoring and increased demand for eco-friendly treatments. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate safety to fish and efficacy of sulfur solution processed by effective microorganisms (EM-PSS) against Saprolegnia parasitica, for use of a potential aquatic fungicidal disinfectant. The natural sulfur purchased from Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia was processed by the liquid mixture consisting of following twelve effective microorganisms (Rapha-el®; Lbiotech, Jeonnam, Korea), Lactobacillus parafarraginis, L. paracasei, L. harbinensis, L. buchneri, L. perolens, L. rhamnosus, L. vaccinostercus, Acetobacter lovaniensis, A. peroxydans, Pichia fermentans, Candida ethanolica, Saccharomycopsis schoenii isolated from fermentation process of oriental medicinal herbs including green tea, privet, and puer tea. The material was applied to in vitro antifungal activity test for Saprolegnia parasitica using agar dilution method. In addition, an acute toxicity test was performed on carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla japonica), and mud fish (Misgurnus mizolepis) for 96 hours. After three species of fish (n=15) were accustomed to experimental water environment for three days, the EM-PSS was added to each tank as final concentrations to be 0 to 500 ppm. The fish were taken into necropsy, and the histological sections of the gill, liver, and spleen were counter-stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H-E). And hence, no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of the solution was used for taking a medicinal bath for mudfish infected by Saprolegnia parasitica in practice. The result of in vitro antifungal activity test showed the growth inhibition of the fungus at 100 ppm, which and the lower concentrations occurred no fatal case in any fish species tested until the end of the examination. The 125 ppm of the solution, however, resulted in 13.3 %, 13.3 %, and 6.3 % of mortality in carp, eel, and mudfish, respectively. But both 250 and 500 ppm of the solution leaded lethality to all population of each fish species within 24 hours. Besides, H-E staining also showed no specific evidence for toxicity in fish at lesser than 100 ppm of EM-PSS. On the other hand, as a result of field application of the solution, no growth of fungal mycelium was found in fish bodies from gross observation 5 days post treatment. In conclusion, 100ppm of EM-PSS resulted in inhibition and treatment of Saprolegnia parasitica infection. In addition, the use of EM-PSS lower than 100 ppm is safe for fish. Therefore, EM-PSS could be used as aquatic fungicide, and also may be possible to be a potential eco-friendly disinfectant in aquaculture.

Keywords: antifungal activity, effective microorganism, toxicity, saprolegnia, processed sulfur solution

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