Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12226

Search results for: specific wear rate

12226 Wet Sliding Wear and Frictional Behavior of Commercially Available Perspex

Authors: S. Reaz Ahmed, M. S. Kaiser

Abstract:

The tribological behavior of commercially used Perspex was evaluated under dry and wet sliding condition using a pin-on-disc wear tester with different applied loads ranging from 2.5 to 20 N. Experiments were conducted with varying sliding distance from 0.2 km to 4.6 km, wherein the sliding velocity was kept constant, 0.64 ms-1. The results reveal that the weight loss increases with applied load and the sliding distance. The nature of the wear rate was very similar in both the sliding environments in which initially the wear rate increased very rapidly with increasing sliding distance and then progressed to a slower rate. Moreover, the wear rate in wet sliding environment was significantly lower than that under dry sliding condition. The worn surfaces were characterized by optical microscope and SEM. It is found that surface modification has significant effect on sliding wear performance of Perspex.

Keywords: Perspex, wear, friction, SEM

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12225 To Study the Effect of Optic Fibre Laser Cladding of Cast Iron with Silicon Carbide on Wear Rate

Authors: Kshitij Sawke, Pradnyavant Kamble, Shrikant Patil

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect on wear rate of laser clad of cast iron with silicon carbide. Metal components fail their desired use because they wear, which causes them to lose their functionality. The laser has been used as a heating source to create a melt pool over the surface of cast iron, and then a layer of hard silicon carbide is deposited. Various combinations of power and feed rate of laser have experimented. A suitable range of laser processing parameters was identified. Wear resistance and wear rate properties were evaluated and the result showed that the wear resistance of the laser treated samples was exceptional to that of the untreated samples.

Keywords: laser clad, processing parameters, wear rate, wear resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
12224 The Influence of Cycle Index of Simulation Condition on Main Bearing Wear Prognosis of Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Ziyu Diao, Yanyan Zhang, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan

Abstract:

The update frequency of wear profile in main bearing wear prognosis of internal combustion engine plays an important role in the calculation efficiency and accuracy. In order to investigate the appropriate cycle index of the simplified working condition of wear simulation, the main bearing-crankshaft journal friction pair of a diesel engine in service was studied in this paper. The method of multi-body dynamics simulation was used, and the wear prognosis model of the main bearing was established. Several groups of cycle indexes were set up for the wear calculation, and the maximum wear depth and wear profile were compared and analyzed. The results showed that when the cycle index reaches 3, the maximum deviation rate of the maximum wear depth is about 2.8%, and the maximum deviation rate comes to 1.6% when the cycle index reaches 5. This study provides guidance and suggestions for the optimization of wear prognosis by selecting appropriate value of cycle index according to the requirement of calculation cost and accuracy of the simulation work.

Keywords: cycle index, deviation rate, wear calculation, wear profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
12223 Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Ti3SiC2 and the Effect of TiC on Its

Authors: Bendaoudi Seif-Eddine, Bounazef Mokhtar

Abstract:

Wear behaviour of Ti3SiC2 coating in contact sliding under dry condition have been investigated on different pressures (0.1-0.8 MPa) at various speeds from 5 to 60 m/s. The ball-on-disc sliding-wear test was performed in ambient air with a relative humidity of 20%. An equation has been proposed to predict wear rates and describe sliding wear caused by Corundum ball on the studied material. The results show how the wear rate, measured by mass loss, varies in the range of (0.6 – 3.8 x E-6 mm3/Nm) with normal sliding distance under various test conditions; it increases with increasing load and rapidly with speed. The influence of TiC impurities on the wear behaviours was also investigated.

Keywords: ball-on-disc, dry-sliding, Ti3SiC2, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
12222 Effect of Impact Angle on Erosive Abrasive Wear of Ductile and Brittle Materials

Authors: Ergin Kosa, Ali Göksenli

Abstract:

Erosion and abrasion are wear mechanisms reducing the lifetime of machine elements like valves, pump and pipe systems. Both wear mechanisms are acting at the same time, causing a “Synergy” effect, which leads to a rapid damage of the surface. Different parameters are effective on erosive abrasive wear rate. In this study effect of particle impact angle on wear rate and wear mechanism of ductile and brittle materials was investigated. A new slurry pot was designed for experimental investigation. As abrasive particle, silica sand was used. Particle size was ranking between 200-500 µm. All tests were carried out in a sand-water mixture of 20% concentration for four hours. Impact velocities of the particles were 4,76 m/s. As ductile material steel St 37 with Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) of 245 and quenched St 37 with 510 BHN was used as brittle material. After wear tests, morphology of the eroded surfaces were investigated for better understanding of the wear mechanisms acting at different impact angles by using optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope. The results indicated that wear rate of ductile material was higher than brittle material. Maximum wear was observed by ductile material at a particle impact angle of 300. On the contrary wear rate increased by brittle materials by an increase in impact angle and reached maximum value at 450. High amount of craters were detected after observation on ductile material surface Also plastic deformation zones were detected, which are typical failure modes for ductile materials. Craters formed by particles were deeper according to brittle material worn surface. Amount of craters decreased on brittle material surface. Microcracks around craters were detected which are typical failure modes of brittle materials. Deformation wear was the dominant wear mechanism on brittle material. At the end it is concluded that wear rate could not be directly related to impact angle of the hard particle due to the different responses of ductile and brittle materials.

Keywords: erosive wear, particle impact angle, silica sand, wear rate, ductile-brittle material

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12221 Comparative Study of Wear and Friction Behavior of Tricalcium Phosphate-Fluorapatite Bioceramic

Authors: Rym Taktak, Achwek Elghazel, Jamel Bouaziz

Abstract:

In the present work, we explored the potential of tribological behavior of tricalcium phosphate-Fluorapatite (β Tcp-Fap) bioceramic which has attracted considerable attention for orthopedics and dental applications. The approximate representatives Fap-βTcp were respectively [{13.26 wt%, 86.74 wt%} {19.9 wt%, 80.1 wt%},{ 26.52 wt%, 73.48 wt%}, {33.16 wt%, 66.84 wt%} and {40 wt%, 60 wt%}. The effects of Fluorapatite additives on friction and wear behavior were studied and discussed. The wear test was conducted using pion-disk tribometer at room temperature under dry condition using a constant sliding speed of 0,063 m/s, and three loads 3, 5 and 8 N. The wear rate and friction coefficient of β Tcp with different additive amounts were compared. An Alumina ball specimens were used as the pin and flat surface β Tcp-Fap specimens as the antagonist counterface. The results show a huge difference between the wear rate of β TCP samples and the other β TCP-Fap composites for all normal forces applied. This result shows the beneficial effect of fluorapatite on the tribological behavior of the β TCP. Moreover, we note that β Tcp-26% Fap specimens exhibit, under dry condition, the lower friction coefficient and the smaller wear rate than other biocomposites. Thereby, the friction and wear behavior is influenced by the addition of fluorapatite, the applied normal force, and the sliding velocity. To extend the understanding of the wear process, the surface topography of β Tcp-26% Fap specimens and the wear track obtained during the wear tests were studied using a surface profilometer, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: alumina, bioceramic, friction and wear test, tricalcium phosphate

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12220 Wear Assessment of SS316l-Al2O3 Composites for Heavy Wear Applications

Authors: Catherine Kuforiji, Michel Nganbe

Abstract:

The abrasive wear of composite materials is a major challenge in highly demanding wear applications. Therefore, this study focuses on fabricating, testing and assessing the properties of 50wt% SS316L stainless steel–50wt% Al2O3 particle composites. Composite samples were fabricated using the powder metallurgy route. The effects of the powder metallurgy processing parameters and hard particle reinforcement were studied. The microstructure, density, hardness and toughness were characterized. The wear behaviour was studied using pin-on-disc testing under dry sliding conditions. The highest hardness of 1085.2 HV, the highest theoretical density of 94.7% and the lowest wear rate of 0.00397 mm3/m were obtained at a milling speed of 720 rpm, a compaction pressure of 794.4 MPa and sintering at 1400 °C in an argon atmosphere. Compared to commercial SS316 and fabricated SS316L, the composites had 7.4 times and 11 times lower wear rate, respectively. However, the commercial 90WC-10Co showed 2.2 times lower wear rate compared to the fabricated SS316L-Al2O3 composites primarily due to the higher ceramic content of 90 wt.% in the reference WC-Co. However, eliminating the relatively high porosity of about 5 vol% using processes such as HIP and hot pressing can be expected to lead to further substantial improvements of the composites wear resistance.

Keywords: SS316L, Al2O3, powder metallurgy, wear characterization

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12219 Wear and Fraction Behavior of Porcelain Coated with Polyurethane/SiO2 Coating Layer

Authors: Ching Yern Chee

Abstract:

Various loading of nano silica is added into polyurethane (PU) and then coated on porcelain substrate. The wear and friction properties of the porcelain substrates coated with polyurethane/nano silica nano composite coatings were investigated using the reciprocating wear testing machine. The friction and wear test of polyurethane/nano silica coated porcelain substrate was studied at different sliding speed and applied load. It was found that the optimum composition of nano silica is 3 wt% which gives the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate in all applied load ranges and sliding speeds. For 3 wt% nano silica filled PU coated porcelain substrate, the increment of sliding speed caused higher wear rates but lower frictions coefficient. Besides, the friction coefficient of nano silica filled PU coated porcelain substrate decreased but the wear rate increased with the applied load.

Keywords: porcelain, nanocomposite coating, morphology, friction, wear behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
12218 Review on Wear Behavior of Magnesium Matrix Composites

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Niraj Bala

Abstract:

In the last decades, light-weight materials such as magnesium matrix composites have become hot topic for material research due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, relatively very less work has been done related to the wear behavior of these composites. Magnesium matrix composites have wide applications in automobile and aerospace sector. In this review, attempt has been done to collect the literature related to wear behavior of magnesium matrix composites fabricated through various processing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, friction stir processing etc. Effect of different reinforcements, reinforcement content, reinforcement size, wear load, sliding speed and time have been studied by different researchers in detail. Wear mechanism under different experimental condition has been reviewed in detail. The wear resistance of magnesium and its alloys can be enhanced with the addition of different reinforcements. Wear resistance can further be enhanced by increasing the percentage of added reinforcements. Increase in applied load during wear test leads to increase in wear rate of magnesium composites.

Keywords: hardness, magnesium matrix composites, reinforcement, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
12217 Predictive Modeling of Flank Wear in Hard Turning Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Suha K. Shihab, Zahid A. Khan, Aas Mohammad, Arshad Noor Siddiquee

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut) on flank wear (VB) in turning of 52100 hard alloy steel using multilayer coated carbide insert under dry condition. Nine experiments were performed based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on flank wear. The results of the study revealed that the cutting speed (A) and feed rate (B) are the dominant factors affecting flank wear, while the depth of cut (C) has not a significant effect. The optimal combination of the cutting parameters for flank wear is found to be A1B1C1. The mathematical model for flank wear is found to be statistically significant. The predicted and measured values of flank wear are found to be very close to each other.

Keywords: flank wear, hard turning, Taguchi approach, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 584
12216 Wear Behavior of Commercial Aluminium Engine Block and Piston under Dry Sliding Condition

Authors: Md. Salim Kaiser

Abstract:

In the present work, the effect of load and sliding distance on the performance tribology of commercially used aluminium-silicon engine block and piston was evaluated at ambient conditions with humidity of 80% under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc with two different loads of 5N and 20N yielding applied pressure of 0.30MPa and 1.4MPa, respectively, at sliding velocity of 0.29ms-1 and with varying sliding distance ranging from 260m-4200m. Factors and conditions that had significant effect were identified. The results showed that the load and the sliding distance affect the wear rate of the alloys and the wear rate increased with increasing load for both the alloys. Wear rate also increases almost linearly at low loads and increase to a maximum then attain a plateau with increasing sliding distance. For both applied loads, the piston alloy showed the better performance due to higher Ni and Mg content. The worn surface and wear debris was characterized by optical microscope, SEM and EDX analyzer. The worn surface was characterized by surface with shallow grooves at loads while the groove width and depth increased as the loads increases. Oxidative wear was found to be the predominant mechanisms in the dry sliding of Al-Si alloys at low loads

Keywords: wear, friction, gravimetric analysis, aluminium-silicon alloys, SEM, EDX

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
12215 The Effect of Surface Conditions on Wear of a Railway Wheel and Rail

Authors: A. Shebani, S. Iwnicki

Abstract:

Understanding the nature of wheel and rail wear in the railway field is of fundamental importance to the safe and cost effective operation of the railways. Twin disc wear testing is used extensively for studying wear of wheel and rail materials. The University of Huddersfield twin disc rig was used in this paper to examine the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear measurement under a range of wheel/rail contact conditions, with and without contaminants. This work focuses on an investigation of the effect of dry, wet, and lubricated conditions and the effect of contaminants such as sand on wheel and rail wear. The wheel and rail wear measurements were carried out by using a replica material and an optical profilometer that allows measurement of wear in difficult location with high accuracy. The results have demonstrated the rate at which both water and oil reduce wheel and rail wear. Scratches and other damage were seen on the wheel and rail surfaces after the addition of sand and consequently both wheel and rail wear damage rates increased under these conditions. This work introduced the replica material and an optical instrument as effective tools to study the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear.

Keywords: railway wheel/rail wear, surface conditions, twin disc test rig, replica material, Alicona profilometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
12214 Tribological Behavior of Pongamia Oil Based Biodiesel Blended Lubricant at Different Load

Authors: Yashvir Singh, Amneesh Singla, Swapnil Bhurat

Abstract:

Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non toxic, and environmentally-friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of ponagamia biodiesel contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, Ponagamia oil based biodiesel were blended in the ratios 5, 10, and 20% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 2.5 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms was the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 5 and 10% Ponagamia oil based biodiesel, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. The addition of 5 and 10% Ponagamia oil based biodiesel with the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear rate during the test. It has been concluded that the PBO 5 and PBO 10 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 2.5 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.

Keywords: friction, load, pongamia oil blend, sliding velocity, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
12213 Multi-Objective Optimization of Wear Parameters of Tube Like Clay Mineral Filled Thermoplastic Polymer Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Vasu Velagapudi, G. Suresh

Abstract:

PTFE/HNTs nanocomposites are fabricated with 4%, 6%, and 8% by weight fraction, and the optimization study of wear parameters are performed using response surface methodology (RSM). The experiments are carried out on a pin on disc (POD) wear tester under different operating parameters planned according to Taguchi L27 orthogonal array. The input factors considered are wt% HNTs addition, sliding velocity, load, and distance with three levels for each factor. From ANOVA: The factors load, speed and distance and their interactions have a significant effect on COF. Also for SWR, composition factor and interaction of load and speed are observed to be significant ( < 0.05) Optimum input parameters corresponding to desirability 1 are found to be: COF (0.11) and SWR (17.5)×10⁻⁶ (mm3/N-m) at 6.34 wt% of composition, 5N of load, 2 km of distance and 1 m/sec of velocity.

Keywords: PTFE/HNT, nanocomposites, response surface methodology (RSM), specific wear rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
12212 Study of Machinability for Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V through Chip Formation in Milling Process

Authors: Moaz H. Ali, Ahmed H. Al-Saadi

Abstract:

Most of the materials used in the industry of aero-engine components generally consist of titanium alloys. Advanced materials, because of their excellent combination of high specific strength, lightweight, and general corrosion resistance. In fact, chemical wear resistance of aero-engine alloy provide a serious challenge for cutting tool material during the machining process. The reduction in cutting temperature distributions leads to an increase in tool life and a decrease in wear rate. Hence, the chip morphology and segmentation play a predominant role in determining machinability and tool wear during the machining process. The result of low thermal conductivity and diffusivity of this alloy in the concentration of high temperatures at the tool-work-piece and tool-chip interface. Consequently, the chip morphology is very important in the study of machinability of metals as well as the study of cutting tool wear. Otherwise, the result will be accelerating tool wear, increasing manufacturing cost and time consuming.

Keywords: machinability, titanium alloy (ti-6al-4v), chip formation, milling process

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
12211 Wear Behavior of Grey Cast Iron Coated with Al2O3-13TiO2 and Ni20Cr Using Detonation Spray Process

Authors: Harjot Singh Gill, Neelkanth Grover, Jwala Parshad Singla

Abstract:

The main aim of this research work is to present the effect of coating on two different grades of grey cast iron using detonation spray method. Ni20Cr and Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were sprayed using detonation gun onto GI250 and GIHC substrates and the results as well as coating surface morphology of the coating is studied by XRD and SEM/EDAX analysis. The wear resistance of Ni20Cr and Al2O3-13TiO2 has been investigated on pin-on-disc tribometer using ASTM G99 standards. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (µ) were calculated under three normal load of 30N, 40N, 50N at constant sliding velocity of 1m/s. Worn out surfaces were analyzed by SEM/EDAX. The results show significant resistance to wear with Al2O3-13TiO2 coating as compared to Ni20Cr and bare substrates. SEM/EDAX analysis and cumulative wear loss bar charts clearly explain the wear behavior of coated as well as bare sample of GI250 and GIHC.

Keywords: detonation spray, grey cast iron, wear rate, coefficient of friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
12210 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema

Abstract:

A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
12209 Wear Damage of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyimide Composites with the Addition of Graphite

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine

Abstract:

The glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyimide (PL) composites filled with graphite powders were fabricated by means of hot press molding technique. The friction and wear properties of the resulting composites sliding against GCr15 steel were investigated on a model ring-on-block test rig at dry sliding condition. The wear mechanisms were also discussed, based on scanning electron microscopic examination of the worn surface of the PL composites and the transfer film formed on the counterpart. With the increasing normal loads, the friction coefficient of the composites increased under the dry sliding, owing to inconsistent influences of shear strength and real contact areas. Experimental results revealed that the incorporation of graphite significantly improve the wear resistance of the glass fibers reinforced polyimide composites. For best combination of friction coefficient and wear rate, the optimal volume content of graphite in the composites appears to be 45 %. It was also found that the tribological properties of the glass fiber reinforced PL composites filled with graphite powders were closely related with the sliding condition such as sliding rate and applied load.

Keywords: composites, fiber, friction, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
12208 Wear Resistance and Mechanical Performance of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Influenced by Temperature Change

Authors: Juan Carlos Baena, Zhongxiao Peng

Abstract:

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is extensively used in industrial and biomedical fields. The slippery nature of UHMWPE makes this material suitable for surface bearing applications, however, the operational conditions limit the lubrication efficiency, inducing boundary and mixed lubrication in the tribological system. The lack of lubrication in a tribological system intensifies friction, contact stress and consequently, operating temperature. With temperature increase, the material’s mechanical properties are affected, and the lifespan of the component is reduced. The understanding of how mechanical properties and wear performance of UHMWPE change when the temperature is increased has not been clearly identified. The understanding of the wear and mechanical performance of UHMWPE at different temperature is important to predict and further improve the lifespan of these components. This study evaluates the effects of temperature variation in a range of 20 °C to 60 °C on the hardness and the wear resistance of UHMWPE. A reduction of the hardness and wear resistance was observed with the increase in temperature. The variation of the wear rate increased 94.8% when the temperature changed from 20 °C to 50 °C. Although hardness is regarded to be an indicator of the material wear resistance, this study found that wear resistance decreased more rapidly than hardness with the temperature increase, evidencing a low material stability of this component in a short temperature interval. The reduction of the hardness was reflected by the plastic deformation and abrasion intensity, resulting in a significant wear rate increase.

Keywords: hardness, surface bearing, tribological system, UHMWPE, wear

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12207 Correlations between Wear Rate and Energy Dissipation Mechanisms in a Ti6Al4V–WC/Co Sliding Pair

Authors: J. S. Rudas, J. M. Gutiérrez Cabeza, A. Corz Rodríguez, L. M. Gómez, A. O. Toro

Abstract:

The prediction of the wear rate of rubbing pairs has attracted the interest of many researchers for years. It has been recently proposed that the sliding wear rate can be inferred from the calculation of the energy rate dissipated by the tribological pair. In this paper some of the dissipative mechanisms present in a pin-on-disc configuration are discussed and both analytical and numerical calculations are carried out. Three dissipative mechanisms were studied: First, the energy release due to temperature gradients within the solid; second, the heat flow from the solid to the environment, and third, the energy loss due to abrasive damage of the surface. The Finite Element Method was used to calculate the dynamics of heat transfer within the solid, with the aid of commercial software. Validation the FEM model was assisted by virtual and laboratory experimentation using different operating points (sliding velocity and geometry contact). The materials for the experiments were Ti6Al4V alloy and Tungsten Carbide (WC-Co). The results showed that the sliding wear rate has a linear relationship with the energy dissipation flow. It was also found that energy loss due to micro-cutting is relevant for the system. This mechanism changes if the sliding velocity and pin geometry are modified though the degradation coefficient continues to present a linear behavior. We found that the less relevant dissipation mechanism for all the cases studied is the energy release by temperature gradients in the solid.

Keywords: degradation, dissipative mechanism, dry sliding, entropy, friction, wear

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12206 Friction and Wear Characteristics of Pongamia Oil Based Blended Lubricant at Different Load and Sliding Distance

Authors: Yashvir Singh

Abstract:

Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non -toxic and environmental friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of Pongamia oil (PO) contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, PO was blended in the ratios 15, 30 and 50% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms were abrasive and the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 15% PO, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. With increase in load, viscosity of all the bio-lubricants increases and meets the ISO VG 100 requirement at 40 oC except PB 50. The addition of PO in the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear scar diameter during the test. It has been concluded that the PB 15 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.

Keywords: friction, load, pongamia oil, sliding velocity, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
12205 Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Wear Parameters on Al/Sic/Gr: Metal Matrix Hybrid Composite by Taguchi Method

Authors: Rachit Marwaha, Rahul Dev Gupta, Vivek Jain, Krishan Kant Sharma

Abstract:

Metal matrix hybrid composites (MMHCs) are now gaining their usage in aerospace, automotive and other industries because of their inherent properties like high strength to weight ratio, hardness and wear resistance, good creep behaviour, light weight, design flexibility and low wear rate etc. Al alloy base matrix reinforced with silicon carbide (10%) and graphite (5%) particles was fabricated by stir casting process. The wear and frictional properties of metal matrix hybrid composites were studied by performing dry sliding wear test using pin on disc wear test apparatus. Experiments were conducted based on the plan of experiments generated through Taguchi’s technique. A L9 Orthogonal array was selected for analysis of data. Investigation to find the influence of applied load, sliding speed and track diameter on wear rate as well as coefficient of friction during wearing process was carried out using ANOVA. Objective of the model was chosen as smaller the better characteristics to analyse the dry sliding wear resistance. Results show that track diameter has highest influence followed by load and sliding speed.

Keywords: Taguchi method, orthogonal array, ANOVA, metal matrix hybrid composites

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12204 Moderation in Temperature Dependence on Counter Frictional Coefficient and Prevention of Wear of C/C Composites by Synthesizing SiC around Surface and Internal Vacancies

Authors: Noboru Wakamoto, Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to moderate the dependence of counter frictional coefficient on temperature between counter surfaces and to reduce the wear of C/C composites at low temperature. To modify the C/C composites, Silica (SiO2) powders were added into phenolic resin for carbon precursor. The preform plate of the precursor of C/C composites was prepared by conventional filament winding method. The C/C composites plates were obtained by carbonizing preform plate at 2200 °C under an argon atmosphere. At that time, the silicon carbides (SiC) were synthesized around the surfaces and the internal vacancies of the C/C composites. The frictional coefficient on the counter surfaces and specific wear volumes of the C/C composites were measured by our developed frictional test machine like pin-on disk type. The XRD indicated that SiC was synthesized in the body of C/C composite fabricated by current method. The results of friction test showed that coefficient of friction of unmodified C/C composites have temperature dependence when the test condition was changed. In contrast, frictional coefficient of the C/C composite modified with SiO2 powders was almost constant at about 0.27 when the temperature condition was changed from Room Temperature (RT) to 300 °C. The specific wear rate decreased from 25×10-6 mm2/N to 0.1×10-6 mm2/N. The observations of the surfaces after friction tests showed that the frictional surface of the modified C/C composites was covered with a film produced by the friction. This study found that synthesizing SiC around surface and internal vacancies of C/C composites was effective to moderate the dependence on the frictional coefficient and reduce to the abrasion of C/C composites.

Keywords: C/C composites, friction coefficient, wear, SiC

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12203 Investigation of Stellram Indexable Milling Cutter XDLT09-D41 Tool Wear for Machining of Ti6Al4V

Authors: Saad Nawaz, Yu Gang, Miao Haibin

Abstract:

Titanium alloys are attractive materials for aerospace industry due to their exceptional strength to weight ratio that is maintained at elevated temperatures and their good corrosion resistance. Major applications of titanium alloys were military aerospace industry, but since last decade the trend has now shifted towards commercial industry. On the other hand, titanium alloys are notorious for being poor thermal conductor that leads to them being difficult materials for machining. In this experimental study, Stellram Indexable milling cutter XDLT09-D41 is used for rough down milling of Ti6Al4V for small depth of cut under different combinations of parameters and application of high-pressure coolant. The machining performance was evaluated in terms of tool wear, tool life, and thermal crack. The tool wear was mostly observed at the tool tip and at bottom part of tool thermal deformations were observed which propagated with respect to time. Flank wear due to scratching of the cutting chips and diffusion wear because of high thermal stresses were observed specially at the bottom of the cutting tool. It was found that maximum tool life was obtained at the speed of 40m/min, feed rate of 358mm/min and depth of cut of 0.8mm. In the end, it was concluded that machining of Ti6Al4V is a thermally dominant process which leads to high thermal stresses in machining zone that results in increasing tool wear rate and deformation propagation.

Keywords: tool wear, cutting speed, flank wear , tool life

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12202 Wear Measurement of Thermomechanical Parameters of the Metal Carbide

Authors: Riad Harouz, Brahim Mahfoud

Abstract:

The threads and the circles on reinforced concrete are obtained by process of hot rolling with pebbles finishers in metal carbide which present a way of rolling around the outside diameter. Our observation is that this throat presents geometrical wear after the end of its cycle determined in tonnage. In our study, we have determined, in a first step, experimentally measurements of the wear in terms of thermo-mechanical parameters (Speed, Load, and Temperature) and the influence of these parameters on the wear. In the second stage, we have developed a mathematical model of lifetime useful for the prognostic of the wear and their changes.

Keywords: lifetime, metal carbides, modeling, thermo-mechanical, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
12201 Investigation the Effect of Quenching Media on Abrasive Wear in Grade Medium Carbon Steel

Authors: Abbas S. Alwan, Waleed K. Hussan

Abstract:

In this paper, a general verification of possible heat treatment of steel has been done with the view of conditions of real abrasive wear of rotivater with soil texture. This technique is found promising to improve the quality of agriculture components working with the soil in dry condition. Abrasive wear resistance is very important in many applications and in most cases it is directly correlated with the hardness of materials surface. Responded of heat treatments were carried out in various media (Still air, Cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %) and follow by low-temperature tempering (250°C) was applied on steel type (AISI 1030). After heat treatment was applied wear with soil texture by using tillage process to determine the (actual wear rate) of the specimens depending on weight loss method. It was found; the wear resistance Increases with increase hardness with varying quenching media as follows; 30 HRC, 45 HRC, 52 HRC, and 60 HRC for nontreated (as received) cooling media as still air, cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %, respectively. Martensitic structure with retained austenite can be obtained depending on the quenching medium. Wear was presented on the worn surfaces of the steels which were used in this work.

Keywords: microstructures, hardness, abrasive wear, heat treatment, soil texture

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12200 Estimation of Constant Coefficients of Bourgoyne and Young Drilling Rate Model for Drill Bit Wear Prediction

Authors: Ahmed Z. Mazen, Nejat Rahmanian, Iqbal Mujtaba, Ali Hassanpour

Abstract:

In oil and gas well drilling, the drill bit is an important part of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA), which is installed and designed to drill and produce a hole by several mechanisms. The efficiency of the bit depends on many drilling parameters such as weight on bit, rotary speed, and mud properties. When the bit is pulled out of the hole, the evaluation of the bit damage must be recorded very carefully to guide engineers in order to select the bits for further planned wells. Having a worn bit for hole drilling may cause severe damage to bit leading to cutter or cone losses in the bottom of hole, where a fishing job will have to take place, and all of these will increase the operating cost. The main factor to reduce the cost of drilling operation is to maximize the rate of penetration by analyzing real-time data to predict the drill bit wear while drilling. There are numerous models in the literature for prediction of the rate of penetration based on drilling parameters, mostly based on empirical approaches. One of the most commonly used approaches is Bourgoyne and Young model, where the rate of penetration can be estimated by the drilling parameters as well as a wear index using an empirical correlation, provided all the constants and coefficients are accurately determined. This paper introduces a new methodology to estimate the eight coefficients for Bourgoyne and Young model using the gPROMS parameters estimation GPE (Version 4.2.0). Real data collected form similar formations (12 ¼’ sections) in two different fields in Libya are used to estimate the coefficients. The estimated coefficients are then used in the equations and applied to nearby wells in the same field to predict the bit wear.

Keywords: Bourgoyne and Young model, bit wear, gPROMS, rate of penetration

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12199 Gear Wear Product Analysis as Applied for Tribological Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui

Abstract:

This paper describes an experimental investigation on a pair of gears in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back-to-back spur gear test rig was used. The test samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs was assessed with the utilization of the statistical design of the experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: tribology, spur gear wear, predictive maintenance, wear particle analysis

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12198 Effects of Test Environment on the Sliding Wear Behaviour of Cast Iron, Zinc-Aluminium Alloy and Its Composite

Authors: Mohammad M. Khan, Gajendra Dixit

Abstract:

Partially lubricated sliding wear behaviour of a zinc-based alloy reinforced with 10wt% SiC particles has been studied as a function of applied load and solid lubricant particle size and has been compared with that of matrix alloy and conventionally used grey cast iron. The wear tests were conducted at the sliding velocities of 2.1m/sec in various partial lubricated conditions using pin on disc machine as per ASTM G-99-05. Base oil (SAE 20W-40) or mixture of the base oil with 5wt% graphite of particle sizes (7-10 µm) and (100 µm) were used for creating lubricated conditions. The matrix alloy revealed primary dendrites of a and eutectoid a + h and Î phases in the Inter dendritic regions. Similar microstructure has been depicted by the composite with an additional presence of the dispersoid SiC particles. In the case of cast iron, flakes of graphite were observed in the matrix; the latter comprised of (majority of) pearlite and (limited quantity of) ferrite. Results show a large improvement in wear resistance of the zinc-based alloy after reinforcement with SiC particles. The cast iron shows intermediate response between the matrix alloy and composite. The solid lubrication improved the wear resistance and friction behaviour of both the reinforced and base alloy. Moreover, minimum wear rate is obtained in oil+ 5wt % graphite (7-10 µm) lubricated environment for the matrix alloy and composite while for cast iron addition of solid lubricant increases the wear rate and minimum wear rate is obtained in case of oil lubricated environment. The cast iron experienced higher frictional heating than the matrix alloy and composite in all the cases especially at higher load condition. As far as friction coefficient is concerned, a mixed trend of behaviour was noted. The wear rate and frictional heating increased with load while friction coefficient was affected in an opposite manner. Test duration influenced the frictional heating and friction coefficient of the samples in a mixed manner.

Keywords: solid lubricant, sliding wear, grey cast iron, zinc based metal matrix composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
12197 Wear Particle Analysis from used Gear Lubricants for Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui

Abstract:

This particular work describes an experimental investigation on gear wear in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back to back spur gear test rig and a grease lubricated worm gear rig were used. The tests samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs were assessed with utilization of statistical design of experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics from both cases exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: predictive maintenance, worm gear, spur gear, wear debris analysis, problem diagnostic

Procedia PDF Downloads 32