Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4934

Search results for: reaction wheels modeling

4934 Modeling of the Attitude Control Reaction Wheels of a Spacecraft in Software in the Loop Test Bed

Authors: Amr AbdelAzim Ali, G. A. Elsheikh, Moutaz M. Hegazy

Abstract:

Reaction wheels (RWs) are generally used as main actuator in the attitude control system (ACS) of spacecraft (SC) for fast orientation and high pointing accuracy. In order to achieve the required accuracy for the RWs model, the main characteristics of the RWs that necessitate analysis during the ACS design phase include: technical features, sequence of operating and RW control logic are included in function (behavior) model. A mathematical model is developed including the various errors source. The errors in control torque including relative, absolute, and error due to time delay. While the errors in angular velocity due to differences between average and real speed, resolution error, loose in installation of angular sensor, and synchronization errors. The friction torque is presented in the model include the different feature of friction phenomena: steady velocity friction, static friction and break-away torque, and frictional lag. The model response is compared with the experimental torque and frequency-response characteristics of tested RWs. Based on the created RW model, some criteria of optimization based control torque allocation problem can be recommended like: avoiding the zero speed crossing, bias angular velocity, or preventing wheel from running on the same angular velocity.

Keywords: friction torque, reaction wheels modeling, software in the loop, spacecraft attitude control

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
4933 An Optimal Approach for Full-Detailed Friction Model Identification of Reaction Wheel

Authors: Ghasem Sharifi, Hamed Shahmohamadi Ousaloo, Milad Azimi, Mehran Mirshams

Abstract:

The ever-increasing use of satellites demands a search for increasingly accurate and reliable pointing systems. Reaction wheels are rotating devices used commonly for the attitude control of the spacecraft since provide a wide range of torque magnitude and high reliability. The numerical modeling of this device can significantly enhance the accuracy of the satellite control in space. Modeling the wheel rotation in the presence of the various frictions is one of the critical parts of this approach. This paper presents a Dynamic Model Control of a Reaction Wheel (DMCR) in the current control mode. In current-mode, the required current is delivered to the coils in order to achieve the desired torque. During this research, all the friction parameters as viscous and coulomb, motor coefficient, resistance and voltage constant are identified. In order to model identification of a reaction wheel, numerous varying current commands apply on the particular wheel to verify the estimated model. All the parameters of DMCR are identified by classical Levenberg-Marquardt (CLM) optimization method. The experimental results demonstrate that the developed model has an appropriate precise and can be used in the satellite control simulation.

Keywords: experimental modeling, friction parameters, model identification, reaction wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
4932 Two Wheels Differential Type Odometry for Robot

Authors: Abhishek Jha, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new type of two wheels differential type odometry to estimate the next position and orientation of mobile robots. The proposed odometry is composed for two independent wheels with respective encoders. The two wheels rotate independently, and the change is determined by the difference in the velocity of the two wheels. Angular velocities of the two wheels are measured by rotary encoders. A mathematical model is proposed for the mobile robots to precisely move towards the goal. Using measured values of the two encoders, the current displacement vector of a mobile robot is calculated by kinematics of the mathematical model. Using the displacement vector, the next position and orientation of the mobile robot are estimated by proposed odometry. Result of simulator experiment by the developed odometry is shown.

Keywords: mobile robot, odometry, unicycle, differential type, encoders, infrared range sensors, kinematic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
4931 Select-Low and Select-High Methods for the Wheeled Robot Dynamic States Control

Authors: Bogusław Schreyer

Abstract:

The paper enquires on the two methods of the wheeled robot braking torque control. Those two methods are applied when the adhesion coefficient under left side wheels is different from the adhesion coefficient under the right side wheels. In case of the select-low (SL) method the braking torque on both wheels is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the lower adhesion. In the select-high (SH) method the torque is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the higher adhesion. The SL method is securing stable and secure robot behaviors during the braking process. However, the efficiency of this method is relatively low. The SH method is more efficient in terms of time and braking distance but in some situations may cause wheels blocking. It is important to monitor the velocity of all wheels and then take a decision about the braking torque distribution accordingly. In case of the SH method the braking torque slope may require significant decrease in order to avoid wheel blocking.

Keywords: select-high, select-low, torque distribution, wheeled robots

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
4930 In silico Model of Transamination Reaction Mechanism

Authors: Sang-Woo Han, Jong-Shik Shin

Abstract:

w-Transaminase (w-TA) is broadly used for synthesizing chiral amines with a high enantiopurity. However, the reaction mechanism of w-TA has been not well studied, contrary to a-transaminase (a-TA) such as AspTA. Here, we propose in silico model on the reaction mechanism of w-TA. Based on the modeling results which showed large free energy gaps between external aldimine and quinonoid on deamination (or ketimine and quinonoid on amination), withdrawal of Ca-H seemed as a critical step which determines the reaction rate on both amination and deamination reactions, which is consistent with previous researches. Hyperconjugation was also observed in both external aldimine and ketimine which weakens Ca-H bond to elevate Ca-H abstraction.

Keywords: computational modeling, reaction intermediates, w-transaminase, in silico model

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
4929 Fall Avoidance Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Type Robotic Wheelchair While Climbing Stairs

Authors: Nan Ding, Motoki Shino, Nobuyasu Tomokuni, Genki Murata

Abstract:

The wheelchair is the major means of transport for physically disabled people. However, it cannot overcome architectural barriers such as curbs and stairs. In this paper, the authors proposed a method to avoid falling down of a wheeled inverted pendulum type robotic wheelchair for climbing stairs. The problem of this system is that the feedback gain of the wheels cannot be set high due to modeling errors and gear backlash, which results in the movement of wheels. Therefore, the wheels slide down the stairs or collide with the side of the stairs, and finally the wheelchair falls down. To avoid falling down, the authors proposed a slider control strategy based on skyhook model in order to decrease the movement of wheels, and a rotary link control strategy based on the staircase dimensions in order to avoid collision or slide down. The effectiveness of the proposed fall avoidance control strategy was validated by ODE simulations and the prototype wheelchair.

Keywords: EPW, fall avoidance control, skyhook, wheeled inverted pendulum

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
4928 Impact of Wheel-Housing on Aerodynamic Drag and Effect on Energy Consumption on an Bus

Authors: Amitabh Das, Yash Jain, Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale, K. C. Vora

Abstract:

Role of wheel and underbody aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing geometry and pattern. Based on benchmarking a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption on an electric bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.

Keywords: wheel-housing, CFD simulation, drag coefficient, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
4927 Reductive Control in the Management of Redundant Actuation

Authors: Mkhinini Maher, Knani Jilani

Abstract:

We present in this work the performances of a mobile omnidirectional robot through evaluating its management of the redundancy of actuation. Thus we come to the predictive control implemented. The distribution of the wringer on the robot actions, through the inverse pseudo of Moore-Penrose, corresponds to a -geometric- distribution of efforts. We will show that the load on vehicle wheels would not be equi-distributed in terms of wheels configuration and of robot movement. Thus, the threshold of sliding is not the same for the three wheels of the vehicle. We suggest exploiting the redundancy of actuation to reduce the risk of wheels sliding and to ameliorate, thereby, its accuracy of displacement. This kind of approach was the subject of study for the legged robots.

Keywords: mobile robot, actuation, redundancy, omnidirectional, inverse pseudo moore-penrose, reductive control

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
4926 Computational Modeling of Combustion Wave in Nanoscale Thermite Reaction

Authors: Kyoungjin Kim

Abstract:

Nanoscale thermites such as the composite mixture of nano-sized aluminum and molybdenum trioxide powders possess several technical advantages such as much higher reaction rate and shorter ignition delay, when compared to the conventional energetic formulations made of micron-sized metal and oxidizer particles. In this study, the self-propagation of combustion wave in compacted pellets of nanoscale thermite composites is modeled and computationally investigated by utilizing the activation energy reduction of aluminum particles due to nanoscale particle sizes. The present computational model predicts the speed of combustion wave propagation which is good agreement with the corresponding experiments of thermite reaction. Also, several characteristics of thermite reaction in nanoscale composites are discussed including the ignition delay and combustion wave structures.

Keywords: nanoparticles, thermite reaction, combustion wave, numerical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
4925 Developing an Intelligent Table Tennis Ball Machine with Human Play Simulation for Technical Training

Authors: Chen-Chi An, Jun-Yi He, Cheng-Han Hsieh, Chen-Ching Ting

Abstract:

This research has successfully developed an intelligent table tennis ball machine with human play simulate all situations of human play to take the service. It is well known; an excellent ball machine can help the table tennis coach to provide more efficient teaching, also give players the good technical training and entertainment. An excellent ball machine should be able to service all balls based on human play simulation due to the conventional competitions are today all taken place for people. In this work, two counter-rotating wheels are used to service the balls, where changing the absolute rotating speeds of the two wheels and the differences of rotating speeds between the two wheels can adjust the struck forces and the rotating speeds of the ball. The relationships between the absolute rotating speed of the two wheels and the struck forces of the ball as well as the differences rotating speeds between the two wheels and the rotating speeds of the ball are experimentally determined for technical development. The outlet speed, the ejected distance, and the rotating speed of the ball were measured by changing the absolute rotating speeds of the two wheels in terms of a series of differences in rotating speed between the two wheels for calibration of the ball machine; where the outlet speed and the ejected distance of the ball were further converted to the struck forces of the ball. In process, the balls serviced by the intelligent ball machine were based on the received calibration curves with help of the computer. Experiments technically used photosensitive devices to detect the outlet and rotating speed of the ball. Finally, this research developed some teaching programs for technical training using three ball machines and received more efficient training.

Keywords: table tennis, ball machine, human play simulation, counter-rotating wheels

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
4924 Modelling and Technical Assessment of Multi-Motor for Electric Vehicle Drivetrains by Using Electric Differential

Authors: Mohamed Abdel-Monem, Gamal Sowilam, Omar Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper presents a technical assessment of an electric vehicle with two independent rear-wheel motor and an improved traction control system. The electric differential and the control strategy have been implemented to assure that in a straight trajectory, the two rear-wheels run exactly at the same speed, considering the same/different road conditions under the left and right side of the wheels. In case of turning to right/left, the difference between the two rear-wheels speeds assures a vehicle trajectory without sliding, thanks to a harmony between the electric differential and the control strategy. The present article demonstrates a complete model and analysis of a traction control system, considering four different traction scenarios, for two independent rear-wheels motors for electric vehicles. Furthermore, the vehicle model, including wheel dynamics, load forces, electric differential, and control strategy, is designed and verified by using MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: electric vehicle, energy saving, multi-motor, electric differential, simulation and control

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
4923 Modeling of Oligomerization of Ethylene in a Falling film Reactor for the Production of Linear Alpha Olefins

Authors: Adil A. Mohammed, Seif-Eddeen K. Fateen, Tamer S. Ahmed, Tarek M. Moustafa

Abstract:

Falling film were widely used for gas-liquid absorption and reaction process. Modeling of falling film for oligomerization of ethylene reaction to linear alpha olefins is developed. Although there are many researchers discuss modeling of falling film in many processes, there has been no publish study the simulation of falling film for the oligomerization of ethylene reaction to produce linear alpha olefins. The Comsol multiphysics software was used to simulate the mass transfer with chemical reaction in falling film absorption process. The effect of concentration profile absorption of the products through falling thickness is discussed. The effect of catalyst concentration, catalyst/co-catalyst ratio, and temperature is also studied. For the effect of the temperature, as it increase the concentration of C4 increase. For catalyst concentration and catalyst/co-catalyst ratio as they increases the concentration of C4 increases, till it reached almost constant value.

Keywords: falling film, oligomerization, comsol mutiphysics, linear alpha olefins

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
4922 Electronically Controlled Motorized Steering System (E-Mo Steer)

Authors: M. Prasanth, V. Nithin, R. Keerthana, S.Kalyani

Abstract:

In the current scenario, the steering system in automobiles is such that the motion from the steering wheel is transferred to driving wheel by mechanical linkages. In this paper, we propose a method to design a steering mechanism using servomotors to turn the wheels instead of linkages. In this method, a steering angle sensor senses the turn angle of the steering wheel and its output is processed by an electronical control module. Then the ECM compares the angle value to that of a standard value from a look-up database. Then it gives the appropriate input power and the turning duration to the motors. Correspondingly, the motors turn the wheels by means of bevel gears welded to both the motor output shafts and the wheel hubs. Thus, the wheels are turned without the complicated framework of linkages, reducing the driver’s effort and fatigue considerably.

Keywords: electronic control unit, linkage-less steering, servomotors, E-Mo Steer

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
4921 Implementing Digital Control System in Robotics

Authors: Safiullah Abdullahi

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a digital control system which controls the speed and direction of a robot. The robot is expected to follow a black thick line with the highest possible speed and lowest error around the line. The control system of the robot will correct for the angle error that is made between the frame axis of the robot and the line. The cause for error is the difference in speed of the two driving wheels of the robot which are driven by two separate DC motors, whereas the speed difference in wheels is due to the un-modeled fraction that is available in the wheels with different magnitudes in each. The control scheme is that a number of photo sensors are mounted in the front of the robot and report their position in reference to the black line to the digital controller. The controller then, evaluates the position error and generates the needed duty cycle for the related wheel motor to drive it faster or slower.

Keywords: digital control, robot, controller, control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
4920 A Development of Holonomic Mobile Robot Using Fuzzy Multi-Layered Controller

Authors: Seungwoo Kim, Yeongcheol Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, a holonomic mobile robot is designed in omnidirectional wheels and an adaptive fuzzy controller is presented for its precise trajectories. A kind of adaptive controller based on fuzzy multi-layered algorithm is used to solve the big parametric uncertainty of motor-controlled dynamic system of 3-wheels omnidirectional mobile robot. The system parameters such as a tracking force are so time-varying due to the kinematic structure of omnidirectional wheels. The fuzzy adaptive control method is able to solve the problems of classical adaptive controller and conventional fuzzy adaptive controllers. The basic idea of new adaptive control scheme is that an adaptive controller can be constructed with parallel combination of robust controllers. This new adaptive controller uses a fuzzy multi-layered architecture which has several independent fuzzy controllers in parallel, each with different robust stability area. Out of several independent fuzzy controllers, the most suited one is selected by a system identifier which observes variations in the controlled system parameter. This paper proposes a design procedure which can be carried out mathematically and systematically from the model of a controlled system. Finally, the good performance of a holonomic mobile robot is confirmed through live tests of the tracking control task.

Keywords: fuzzy adaptive control, fuzzy multi-layered controller, holonomic mobile robot, omnidirectional wheels, robustness and stability.

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
4919 Stress Analysis of Spider Gear Using Structural Steel on ANSYS

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Shahab Khushnood

Abstract:

Differential is an integral part of four wheeled vehicle, and its main function is to transmit power from drive shaft to wheels. Differential assembly allows both rear wheels to turn at different speed along curved paths. It consists of four gears which are assembled together namely pinion, ring, spider and bevel gears. This research focused on the spider gear and its static structural analysis using ANSYS. The main aim was to evaluate the distribution of stresses on the teeth of the spider gear. This study also analyzed total deformation that may occur during its working along with bevel gear that is meshed with spider gear. Structural steel was chosen for spider gear in this research. Modeling and assembling were done on SolidWorks for both spider and bevel gear. They were assembled exactly same as in a differential assembly. This assembly was then imported to ANSYS. After observing results that maximum amount of stress and deformation was produced in the spider gear, it was concluded that structural steel material for spider gear possesses greater amount of strength to bear maximum stress.

Keywords: ANSYS, differential, spider gear, structural steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
4918 Kinetic Study of 1-Butene Isomerization over Hydrotalcite Catalyst

Authors: Sirada Sripinun

Abstract:

This work studied the isomerization of 1-butene over hydrotalcite catalyst. The experiments were conducted at various gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), reaction temperature, and feed concentration. No catalyst deactivation was observed over the reaction time of 16 hours. Two major reaction products were trans-2-butene and cis-2-butene. The reaction temperature played an important role on the reaction selectivity. At high operating temperatures, the selectivity of trans-2-butene was higher than the selectivity of cis-2-butene while it was opposite at a lower reaction temperature. In the range of operating conditions, the maximum conversion of 1-butene was found at 74% when T = 673 K and GHSV = 4 m3/h/kg-cat with trans- and cis-2-butene selectivities of 54% and 46% respectively. Finally, the kinetic parameters of the reaction were determined.

Keywords: hydrotalcite, isomerization, kinetic, 1-butene

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
4917 Optimization of Reaction Parameters' Influences on Production of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Chayanoot Sangwichien, Taweesak Reungpeerakul, Kyaw Thu

Abstract:

Oil palm mills in Southern Thailand produced a large amount of biomass solid wastes. Lignocellulose biomass is the main source for production of biofuel which can be combined or used as an alternative to fossil fuels. Biomass composed of three main constituents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Thermochemical conversion process applied to produce biofuel from biomass. Pyrolysis of biomass is the best way to thermochemical conversion of biomass into pyrolytic products (bio-oil, gas, and char). Operating parameters play an important role to optimize the product yields from fast pyrolysis of biomass. This present work concerns with the modeling of reaction kinetics parameters for fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch in the fluidized bed reactor. A global kinetic model used to predict the product yields from fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch. The reaction temperature and vapor residence time parameters are mainly affected by product yields of EFB pyrolysis. The reaction temperature and vapor residence time parameters effects on empty fruit bunch pyrolysis are considered at the reaction temperature in the range of 450-500˚C and at a vapor residence time of 2 s, respectively. The optimum simulated bio-oil yield of 53 wt.% obtained at the reaction temperature and vapor residence time of 450˚C and 2 s, 500˚C and 1 s, respectively. The simulated data are in good agreement with the reported experimental data. These simulated data can be applied to the performance of experiment work for the fast pyrolysis of biomass.

Keywords: kinetics, empty fruit bunch, fast pyrolysis, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
4916 Response of a Bridge Crane during an Earthquake

Authors: F. Fekak, A. Gravouil, M. Brun, B. Depale

Abstract:

During an earthquake, a bridge crane may be subjected to multiple impacts between crane wheels and rail. In order to model such phenomena, a time-history dynamic analysis with a multi-scale approach is performed. The high frequency aspect of the impacts between wheels and rails is taken into account by a Lagrange explicit event-capturing algorithm based on a velocity-impulse formulation to resolve contacts and impacts. An implicit temporal scheme is used for the rest of the structure. The numerical coupling between the implicit and the explicit schemes is achieved with a heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator.

Keywords: bridge crane, earthquake, dynamic analysis, explicit, implicit, impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
4915 Photo-Fenton Decolorization of Methylene Blue Adsolubilized on Co2+ -Embedded Alumina Surface: Comparison of Process Modeling through Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Prateeksha Mahamallik, Anjali Pal

Abstract:

In the present study, Co(II)-adsolubilized surfactant modified alumina (SMA) was prepared, and methylene blue (MB) degradation was carried out on Co-SMA surface by visible light photo-Fenton process. The entire reaction proceeded on solid surface as MB was embedded on Co-SMA surface. The reaction followed zero order kinetics. Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used for modeling the decolorization of MB by photo-Fenton process as a function of dose of Co-SMA (10, 20 and 30 g/L), initial concentration of MB (10, 20 and 30 mg/L), concentration of H2O2 (174.4, 348.8 and 523.2 mM) and reaction time (30, 45 and 60 min). The prediction capabilities of both the methodologies (RSM and ANN) were compared on the basis of correlation coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), standard error of prediction (SEP), relative percent deviation (RPD). Due to lower value of RMSE (1.27), SEP (2.06) and RPD (1.17) and higher value of R2 (0.9966), ANN was proved to be more accurate than RSM in order to predict decolorization efficiency.

Keywords: adsolubilization, artificial neural network, methylene blue, photo-fenton process, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
4914 Damping and Stability Evaluation for the Dynamical Hunting Motion of the Bullet Train Wheel Axle Equipped with Cylindrical Wheel Treads

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

Classical matrix calculus and Routh-Hurwitz stability conditions, applied to the snake-like motion of the conical wheel axle, lead to the conclusion that the hunting mode is inherently unstable, and its natural frequency is a complex number. In order to analytically solve such a complicated vibration model, either the inertia terms were neglected, in the model designated as geometrical, or restrictions on the creep coefficients and yawing diameter were imposed, in the so-called dynamical model. Here, an alternative solution is proposed to solve the hunting mode, based on the observation that the bullet train wheel axle is equipped with cylindrical wheels. One argues that for such wheel treads, the geometrical hunting is irrelevant, since its natural frequency becomes nil, but the dynamical hunting is significant since its natural frequency reduces to a real number. Moreover, one illustrates that the geometrical simplification of the wheel causes the stabilization of the hunting mode, since the characteristic quartic equation, derived for conical wheels, reduces to a quadratic equation of positive coefficients, for cylindrical wheels. Quite simple analytical expressions for the damping ratio and natural frequency are obtained, without applying restrictions into the model of contact. Graphs of the time-depending hunting lateral perturbation, including the maximal and inflexion points, are presented both for the critically-damped and the over-damped wheel axles.

Keywords: bullet train, creep, cylindrical wheels, damping, dynamical hunting, stability, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
4913 Reaction Rate Behavior of a Methane-Air Mixture over a Platinum Catalyst in a Single Channel Catalytic Reactor

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in gas turbines. In this paper, the behavior of surface reaction rate on catalytic combustion is studied with respect to the heterogeneous oxidation of methane-air mixture in a catalytic reactor. Plug flow reactor (PFR), the simplified single catalytic channel assists in investigating the catalytic combustion phenomenon over the Pt catalyst by promoting the desired chemical reactions. The numerical simulation with multi-step elementary surface reactions is governed by the availability of free surface sites onto the catalytic surface and thereby, the catalytic combustion characteristics are demonstrated by examining the rate of the reaction for lean fuel mixture. Further, two different surface reaction mechanisms are adopted and compared for surface reaction rates to indicate the controlling heterogeneous reaction for better fuel conversion. The performance of platinum catalyst under heterogeneous reaction is analyzed under the same temperature condition, where the catalyst with the higher kinetic rate of reaction would have a maximum catalytic activity for enhanced methane catalytic combustion.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, heterogeneous reaction, plug flow reactor, surface reaction rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
4912 Theoretical Insight into Ligand Free Manganese Catalyzed C-O Coupling Protocol for the Synthesis of Biaryl Ethers

Authors: Carolin Anna Joy, Rohith K. R, Rehin Sulay, Parvathy Santhoshkumar, G.Anil Kumar, Vibin Ipe Thomas

Abstract:

Ullmann coupling reactions are gaining great relevance owing to their contribution in the synthesis of biologically and pharmaceutically important compounds. Palladium and many other heavy metals have proven their excellent ability in coupling reaction, but the toxicity matters. The first-row transition metal also possess toxicity, except in the case of iron and manganese. The suitability of manganese as a catalyst is achieving great interest in oxidation, reduction, C-H activation, coupling reaction etc. In this presentation, we discuss the thermo chemistry of ligand free manganese catalyzed C-O coupling reaction between phenol and aryl halide for the synthesis of biaryl ethers using Density functional theory techniques. The mechanism involves an oxidative addition-reductive elimination step. The transition state for both the step had been studied and confirmed using Intrinsic Reaction Coordinate (IRC) calculation. The barrier height for the reaction had also been calculated from the rate determining step. The possibility of other mechanistic way had also been studied. To achieve further insight into the mechanism, substrate having various functional groups is considered in our study to direct their effect on the feasibility of the reaction.

Keywords: Density functional theory, Molecular Modeling, ligand free, biaryl ethers, Ullmann coupling

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
4911 Analysis of Impact of Airplane Wheels Pre-Rotating on Landing Gears of Large Airplane

Authors: Huang Bingling, Jia Yuhong, Liu Yanhui

Abstract:

As an important part of aircraft, landing gears are responsible for taking-off and landing function. In recent years, big airplane's structural quality increases a lot. As a result, landing gears have stricter technical requirements than ever before such as structure strength and etc. If the structural strength of the landing gear is enhanced through traditional methods like increasing structural quality, the negative impacts on the landing gear's function would be very serious and even counteract the positive effects. Thus, in order to solve this problem, the impact of pre-rotating of landing gears on performance of landing gears is studied from the theoretical and experimental verification in this paper. By increasing the pre-rotating speed of the wheel, it can improve the performance of the landing gear and reduce the structural quality, the force of joint parts and other properties. In addition, the pre-rotating of the wheels also has other advantages, such as reduce the friction between wheels and ground and extend the life of the wheel. In this paper, the impact of the pre-rotating speed on landing gears and the connecting between landing gears performance and pre-rotating speed would be researched in detail. This paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, large airplane landing gear model is built by CATIA and LMS. As most general landing gear type in big plane, four-wheel landing gear is picked as model. The second part is to simulate the process of landing in LMS motion, and study the impact of pre-rotating of wheels on the aircraft`s properties, including the buffer stroke, efficiency, power; friction, displacement and relative speed between piston and sleeve; force and load distribution of tires. The simulation results show that the characteristics of the different pre-rotation speed are understood. The third part is conclusion. Through the data of the previous simulation and the relationship between the pre-rotation speed of the aircraft wheels and the performance of the aircraft, recommended speed interval is proposed. This paper is of great theoretical value to improve the performance of large airplane. It is a very effective method to improve the performance of aircraft by setting wheel pre-rotating speed. Do not need to increase the structural quality too much, eliminating the negative effects of traditional methods.

Keywords: large airplane, landing gear, pre-rotating, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
4910 Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide

Authors: Ude N. Callistus, Amulu F. Ndidi, Onukwuli D. Okechukwu, Amulu E. Patrick

Abstract:

Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.

Keywords: refined cottonseed oil, transesterification, CaO, heterogeneous catalysts, kinetic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
4909 Theoretical Study of Acetylation of P-Methylaniline Catalyzed by Cu²⁺ Ions

Authors: Silvana Caglieri

Abstract:

Theoretical study of acetylation of p-methylaniline catalyzed by Cu2+ ions from the analysis of intermediate of the reaction was carried out. The study of acetylation of amines is of great interest by the utility of its products of reaction and is one of the most frequently used transformations in organic synthesis as it provides an efficient and inexpensive means for protecting amino groups in a multistep synthetic process. Acetylation of amine is a nucleophilic substitution reaction. This reaction can be catalyzed by Lewis acid, metallic ion. In reaction mechanism, the metallic ion formed a complex with the oxygen of the acetic anhydride carbonyl, facilitating the polarization of the same and the successive addition of amine at the position to form a tetrahedral intermediate, determining step of the rate of the reaction. Experimental work agreed that this reaction takes place with the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate. In the present theoretical work were investigated the structure and energy of the tetrahedral intermediate of the reaction catalyzed by Cu2+ ions. Geometries of all species involved in the acetylation were made and identified. All of the geometry optimizations were performed by the method at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory and the method MP2. Were adopted the 6-31+G* basis sets. Energies were calculated using the Mechanics-UFF method. Following the same procedure it was identified the geometric parameters and energy of reaction intermediate. The calculations show 61.35 kcal/mol of energy for the tetrahedral intermediate and the energy of activation for the reaction was 15.55 kcal/mol.

Keywords: amides, amines, DFT, MP2

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
4908 Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolite/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Material and Investigation of Its Catalytic Reaction

Authors: Mojgan Zendehdel, Safura Molla Mohammad Zamani

Abstract:

In this paper, Fe3O4/NaY zeolite nanocomposite with different molar ratio were successfully synthesized and characterized using FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM graphs showed that much of Fe3O4 was successfully coated by the NaY zeolite layer. Also, the results show that the magnetism of the products is stable with added zeolite. The catalytic effect of nanocomposite investigated for esterification reaction under solvent-free conditions. Hence, the effect of the catalyst amount, reaction time, reaction temperature and reusability of catalyst were considered and nanocomposite that created from zeolite and 16.6 percent of Fe3O4 showed the highest yield. The catalyst can be easily separated from reaction with the magnet and it can also be used for several times.

Keywords: zeolite, magnetic, nanocompsite, esterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
4907 An Efficient and Green Procedure for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Polyhydronaphthalene Derivatives via a One-Pot, Multi-Component Reaction in Aqueous Media

Authors: Adeleh Moshtaghi Zonouz, Issa Eskandari

Abstract:

A simple, efficient, and green one-pot, four-component synthesis of highly substituted polyhydronaphthalenes in aqueous media is described. The method has such advantages as short reaction times, high yields, mild reaction conditions, operational simplicity and environmentally benign.

Keywords: polyhydronaphthalene, 2, 6-dicyanoanilines, multi-component reaction, aqueous media

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
4906 Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel and Sonochemical Combination

Authors: Sabriye Piskin, Sibel Kasap, Muge Sari Yilmaz

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel and sonochemical combination using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor at lower temperature for a short time. The effect of the reaction parameters (hydrolysis media, acid media, and reaction temperatures) on the synthesis of TiO2 particles were investigated in the present study. Characterizations of synthesized samples were prepared by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was shown that the reaction parameters played a significant role in the synthesis of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: crystalline TiO2, sonochemical mechanism, sol-gel reaction, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
4905 Reaction Kinetics for the Pyrolysis of Urea Phosphate

Authors: P. A. Broodryk, A. F. Van Der Merwe, H. W. J. P. Neomagus

Abstract:

The production of the clear liquid fertilizer ammonium polyphosphate (APP) is best achieved by the pyrolysis of urea phosphate, as it produces a product that is free from any of the impurities present in the raw phosphoric acid it was made from. This is a multiphase, multi-step reaction that produces carbon dioxide and ammonia as gasses and ammonium polyphosphate as liquid products. The polyphosphate chain length affects the solubility and thus the applicability of the product as liquid fertiliser, thus proper control of the reaction conditions is thus required for the use of this reaction in the production of fertilisers. This study investigates the reaction kinetics of the aforementioned reaction, describing a mathematical model for the kinetics of the reaction along with the accompanying rate constants. The reaction is initially exothermic, producing only carbon dioxide as a gas product and ammonium diphosphate, at higher temperatures the reaction becomes endothermic, producing ammonia gas as an additional by-product and longer chain polyphosphates, which when condensed too far becomes highly water insoluble. The aim of this study was to (i) characterise the pyrolysis reaction of urea phosphate by determining the mechanisms and the associated kinetic constants, and (ii) to determine the optimum conditions for ammonium diphosphate production. A qualitative investigation was also done to find the rate of hydrolysis of APP as this provides an estimate of the shelf life of an APP clear liquid fertiliser solution.

Keywords: ammonium polyphosphate, kinetics, pyrolysis, urea phosphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 41