Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1320

Search results for: hall electric propulsion

1320 The LIP’s Electric Propulsion Development for Chinese Spacecraft

Authors: Zhang Tianping, Jia Yanhui, Li Juan, Yang Le, Yang Hao, Yang Wei, Sun Xiaojing, Shi Kai, Li Xingda, Sun Yunkui


Lanzhou Institute of Physics (LIP) is the major supplier of electric propulsion subsystems for Chinese satellite platforms. The development statuses of these electric propulsion subsystems were summarized including the LIPS-200 ion electric propulsion subsystem (IEPS) for DFH-3B platform, the LIPS-300 IEPS for DFH-5 and DFH-4SP platform, the LIPS-200+ IEPS for DFH-4E platform and near-earth asteroid exploration spacecraft, the LIPS-100 IEPS for small satellite platform, the LHT-100 hall electric propulsion subsystem (HEPS) for flight test on XY-2 satellite, the LHT-140 HEPS for large LEO spacecraft, the LIPS-400 IEPS for deep space exploration mission and other EPS for other Chinese spacecraft.

Keywords: ion electric propulsion, hall electric propulsion, satellite platform, LIP

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1319 Electric Propulsion Systems in Aerospace Applications - Energy Balance Analysis

Authors: T. Tulwin, M. Gęca, R. Sochaczewski


Recent improvements in electric propulsion systems and energy storage systems allow for the electrification of many sectors where it was previously not feasible. This analysis proves the feasibility of electric propulsion in aviation applications reviewing recent energy storage developments. It can be more quiet, energy efficient and more environmentally friendly. Numerical simulations were done to prove that energy efficiency can be improved for rotorcrafts especially in hover conditions. New types of aircraft configurations are reviewed and future trends are presented.

Keywords: aircraft, propulsion , efficiency, storage

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1318 Electric Propulsion System Development for High Floor Trolley Bus

Authors: Asep Andi Suryandi, Katri Yulianto, Dewi Rianti Mandasari


The development of environmentally friendly vehicles increasingly attracted the attention of almost all countries in the world, including Indonesia. There are various types of environmentally friendly vehicles, such as: electric vehicles, hybrid, and fuel gas. The Electric vehicle has been developed in Indonesia, a private or public vehicle. But many electric vehicles had been developed using the battery as a power source, while the battery technology for electric vehicles still constraints in capacity, dimensions of the battery itself and charging system. Trolley bus is one of the electric buses with the main power source of the network catenary / overhead line with trolley pole as the point of contact. This paper will discuss the design and manufacture electrical system in Trolleybus.

Keywords: trolley bus, electric propulsion system, design, manufacture, electric vehicle

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1317 Solar Electric Propulsion: The Future of Deep Space Exploration

Authors: Abhishek Sharma, Arnab Banerjee


The research is intended to study the solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology for planetary missions. The main benefits of using solar electric propulsion for such missions are shorter flight times, more frequent target accessibility and the use of a smaller launch vehicle than that required by a comparable chemical propulsion mission. Energized by electric power from on-board solar arrays, the electrically propelled system uses 10 times less propellant than conventional chemical propulsion system, yet the reduced fuel mass can provide vigorous power which is capable of propelling robotic and crewed missions beyond the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO). The various thrusters used in the SEP are gridded ion thrusters and the Hall Effect thrusters. The research is solely aimed to study the ion thrusters and investigate the complications related to it and what can be done to overcome the glitches. The ion thrusters are used because they are found to have a total lower propellant requirement and have substantially longer time. In the ion thrusters, the anode pushes or directs the incoming electrons from the cathode. But the anode is not maintained at a very high potential which leads to divergence. Divergence leads to the charges interacting against the surface of the thruster. Just as the charges ionize the xenon gases, they are capable of ionizing the surfaces and over time destroy the surface and hence contaminate it. Hence the lifetime of thruster gets limited. So a solution to this problem is using substances which are not easy to ionize as the surface material. Another approach can be to increase the potential of anode so that the electrons don’t deviate much or reduce the length of thruster such that the positive anode is more effective. The aim is to work on these aspects as to how constriction of the deviation of charges can be done by keeping the input power constant and hence increase the lifetime of the thruster. Predominantly ring cusp magnets are used in the ion thrusters. However, the study is also intended to observe the effect of using solenoid for producing micro-solenoidal magnetic field apart from using the ring cusp magnetic field which are used in the discharge chamber for prevention of interaction of electrons with the ionization walls. Another foremost area of interest is what are the ways by which power can be provided to the Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle for lowering and boosting the orbit of the spacecraft and also provide substantial amount of power to the solenoid for producing stronger magnetic fields. This can be successfully achieved by using the concept of Electro-dynamic tether which will serve as a power source for powering both the vehicle and the solenoids in the ion thruster and hence eliminating the need for carrying extra propellant on the spacecraft which will reduce the weight and hence reduce the cost of space propulsion.

Keywords: electro-dynamic tether, ion thruster, lifetime of thruster, solar electric propulsion vehicle

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1316 Research of the Rotation Magnetic Field Current Driven Effect on Pulsed Plasmoid Acceleration of Electric Propulsion

Authors: X. F. Sun, X. D. Wen, L. J. Liu, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Jia


The field reversed closed magnetic field configuration plasmoid has a potential for large thrust and high power propulsion missions such as deep space exploration due to its high plasma density and larger azimuthal current, which will be a most competitive program for the next generation electric propulsion technology. Moreover, without the electrodes, it also has a long lifetime. Thus, the research on this electric propulsion technology is quite necessary. The plasmoid will be formatted and accelerated by applying a rotation magnetic field (RMF) method. And, the essence of this technology lies on the generation of the azimuthal electron currents driven by RMF. Therefore, the effect of RMF current on the plasmoid acceleration efficiency is a concerned problem. In the paper, the influences of the penetration process of RMF in plasma, the relations of frequency and amplitude of input RF power with current strength and the RMF antenna configuration on the plasmoid acceleration efficiency will be given by a two-fluid numerical simulation method. The results show that the radio-frequency and input power have remarkable influence on the formation and acceleration of plasmoid. These results will provide useful advice for the development, and optimized designing of field reversed configuration plasmoid thruster.

Keywords: rotation magnetic field, current driven, plasma penetration, electric propulsion

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1315 Development of a Very High Sensitivity Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Planar Hall Effect

Authors: Arnab Roy, P. S. Anil Kumar


Hall bar magnetic field sensors based on planar hall effect were fabricated from permalloy (Ni¬80Fe20) thin films grown by pulsed laser ablation. As large as 400% planar Hall voltage change was observed for a magnetic field sweep within ±4 Oe, a value comparable with present day TMR sensors at room temperature. A very large planar Hall sensitivity of 1200 Ω/T was measured close to switching fields, which was not obtained so far apart from 2DEG Hall sensors. In summary, a highly sensitive low magnetic field sensor has been constructed which has the added advantage of simple architecture, good signal to noise ratio and robustness.

Keywords: planar hall effect, permalloy, NiFe, pulsed laser ablation, low magnetic field sensor, high sensitivity magnetic field sensor

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1314 The Hall Coefficient and Magnetoresistance in Rectangular Quantum Wires with Infinitely High Potential under the Influence of a Laser Radiation

Authors: Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau


The Hall Coefficient (HC) and the Magnetoresistance (MR) have been studied in two-dimensional systems. The HC and the MR in Rectangular Quantum Wire (RQW) subjected to a crossed DC electric field and magnetic field in the presence of a Strong Electromagnetic Wave (EMW) characterized by electric field are studied in this work. Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with optical phonons, we obtain the analytic expressions for the HC and the MR with a dependence on magnetic field, EMW frequency, temperatures of systems and the length characteristic parameters of RQW. These expressions are different from those obtained for bulk semiconductors and cylindrical quantum wires. The analytical results are applied to GaAs/GaAs/Al. For this material, MR depends on the ratio of the EMW frequency to the cyclotron frequency. Indeed, MR reaches a minimum at the ratio 5/4, and when this ratio increases, it tends towards a saturation value. The HC can take negative or positive values. Each curve has one maximum and one minimum. When magnetic field increases, the HC is negative, achieves a minimum value and then increases suddenly to a maximum with a positive value. This phenomenon differs from the one observed in cylindrical quantum wire, which does not have maximum and minimum values.

Keywords: hall coefficient, rectangular quantum wires, electron-optical phonon interaction, quantum kinetic equation

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1313 A CMOS-Integrated Hall Plate with High Sensitivity

Authors: Jin Sup Kim, Min Seo


An improved cross-shaped hall plate with high sensitivity is described in this paper. Among different geometries that have been simulated and measured using Helmholtz coil. The paper describes the physical hall plate design and implementation in a 0.18-µm CMOS technology. In this paper, the biasing is a constant voltage mode. In the voltage mode, magnetic field is converted into an output voltage. The output voltage is typically in the order of micro- to millivolt and therefore, it must be amplified before being transmitted to the outside world. The study, design and performance optimization of hall plate has been carried out with the COMSOL Multiphysics. It is used to estimate the voltage distribution in the hall plate with and without magnetic field and to optimize the geometry. The simulation uses the nominal bias current of 1mA. The applied magnetic field is in the range from 0 mT to 20 mT. Measured results of the one structure over the 10 available samples show for the best sensitivity of 2.5 %/T at 20mT.

Keywords: cross-shaped hall plate, sensitivity, CMOS technology, Helmholtz coil

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1312 Comparison of the Thermal Characteristics of Induction Motor, Switched Reluctance Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Sadeep Sasidharan, T. B. Isha


Modern day electric vehicles require compact high torque/power density motors for electric propulsion. This necessitates proper thermal management of the electric motors. The main focus of this paper is to compare the steady state thermal analysis of a conventional 20 kW 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) with that of an Induction Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor of the same rating. The goal is to develop a proper thermal model of the three types of models for Finite Element Thermal Analysis. JMAG software is used for the development and simulation of the thermal models. The results show that the induction motor is subjected to more heating when used for electric vehicle application constantly, compared to the SRM and IPM.

Keywords: electric vehicles, induction motor, inset permanent magnet motor, loss models, switched reluctance motor, thermal analysis

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1311 Power Reduction of Hall-Effect Sensor by Pulse Width Modulation of Spinning-Current

Authors: Hyungil Chae


This work presents a method to reduce spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor for low-power magnetic sensor applications. Spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor changes the direction of bias current periodically and can separate signals from DC-offset. The bias current is proportional to the sensor sensitivity but also increases the power consumption. To achieve both high sensitivity and low power consumption, the bias current can be pulse-width modulated. When the bias current duration Tb is reduced by a factor of N compared to the spinning current period of Tₛ/2, the total power consumption can be saved by N times. N can be large as long as the Hall-effect sensor settles down within Tb. The proposed scheme is implemented and simulated in a 0.18um CMOS process, and the power saving factor is 9.6 when N is 10. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (20160001360022003, Development of Hall Semi-conductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: chopper stabilization, Hall-effect sensor, pulse width modulation, spinning current

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1310 Lookup Table Reduction and Its Error Analysis of Hall Sensor-Based Rotation Angle Measurement

Authors: Young-San Shin, Seongsoo Lee


Hall sensor is widely used to measure rotation angle. When the Hall voltage is measured for linear displacement, it is converted to angular displacement using arctangent function, which requires a large lookup table. In this paper, a lookup table reduction technique is presented for angle measurement. When the input of the lookup table is small within a certain threshold, the change of the outputs with respect to the change of the inputs is relatively small. Thus, several inputs can share same output, which significantly reduce the lookup table size. Its error analysis was also performed, and the threshold was determined so as to maintain the error less than 1°. When the Hall voltage has 11-bit resolution, the lookup table size is reduced from 1,024 samples to 279 samples.

Keywords: hall sensor, angle measurement, lookup table, arctangent

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1309 Analysis of Vertical Hall Effect Device Using Current-Mode

Authors: Kim Jin Sup


This paper presents a vertical hall effect device using current-mode. Among different geometries that have been studied and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics, optimized cross-shaped model displayed the best sensitivity. The cross-shaped model emerged as the optimum plate to fit the lowest noise and residual offset and the best sensitivity. The symmetrical cross-shaped hall plate is widely used because of its high sensitivity and immunity to alignment tolerances resulting from the fabrication process. The hall effect device has been designed using a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The simulation uses the nominal bias current of 12μA. The applied magnetic field is from 0 mT to 20 mT. Simulation results achieved in COMSOL and validated with respect to the electrical behavior of equivalent circuit for Cadence. Simulation results of the one structure over the 13 available samples shows for the best geometry a current-mode sensitivity of 6.6 %/T at 20mT. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. R7117-16-0165, Development of Hall Effect Semiconductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: vertical hall device, current-mode, crossed-shaped model, CMOS technology

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1308 Flight School Perceptions of Electric Planes for Training

Authors: Chelsea-Anne Edwards, Paul Parker


Flight school members are facing a major disruption in the technologies available for them to fly as electric planes enter the aviation industry. The year 2020 marked a new era in aviation with the first type certification of an electric plane. The Pipistrel Velis Electro is a two-seat electric aircraft (e-plane) designed for flight training. Electric flight training has the potential to deeply reduce emissions, noise, and cost of pilot training. Though these are all attractive features, understanding must be developed on the perceptions of the essential actor of the technology, the pilot. This study asks student pilots, flight instructors, flight center managers, and other members of flight schools about their perceptions of e-planes. The questions were divided into three categories: safety and trust of the technology, expected costs in comparison to conventional planes, and interest in the technology, including their desire to fly electric planes. Participants were recruited from flight schools using a protocol approved by the Office of Research Ethics. None of these flight schools have an e-plane in their fleet so these views are based on perceptions rather than direct experience. The results revealed perceptions that were strongly positive with many qualitative comments indicating great excitement about the potential of the new electric aviation technology. Some concerns were raised regarding battery endurance limits. Overall, the flight school community is clearly in favor of introducing electric propulsion technology and reducing the environmental impacts of their industry.

Keywords: electric planes, flight training, green aircraft, student pilots, sustainable aviation

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1307 Emissions and Total Cost of Ownership Assessment of Hybrid Propulsion Concepts for Bus Transport with Compressed Natural Gases or Diesel Engine

Authors: Volker Landersheim, Daria Manushyna, Thinh Pham, Dai-Duong Tran, Thomas Geury, Omar Hegazy, Steven Wilkins


Air pollution is one of the emerging problems in our society. Targets of reduction of CO₂ emissions address low-carbon and resource-efficient transport. (Plug-in) hybrid electric propulsion concepts offer the possibility to reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) and emissions for public transport vehicles (e.g., bus application). In this context, typically, diesel engines are used to form the hybrid propulsion system of the vehicle. Though the technological development of diesel engines experience major advantages, some challenges such as the high amount of particle emissions remain relevant. Gaseous fuels (i.e., compressed natural gases (CNGs) or liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) represent an attractive alternative to diesel because of their composition. In the framework of the research project 'Optimised Real-world Cost-Competitive Modular Hybrid Architecture' (ORCA), which was funded by the EU, two different hybrid-electric propulsion concepts have been investigated: one using a diesel engine as internal combustion engine and one using CNG as fuel. The aim of the current study is to analyze specific benefits for the aforementioned hybrid propulsion systems for predefined driving scenarios with regard to emissions and total cost of ownership in bus application. Engine models based on experimental data for diesel and CNG were developed. For the purpose of designing optimal energy management strategies for each propulsion system, maps-driven or quasi-static models for specific engine types are used in the simulation framework. An analogous modelling approach has been chosen to represent emissions. This paper compares the two concepts regarding their CO₂ and NOx emissions. This comparison is performed for relevant bus missions (urban, suburban, with and without zero-emission zone) and with different energy management strategies. In addition to the emissions, also the downsizing potential of the combustion engine has been analysed to minimize the powertrain TCO (pTCO) for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The results of the performed analyses show that the hybrid vehicle concept using the CNG engine shows advantages both with respect to emissions as well as to pTCO. The pTCO is 10% lower, CO₂ emissions are 13% lower, and the NOx emissions are more than 50% lower than with the diesel combustion engine. These results are consistent across all usage profiles under investigation.

Keywords: bus transport, emissions, hybrid propulsion, pTCO, CNG

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1306 Current Status of 5A Lab6 Hollow Cathode Life Tests in Lanzhou Institute of Physics, China

Authors: Yanhui Jia, Ning Guo, Juan Li, Yunkui Sun, Wei Yang, Tianping Zhang, Lin Ma, Wei Meng, Hai Geng


The current statuses of lifetime test of LaB6 hollow cathode at the Lanzhou institute of physics (LIP), China, was described. 5A LaB6 hollow cathode was designed for LIPS-200 40mN Xenon ion thruster and it could be used for LHT-100 80 mN Hall thruster, too. Life test of the discharge and neutralizer modes of LHC-5 hollow cathode were stared in October 2011, and cumulative operation time reached 17,300 and 16,100 hours in April 2015, respectively. The life of cathode was designed more than 11,000 hours. Parameters of discharge and key structure dimensions were monitored in different stage of life test indicated that cathodes were health enough. The test will continue until the cathode cannot work or operation parameter is not in normally. The result of the endurance test of cathode demonstrated that the LaB6 hollow cathode is satisfied for the required of thruster in life and performance.

Keywords: LaB6, hollow cathode, thruster, lifetime test, electric propulsion

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1305 Metal Layer Based Vertical Hall Device in a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Process

Authors: Se-Mi Lim, Won-Jae Jung, Jin-Sup Kim, Jun-Seok Park, Hyung-Il Chae


This paper presents a current-mode vertical hall device (VHD) structure using metal layers in a CMOS process. The proposed metal layer based vertical hall device (MLVHD) utilizes vertical connection among metal layers (from M1 to the top metal) to facilitate hall effect. The vertical metal structure unit flows a bias current Ibias from top to bottom, and an external magnetic field changes the current distribution by Lorentz force. The asymmetric current distribution can be detected by two differential-mode current outputs on each side at the bottom (M1), and each output sinks Ibias/2 ± Ihall. A single vertical metal structure generates only a small amount of hall effect of Ihall due to the short length from M1 to the top metal as well as the low conductivity of the metal, and a series connection between thousands of vertical structure units can solve the problem by providing NxIhall. The series connection between two units is another vertical metal structure flowing current in the opposite direction, and generates negative hall effect. To mitigate the negative hall effect from the series connection, the differential current outputs at the bottom (M1) from one unit merges on the top metal level of the other unit. The proposed MLVHD is simulated in a 3-dimensional model simulator in COMSOL Multiphysics, with 0.35 μm CMOS process parameters. The simulated MLVHD unit size is (W) 10 μm × (L) 6 μm × (D) 10 μm. In this paper, we use an MLVHD with 10 units; the overall hall device size is (W) 10 μm × (L)78 μm × (D) 10 μm. The COMSOL simulation result is as following: the maximum hall current is approximately 2 μA with a 12 μA bias current and 100mT magnetic field; This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion(IITP) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No.R7117-16-0165, Development of Hall Effect Semiconductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: CMOS, vertical hall device, current mode, COMSOL

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1304 Rollet vs Rocket: A New in-Space Propulsion Concept

Authors: Arthur Baraov


Nearly all rocket and spacecraft propulsion concepts in existence today can be linked one way or the other to one of the two ancient warfare devices: the gun and the sling. Chemical, thermoelectric, ion, nuclear thermal and electromagnetic rocket engines – all fall into the first group which, for obvious reasons, can be categorized as “hot” space propulsion concepts. Space elevator, orbital tower, rolling satellite, orbital skyhook, tether propulsion and gravitational assist – are examples of the second category which lends itself for the title “cold” space propulsion concepts. The “hot” space propulsion concepts skyrocketed – literally and figuratively – from the naïve ideas of Jules Verne to the manned missions to the Moon. On the other hand, with the notable exception of gravitational assist, hardly any of the “cold” space propulsion concepts made any progress in terms of practical application. Why is that? This article aims to show that the right answer to this question has the potential comparable by its implications and practical consequences to that of transition from Jules Verne’s stillborn and impractical conceptions of space flight to cogent and highly fertile ideas of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Yuri Kondratyuk.

Keywords: propulsion, rocket, rollet, spacecraft

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1303 A Comparison Between the Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor in the Automobile

Authors: Jack Mason, Ahmad Pourmovhed


This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the internal combustion engine when compared to different types of electric vehicles. The Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)'s overall cost, environmental impact, and usability will all be compared to different types of Electric Vehicles (EVs) including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). Also, the ways to solve the issues of the problems each vehicle presents will be discussed.

Keywords: interal combustion engine, battery electric vehicle, fuel cell electric vehicle, emissions

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1302 Study on Electromagnetic Plasma Acceleration Using Rotating Magnetic Field Scheme

Authors: Takeru Furuawa, Kohei Takizawa, Daisuke Kuwahara, Shunjiro Shinohara


In the field of a space propulsion, an electric propulsion system has been developed because its fuel efficiency is much higher than a conventional chemical one. However, the practical electric propulsion systems, e.g., an ion engine, have a problem of short lifetime due to a damage of generation and acceleration electrodes of the plasma. A helicon plasma thruster is proposed as a long-lifetime electric thruster which has non-direct contact electrodes. In this system, both generation and acceleration methods of a dense plasma are executed by antennas from the outside of a discharge tube. Development of the helicon plasma thruster has been conducting under the Helicon Electrodeless Advanced Thruster (HEAT) project. Our helicon plasma thruster has two important processes. First, we generate a dense source plasma using a helicon wave with an excitation frequency between an ion and an electron cyclotron frequencies, fci and fce, respectively, applied from the outside of a discharge using a radio frequency (RF) antenna. The helicon plasma source can provide a high-density (~1019 m-3), a high-ionization ratio (up to several tens of percent), and a high particle generation efficiency. Second, in order to achieve high thrust and specific impulse, we accelerate the dense plasma by the axial Lorentz force fz using the product of the induced azimuthal current jθ and the static radial magnetic field Br, shown as fz = jθ × Br. The HEAT project has proposed several kinds of electrodeless acceleration schemes, and in our particular case, a Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) method has been extensively studied. The RMF scheme was originally developed as a concept to maintain the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) in a magnetically confined fusion research. Here, RMF coils are expected to generate jθ due to a nonlinear effect shown below. First, the rotating magnetic field Bω is generated by two pairs of RMF coils with AC currents, which have a phase difference of 90 degrees between the pairs. Due to the Faraday’s law, an axial electric field is induced. Second, an axial current is generated by the effects of an electron-ion and an electron-neutral collisions through the Ohm’s law. Third, the azimuthal electric field is generated by the nonlinear term, and the retarding torque generated by the collision effects again. Then, azimuthal current jθ is generated as jθ = - nₑ er ∙ 2π fRMF. Finally, the axial Lorentz force fz for plasma acceleration is generated. Here, jθ is proportional to nₑ and frequency of RMF coil current fRMF, when Bω is fully penetrated into the plasma. Our previous study has achieved 19 % increase of ion velocity using the 5 MHz and 50 A of the RMF coil power supply. In this presentation, we will show the improvement of the ion velocity using the lower frequency and higher current supplied by RMF power supply. In conclusion, helicon high-density plasma production and electromagnetic acceleration by the RMF scheme with a concept of electrodeless condition have been successfully executed.

Keywords: electric propulsion, electrodeless thruster, helicon plasma, rotating magnetic field

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1301 Resistive Instability in a Multi Ions Hall Thrusters Plasma

Authors: Sukhmander Singh


Hall thrusters are preferred over chemical thrusters because of its high exhaust velocity (around 10 times higher) and high specific impulse. The propellant Xenon is ionized inside the channel and controlled by the magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is such that only electrons get magnetized and ions remain unmagnetized because of larger Larmor radius as compared with the length of the channel of the device. There is quite a possibility of the existence of multi ions in a Hall thruster plasma because of dust contribution or another process which take place in the chamber. In this paper, we have derived the dispersion relation for multi ions resistive instability in a hall plasma. The analytical approach is also used to find out the propagating speed and the growth rate of the instability. In addition, some growing waves are also found to exist in the plasma. The dispersion relation is solved numerically to see the behavior of the instability with the plasma parameters viz, the temperature of plasma species, wave number, drift velocity, collision frequency, magnetic field.

Keywords: instability, resisitive, thrusters, waves

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1300 Advanced Simulation of Power Consumption of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Ilya Kavalchuk, Hayrettin Arisoy, Alex Stojcevski, Aman Maun Than Oo


Electric vehicles are one of the most complicated electric devices to simulate due to the significant number of different processes involved in electrical structure of it. There are concurrent processes of energy consumption and generation with different onboard systems, which make simulation tasks more complicated to perform. More accurate simulation on energy consumption can provide a better understanding of all energy management for electric transport. As a result of all those processes, electric transport can allow for a more sustainable future and become more convenient in relation to the distance range and recharging time. This paper discusses the problems of energy consumption simulations for electric vehicles using different software packages to provide ideas on how to make this process more precise, which can help engineers create better energy management strategies for electric vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicles, EV, power consumption, power management, simulation

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1299 Study and Evaluation of Occupational Health and Safety in Power Plant in Pakistan

Authors: Saira Iqbal


Occupational Health and Safety issues nowadays have become an important esteem in the context of Industrial Production. This study is designed to measure the workplace hazards at Kohinoor Energy Limited. Mainly focused hazards were Heat Stress, Noise Level, Light Level and Ergonomics. Measurements for parameters like Wet, Dry, Globe, WBGTi and RH% were taken directly by visiting the Study Area. The temperature in Degrees was recoded at Control Room and Engine Hall. Highest Temperature was recoded in Engine Hall which was about 380C. Efforts were made to record emissions of Noise Levels from the main area of concern like Engines in Engine hall, parking area, and mechanical workshop. Permissible level for measuring Noise is 85 and its Unit of Measurement is dB (A). In Engine Hall Noise was very high which was about 109.6 dB (A) and that level was exceeding the limits. Illumination Level was also recorded at different areas of Power Plant. The light level was though under permissible limits but in some areas like Engine Hall and Boiler Room, level of light was very low especially in Engine Hall where the level was 29 lx. Practices were performed for measuring hazards in context of ergonomics like extended reaching, deviated body postures, mechanical stress, and vibration exposures of the worker at different units of plants by just observing workers during working hours. Since KEL is ISO 8000 and 14000 certified, the researcher found no serious problems in the parameter Ergonomics however it was a common scenario that workers were reluctant to apply PPEs.

Keywords: workplace hazards, heat hazard, noise hazard, illumination, ergonomics

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1298 A Xenon Mass Gauging through Heat Transfer Modeling for Electric Propulsion Thrusters

Authors: A. Soria-Salinas, M.-P. Zorzano, J. Martín-Torres, J. Sánchez-García-Casarrubios, J.-L. Pérez-Díaz, A. Vakkada-Ramachandran


The current state-of-the-art methods of mass gauging of Electric Propulsion (EP) propellants in microgravity conditions rely on external measurements that are taken at the surface of the tank. The tanks are operated under a constant thermal duty cycle to store the propellant within a pre-defined temperature and pressure range. We demonstrate using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that the heat-transfer within the pressurized propellant generates temperature and density anisotropies. This challenges the standard mass gauging methods that rely on the use of time changing skin-temperatures and pressures. We observe that the domes of the tanks are prone to be overheated, and that a long time after the heaters of the thermal cycle are switched off, the system reaches a quasi-equilibrium state with a more uniform density. We propose a new gauging method, which we call the Improved PVT method, based on universal physics and thermodynamics principles, existing TRL-9 technology and telemetry data. This method only uses as inputs the temperature and pressure readings of sensors externally attached to the tank. These sensors can operate during the nominal thermal duty cycle. The improved PVT method shows little sensitivity to the pressure sensor drifts which are critical towards the end-of-life of the missions, as well as little sensitivity to systematic temperature errors. The retrieval method has been validated experimentally with CO2 in gas and fluid state in a chamber that operates up to 82 bar within a nominal thermal cycle of 38 °C to 42 °C. The mass gauging error is shown to be lower than 1% the mass at the beginning of life, assuming an initial tank load at 100 bar. In particular, for a pressure of about 70 bar, just below the critical pressure of CO2, the error of the mass gauging in gas phase goes down to 0.1% and for 77 bar, just above the critical point, the error of the mass gauging of the liquid phase is 0.6% of initial tank load. This gauging method improves by a factor of 8 the accuracy of the standard PVT retrievals using look-up tables with tabulated data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Keywords: electric propulsion, mass gauging, propellant, PVT, xenon

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1297 Preferences of Electric Buses in Public Transport; Conclusions from Real Life Testing in Eight Swedish Municipalities

Authors: Sven Borén, Lisiana Nurhadi, Henrik Ny


From a theoretical perspective, electric buses can be more sustainable and can be cheaper than fossil fuelled buses in city traffic. The authors have not found other studies based on actual urban public transport in Swedish winter climate. Further on, noise measurements from buses for the European market were found old. The aims of this follow-up study was therefore to test and possibly verify in a real-life environment how energy efficient and silent electric buses are, and then conclude on if electric buses are preferable to use in public transport. The Ebusco 2.0 electric bus, fitted with a 311 kWh battery pack, was used and the tests were carried out during November 2014-April 2015 in eight municipalities in the south of Sweden. Six tests took place in urban traffic and two took place in more of a rural traffic setting. The energy use for propulsion was measured via logging of the internal system in the bus and via an external charging meter. The average energy use turned out to be 8% less (0,96 kWh/km) than assumed in the earlier theoretical study. This rate allows for a 320 km range in public urban traffic. The interior of the bus was kept warm by a diesel heater (biodiesel will probably be used in a future operational traffic situation), which used 0,67 kWh/km in January. This verified that electric buses can be up to 25% cheaper when used in public transport in cities for about eight years. The noise was found to be lower, primarily during acceleration, than for buses with combustion engines in urban bus traffic. According to our surveys, most passengers and drivers appreciated the silent and comfortable ride and preferred electric buses rather than combustion engine buses. Bus operators and passenger transport executives were also positive to start using electric buses for public transport. The operators did however point out that procurement processes need to account for eventual risks regarding this new technology, along with personnel education. The study revealed that it is possible to establish a charging infrastructure for almost all studied bus lines. However, design of a charging infrastructure for each municipality requires further investigations, including electric grid capacity analysis, smart location of charging points, and tailored schedules to allow fast charging. In conclusion, electric buses proved to be a preferable alternative for all stakeholders involved in public bus transport in the studied municipalities. However, in order to electric buses to be a prominent support for sustainable development, they need to be charged either by stand-alone units or via an expansion of the electric grid, and the electricity should be made from new renewable sources.

Keywords: sustainability, electric, bus, noise, greencharge

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1296 Stabilization of Displaced Periodic Orbit Using Feedback Linearization Control Scheme

Authors: Arun Kumar Yadav, Badam Singh Kushvah


In the present work, we investigated displaced periodic orbits in the linear order in the circular restricted three-body Sun-Jupiter system, where the third mass-less body utilizes solar electric sail. The electric solar sail is a new space propulsion concept which uses the solar wind momentum for producing thrust, and it is somewhat like to the more well-known solar radiation pressure sail which is often called simply the solar sail. Moreover, we implement the feedback linearization control scheme to perform the stabilization and trajectory tracking for the nonlinear system. Further, we derived periodic orbits analytically in linear order by introducing a first order approximation. These approximate analytic solutions are utilized in a numerical search to determine displaced periodic orbit in the full nonlinear model. We found the displaced periodic orbit for the defined non-linear model and stabilized the model.

Keywords: solar electric sail, circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP), displaced orbit, feedback linearization control

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1295 Modelling and Technical Assessment of Multi-Motor for Electric Vehicle Drivetrains by Using Electric Differential

Authors: Mohamed Abdel-Monem, Gamal Sowilam, Omar Hegazy


This paper presents a technical assessment of an electric vehicle with two independent rear-wheel motor and an improved traction control system. The electric differential and the control strategy have been implemented to assure that in a straight trajectory, the two rear-wheels run exactly at the same speed, considering the same/different road conditions under the left and right side of the wheels. In case of turning to right/left, the difference between the two rear-wheels speeds assures a vehicle trajectory without sliding, thanks to a harmony between the electric differential and the control strategy. The present article demonstrates a complete model and analysis of a traction control system, considering four different traction scenarios, for two independent rear-wheels motors for electric vehicles. Furthermore, the vehicle model, including wheel dynamics, load forces, electric differential, and control strategy, is designed and verified by using MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: electric vehicle, energy saving, multi-motor, electric differential, simulation and control

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1294 Short-Term Operation Planning for Energy Management of Exhibition Hall

Authors: Yooncheol Lee, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu


This paper deals with the establishment of a short-term operational plan for an air conditioner for efficient energy management of exhibition hall. The short-term operational plan is composed of a time series of operational schedules, which we have searched using genetic algorithms. Establishing operational schedule should be considered the future trends of the variables affecting the exhibition hall environment. To reflect continuously changing factors such as external temperature and occupant, short-term operational plans should be updated in real time. But it takes too much time to evaluate a short-term operational plan using EnergyPlus, a building emulation tool. For that reason, it is difficult to update the operational plan in real time. To evaluate the short-term operational plan, we designed prediction models based on machine learning with fast evaluation speed. This model, which was created by learning the past operational data, is accurate and fast. The collection of operational data and the verification of operational plans were made using EnergyPlus. Experimental results show that the proposed method can save energy compared to the reactive control method.

Keywords: exhibition hall, energy management, predictive model, simulation-based optimization

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1293 Electrical Properties of CVD-Graphene on SiC

Authors: Bilal Jabakhanji, Dimitris Kazazis, Adrien Michon, Christophe Consejo, Wilfried Desrat, Benoit Jouault


In this paper, we investigate the electrical properties of graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the Si face of SiC substrates. Depending on the growth condition, hole or electron doping can be achieved, down to a few 1011cm−2. The high homogeneity of the graphene and the low intrinsic carrier concentration, allow the remarkable observation of the Half Integer Quantum Hall Effect, typical of graphene, at the centimeter scale.

Keywords: graphene, quantum hall effect, chemical vapor, deposition, silicon carbide

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1292 Learning Predictive Models for Efficient Energy Management of Exhibition Hall

Authors: Jeongmin Kim, Eunju Lee, Kwang Ryel Ryu


This paper addresses the problem of predictive control for energy management of large-scaled exhibition halls, where a lot of energy is consumed to maintain internal atmosphere under certain required conditions. Predictive control achieves better energy efficiency by optimizing the operation of air-conditioning facilities with not only the current but also some future status taken into account. In this paper, we propose to use predictive models learned from past sensor data of hall environment, for use in optimizing the operating plan for the air-conditioning facilities by simulating future environmental change. We have implemented an emulator of an exhibition hall by using EnergyPlus, a widely used building energy emulation tool, to collect data for learning environment-change models. Experimental results show that the learned models predict future change highly accurately on a short-term basis.

Keywords: predictive control, energy management, machine learning, optimization

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1291 Strategies of Translation: Unlocking the Secret of 'Locksley Hall'

Authors: Raja Lahiani


'Locksley Hall' is a poem that Lord Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892) published in 1842. It is believed to be his first attempt to face as a poet some of the most painful of his experiences, as it is a study of his rising out of sickness into health, conquering his selfish sorrow by faith and hope. So far, in Victorian scholarship as in modern criticism, 'Locksley Hall' has been studied and approached as a canonical Victorian English poem. The aim of this project is to prove that some strategies of translation were used in this poem in such a way as to guarantee its assimilation into the English canon and hence efface to a large extent its Arabic roots. In its relationship with its source text, 'Locksley Hall' is at the same time mimetic and imitative. As part of the terminology used in translation studies, ‘imitation’ means almost the exact opposite of what it means in ordinary English. By adopting an imitative procedure, a translator would do something totally different from the original author, wandering far and freely from the words and sense of the original text. An imitation is thus aimed at an audience which wants the work of the particular translator rather than the work of the original poet. Hallam Tennyson, the poet’s biographer, asserts that 'Locksley Hall' is a simple invention of place, incidents, and people, though he notes that he remembers the poet claiming that Sir William Jones’ prose translation of the Mu‘allaqat (pre-Islamic poems) gave him the idea of the poem. A comparative work would prove that 'Locksley Hall' mirrors a great deal of Tennyson’s biography and hence is not a simple invention of details as asserted by his biographer. It would be challenging to prove that 'Locksley Hall' shares so many details with the Mu‘allaqat, as declared by Tennyson himself, that it needs to be studied as an imitation of the Mu‘allaqat of Imru’ al-Qays and ‘Antara in addition to its being a poem in its own right. Thus, the main aim of this work is to unveil the imitative and mimetic strategies used by Tennyson in his composition of 'Locksley Hall.' It is equally important that this project researches the acculturating assimilative tools used by the poet to root his poem in its Victorian English literary, cultural and spatiotemporal settings. This work adopts a comparative methodology. Comparison is done at different levels. The poem will be contextualized in its Victorian English literary framework. Alien details related to structure, socio-spatial setting, imagery and sound effects shall be compared to Arabic poems from the Mu‘allaqat collection. This would determine whether the poem is a translation, an adaption, an imitation or a genuine work. The ultimate objective of the project is to unveil in this canonical poem a new dimension that has for long been either marginalized or ignored. By proving that 'Locksley Hall' is an imitation of classical Arabic poetry, the project aspires to consolidate its literary value and open up new gates of accessing it.

Keywords: comparative literature, imitation, Locksley Hall, Lord Alfred Tennyson, translation, Victorian poetry

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