Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1597

Search results for: sintered steel

1597 Liquid Phase Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Powder Metallurgy Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Zih-Jie Lin


Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a feasible means for decreasing the porosity of powder metallurgy (PM) Fe-based material without substantially increase the production cost. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 0.6 wt% boron on the densification of PM 304L stainless steel by LPS. The results indicated that the increase in the sintered density of 304L+0.6B steel is obvious after 1250 ºC sintering, and eutectic structures with borides are observed at the interfaces of the raw steel powders. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show that liquid is generated at 1244ºC during sintering. The boride in the eutectic structure is rich in boron and chromium atoms and is deficient in nickel atoms, as identified by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Furthermore, the sintered densities of 304L and 304L+0.6B steels sintered at 1300 ºC are 6.99 g/cm3 and 7.69 g/cm3, respectively, indicating that boron is a suitable alloying element for facilitating LPS of PM 304L stainless steel.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, liquid phase sintering, stainless steel, boron, microstructure

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1596 Tool Wear of Aluminum/Chromium/Tungsten Based Coated Cemented Carbide Tools in Cutting Sintered Steel

Authors: Tadahiro Wada, Hiroyuki Hanyu


In this study, to clarify the effectiveness of an aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coated tool for cutting sintered steel, tool wear was experimentally investigated. The sintered steel was turned with the (Al60,Cr25,W15)N-, (Al60,Cr25,W15)(C,N)- and (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coated cemented carbide tools according to the physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Moreover, the tool wear of the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coated item was compared with that of the (Al,Cr)N coated tool. Furthermore, to clarify the tool wear mechanism of the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-coating film for cutting sintered steel, Scanning Electron Microscope observation and Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy mapping analysis were conducted on the abraded surface. The following results were obtained: (1) The wear progress of the (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coated tool was the slowest among that of the five coated tools. (2) Adding carbon (C) to the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coating film was effective for improving the wear-resistance. (3) The main wear mechanism of the (Al60,Cr25,W15)N-, the (Al60,Cr25,W15)(C,N)- and the (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coating films was abrasive wear.

Keywords: cutting, physical vapor deposition coating method, tool wear, tool wear mechanism, (Al, Cr, W)N-coating film, (Al, Cr, W)(C, N)-coating film, sintered steel

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1595 Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Sintered 304L Stainless Steel Powders

Authors: Shijie Liu, Jehnming Lin


This study mainly discussed the mechanical properties of selective laser sintered 304L stainless steel powder specimen. According to a single layer specimen sintering, the microstructure and porosity were observed to find out the proper sintering parameters. A multi-layer sintering experiment was conducted. Based on the microstructure and the integration between layers, the suitable parameters were found out. Finally, the sintered specimens were examined by metallographical inspection, hardness test, tensile test, and surface morphology measurement. The structure of the molten powder coated with unmelted powder was found in metallographic test. The hardness of the sintered stainless steel powder is greater than the raw material. The tensile strength is less than the raw material, and it is corresponding to different scanning paths. The specimen will have different patterns of cracking. It was found that the helical scanning path specimen will have a warpage deformation at the edge of the specimen. The S-scan path specimen surface is relatively flat.

Keywords: laser sintering, sintering path, microstructure, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
1594 Microstructure and Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Martensitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Yu-Jin Tsai, Ching-Huai Chang


Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a versatile technique for achieving effective densification of powder metallurgy (PM) steels and other materials. The aim of this study was to examine the influences of 0.6 wt% boron on the microstructure and LPS behavior of boron-alloyed 410 martensitic stainless steel. The results showed that adding 0.6 wt% boron can obviously promote the LPS due to a eutectic reaction and increase the sintered density of 410 stainless steel. The density was much increased by 1.06 g/cm³ after 1225ºC sintering. Increasing the sintering temperature from 1225ºC to 1275ºC did not obviously improve the sintered density. After sintering at 1225ºC~1275ºC, the matrix was fully martensitic, and intragranular borides were extensively found due to the solidification of eutectic liquid. The microstructure after LPS consisted of the martensitic matrix and (Fe, Cr)2B boride, as identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA).

Keywords: powder metallurgy, liquid phase sintering, stainless steel, martensite, boron, microstructure

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1593 Sintering Properties of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-5Al-2.5Fe

Authors: Ridvan Yamanoglu, Erdinc Efendi, Ismail Daoud


In this study, Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy was prepared by powder metallurgy. The elemental titanium, aluminum, and iron powders were mechanically alloyed for 10 h in a vacuum atmosphere. A stainless steel jar and stainless steel balls were used for mechanical alloying. The alloyed powders were then sintered by vacuum hot pressing at 950 °C for a soaking time of 30 minutes. Pure titanium was also sintered at the same conditions for comparison of mechanical properties and microstructural behavior. The samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis, and optical microscopy. Results showed that, after mechanical alloying, a homogeneous distribution of the elements was obtained, and desired a-b structure was determined. Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy was successfully produced, and the alloy showed enhanced mechanical properties compared to the commercial pure titanium.

Keywords: Ti5Al-2.5Fe, mechanical alloying, hot pressing, sintering

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1592 Production of Spherical Cementite within Bainitic Matrix Microstructures in High Carbon Powder Metallurgy Steels

Authors: O. Altuntaş, A. Güral


The hardness-microstructure relationships of spherical cementite in bainitic matrix obtained by a different heat treatment cycles carried out to high carbon powder metallurgy (P/M) steel were investigated. For this purpose, 1.5 wt.% natural graphite powder admixed in atomized iron powders and the mixed powders were compacted under 700 MPa at room temperature and then sintered at 1150 °C under a protective argon gas atmosphere. The densities of the green and sintered samples were measured via the Archimedes method. A density of 7.4 g/cm3 was obtained after sintering and a density of 94% was achieved. The sintered specimens having primary cementite plus lamellar pearlitic structures were fully quenched from 950 °C temperature and then over-tempered at 705 °C temperature for 60 minutes to produce spherical-fine cementite particles in the ferritic matrix. After by this treatment, these samples annealed at 735 °C temperature for 3 minutes were austempered at 300 °C salt bath for a period of 1 to 5 hours. As a result of this process, it could be able to produced spherical cementite particle in the bainitic matrix. This microstructure was designed to improve wear and toughness of P/M steels. The microstructures were characterized and analyzed by SEM and micro and macro hardness.

Keywords: powder metallurgy steel, bainite, cementite, austempering and spheroidization heat treatment

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1591 Consolidation of Carbonyl Nickel Powders by Hot Pressing

Authors: Ridvan Yamanoglu, Ismail Daoud


In the current study, carbonyl nickel powders were sintered by uniaxial hot pressing technique. Loose starting powders were poured directly into a graphite die with a 15.4 mm inner diameter. Two graphite punches with an outer diameter of 15 mm were inserted into the die; then the powders were sintered at different sintering temperatures, holding times and pressure conditions. The sintered samples were polished and examined by optical microscopy. Hardness and bending behavior of the sintered samples were investigated in order to determine the mechanical properties of the sintered nickel samples. To carried out the friction properties of the produced samples wear tests were studied using a pin on disc tribometer. Load and distance were selected as wear test parameters. The fracture surface of the samples after bending test was also carried out by using scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: nickel powder, sintering, hot press, mechanical properties

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1590 Application of Recycled Tungsten Carbide Powder for Fabrication of Iron Based Powder Metallurgy Alloy

Authors: Yukinori Taniguchi, Kazuyoshi Kurita, Kohei Mizuta, Keigo Nishitani, Ryuichi Fukuda


Tungsten carbide is widely used as a tool material in metal manufacturing process. Since tungsten is typical rare metal, establishment of recycle process of tungsten carbide tools and restore into cemented carbide material bring great impact to metal manufacturing industry. Recently, recycle process of tungsten carbide has been developed and established gradually. However, the demands for quality of cemented carbide tool are quite severe because hardness, toughness, anti-wear ability, heat resistance, fatigue strength and so on should be guaranteed for precision machining and tool life. Currently, it is hard to restore the recycled tungsten carbide powder entirely as raw material for new processed cemented carbide tool. In this study, to suggest positive use of recycled tungsten carbide powder, we have tried to fabricate a carbon based sintered steel which shows reinforced mechanical properties with recycled tungsten carbide powder. We have made set of newly designed sintered steels. Compression test of sintered specimen in density ratio of 0.85 (which means 15% porosity inside) has been conducted. As results, at least 1.7 times higher in nominal strength in the amount of 7.0 wt.% was shown in recycled WC powder. The strength reached to over 600 MPa for the Fe-WC-Co-Cu sintered alloy. Wear test has been conducted by using ball-on-disk type friction tester using 5 mm diameter ball with normal force of 2 N in the dry conditions. Wear amount after 1,000 m running distance shows that about 1.5 times longer life was shown in designed sintered alloy. Since results of tensile test showed that same tendency in previous testing, it is concluded that designed sintered alloy can be used for several mechanical parts with special strength and anti-wear ability in relatively low cost due to recycled tungsten carbide powder.

Keywords: tungsten carbide, recycle process, compression test, powder metallurgy, anti-wear ability

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1589 A Study on the Magnetic and Mechanical Properties of Nd-Fe-B Sintered Magnets According to Sintering Temperature

Authors: J. H. Kim, S. Y. Park, K. M. Lim, S. K. Hyun


The effect of sintering temperature on the magnetic and mechanical properties of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets has been investigated in this study. The sintering temperature changed from 950°C to 1120°C. While remanence and hardness of the magnets increased with increasing sintering temperature, the coercivity first increased, and then decreased. The optimum magnetic and mechanical properties of the magnets were obtained at the sintering temperature of 1050°C. In order to clarify the reason for the variation on magnetic and mechanical properties of the magnets, we systematically analyzed the microstructure.

Keywords: magnetic and mechanical property, microstructure, permanent magnets, sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet

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1588 Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Galvanized Steel by Sintering Zinc Nanopowder

Authors: Francisco Javier Montes Ruiz-Cabello, Guillermo Guerrero-Vacas, Sara Bermudez-Romero, Miguel Cabrerizo Vilchez, Miguel Angel Rodriguez-Valverde


Galvanized steel is one of the widespread metallic materials used in industry. It consists on a iron-based alloy (steel) coated with a layer of zinc with variable thickness. The zinc is aimed to prevent the inner steel from corrosion and staining. Its production is cheaper than the stainless steel and this is the reason why it is employed in the construction of materials with large dimensions in aeronautics, urban/ industrial edification or ski-resorts. In all these applications, turning the natural hydrophilicity of the metal surface into superhydrophobicity is particularly interesting and would open a wide variety of additional functionalities. However, producing a superhydrophobic surface on galvanized steel may be a very difficult task. Superhydrophobic surfaces are characterized by a specific surface texture which is reached either by coating the surface with a material that incorporates such texture, or by conducting several roughening methods. Since galvanized steel is already a coated material, the incorporation of a second coating may be undesired. On the other hand, the methods that are recurrently used to incorporate the surface texture leading to superhydrophobicity in metals are aggressive and may damage their surface. In this work, we used a novel strategy which goal is to produce superhydrophobic galvanized steel by a two-step non-aggressive process. The first process is aimed to create a hierarchical structure by incorporating zinc nanoparticles sintered on the surface at a temperature slightly lower than the zinc’s melting point. The second one is a hydrophobization by a thick fluoropolymer layer deposition. The wettability of the samples is characterized in terms of tilting plate and bouncing drop experiments, while the roughness is analyzed by confocal microscopy. The durability of the produced surfaces was also explored.

Keywords: galvanaized steel, superhydrophobic surfaces, sintering nanoparticles, zinc nanopowder

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1587 Preparation and Characterizations of Natural Material Based Ceramic Membranes

Authors: In-Hyuck Song, Jang-Hoon Ha


Recently, porous ceramic membranes have attracted great interest due to their outstanding thermal and chemical stability. In this paper, we report the results of our efforts to determine whether we could prepare a diatomite-kaolin composite coating to be deposited over a sintered diatomite support layer that could reduce the largest pore size of the sintered diatomite membrane while retaining an acceptable level of permeability. We determined under what conditions such a composite coating over a support layer could be prepared without the generation of micro-cracks during drying and sintering. The pore characteristics of the sintered diatomite membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy and capillary flow porosimetry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, diatomite, water treatment, sintering

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1586 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai


The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

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1585 Determining Which Material Properties Resist the Tool Wear When Machining Pre-Sintered Zirconia

Authors: David Robert Irvine


In the dental restoration sector, there has been a shift to using zirconia. With the ever increasing need to decrease lead times to deliver restorations faster the zirconia is machined in its pre-sintered state instead of grinding the very hard sintered state. As with all machining, there is tool wear and while investigating the tooling used to machine pre-sintered zirconia it became apparent that the wear rate is based more on material build up and abrasion than it is on plastic deformation like conventional metal machining. It also came to light that the tool material can currently not be selected based on wear resistance, as there is no data. Different works have analysed the effect of the individual wear mechanism separately using similar if not the same material. In this work, the testing method used to analyse the wear was a modified from ISO 8688:1989 to use the pre-sintered zirconia and the cutting conditions used in dental to machine it. This understanding was developed through a series of tests based in machining operations, to give the best representation of the multiple wear factors that can occur in machining of pre-sintered zirconia such as 3 body abrasion, material build up, surface welding, plastic deformation, tool vibration and thermal cracking. From the testing, it found that carbide grades with low trans-granular rupture toughness would fail due to abrasion while those with high trans-granular rupture toughness failed due to edge chipping from build up or thermal properties. The results gained can assist the development of these tools and the restorative dental process. This work was completed with the aim of assisting in the selection of tool material for future tools along with a deeper understanding of the properties that assist in abrasive wear resistance and material build up.

Keywords: abrasive wear, cemented carbide, pre-sintered zirconia, tool wear

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1584 A Range of Steel Production in Japan towards 2050

Authors: Reina Kawase


Japan set the goal of 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. To consider countermeasures for reducing GHG emission, the production estimation of energy intensive materials, such as steel, is essential. About 50% of steel production is exported in Japan, so it is necessary to consider steel production including export. Steel productions from 2005-2050 in Japan were estimated under various global assumptions based on combination of scenarios such as goods trade scenarios and steel making process selection scenarios. Process selection scenarios decide volume of steel production by process (basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace) with considering steel consumption projection, supply-demand balance of steel, and scrap surplus. The range of steel production by process was analyzed. Maximum steel production was estimated under the scenario which consumes scrap in domestic steel production at maximum level. In 2035, steel production reaches 149 million ton because of increase in electric arc furnace steel. However, it decreases towards 2050 and amounts to 120 million ton, which is almost same as a current level. Minimum steel production is under the scenario which assumes technology progress in steel making and supply-demand balance consideration in each region. Steel production decreases from base year and is 44 million ton in 2050.

Keywords: goods trade scenario, steel making process selection scenario, steel production, global warming

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1583 Structural, Optical, And Ferroelectric Properties Of BaTiO3 Sintered At Different Temperatures

Authors: Anurag Gaur, Neha Sharma


In this work, we have synthesized BaTiO3 via sol gel method by sintering at different temperatures (600-1000 0C) and studied their structural, optical and ferroelectric properties through X-Ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometer and PE Loop Tracer. X-Ray diffraction patterns of barium titanate samples show that the peaks of the diffractogram are successfully indexed with the tetragonal structure of BaTiO3 along with some minor impurities of BaCO3. The optical band gap calculated through UV Visible spectrophotometer varies from 4.37 to 3.80 eV for the samples sintered at 600 to 1000 0 C, respectively. The particle size calculated through transmission electron microscopy varies from 20 to 60 nm for the samples sintered at 600 to 1000 0C, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that the ferroelectricity reduces as we increase the sintering temperature.

Keywords: nanostructures, ferroelectricity, sol-gel method, diffractogram

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1582 The Effect of Fe₂O₃ and Sum of Alkalis Elements on Monocotora Tile

Authors: Fatemeh Ansarniya, Fatemeh Mirjalili, Hamid Reza Abedini, Shabnam Salari, M. Horasht


The study of this research is the effect of using Fe₂O₃ and sum of alkalis elements in the floor tile production. At first, raw materials of floor tile with the same formulation of original sample was prepared and sintered for 39 minutes at 1130˚C in roller kiln and finally, physical properties of the sintered bodies based on floor tile standard process was investigated. The results showed that there was the possibility of production of floor tile containing different percentages of Fe₂O₃ and sum of Na₂O+ K₂O. With increasing the Fe₂O₃ and sum of Na₂O+ K₂O elements, the percentages of water absorption and raw, dry and sintered strengths were decreased, but the percentages of shrinkage were increased which caused the decreasing the percentages of expansion.

Keywords: floor tile, physical properties, Na2O+ K2O, Fe2O3

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1581 Structural Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed S. Sarhan


This study presents the performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel plates as a technique of reinforcement. Three reinforced concrete beams with the dimensions of 200 mm x 300 mm x 4000 mm (width x height x length, respectively) were experimentally investigated under flexural loading. The deformed steel bars were used as the main reinforcement for the first beam. A steel plate placed horizontally was used as the main reinforcement for the second beam. The bond between the steel plate and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using steel bolts (with a diameter of 20 mm and length of 100 mm) welded to the steel plate at a regular distance of 200 mm. A pair of steel plates placed vertically was used as the main reinforcement for the third beam. The bond between the pair steel plates and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using 4 equal steel angles (with the dimensions of 75 mm x 75 mm and the thickness of 8 mm) for each vertical steel plate. Two steel angles were welded at each end of the steel plate. The outcomes revealed that the bending stiffness of the beams reinforced with steel plates was higher than that reinforced with deformed steel bars. Also, the flexural ductile behavior of the second beam was much higher than the rest beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, deflection, ductility, plate

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1580 Ultimate Stress of the Steel Tube in Circular Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Stub Columns Subjected to Axial Compression

Authors: Siqi Lin, Yangang Zhao


Concrete-filled steel tube column achieves the excellent performance of high strength, stiffness, and ductility due to the confinement from the steel tube. Well understanding the stress of the steel tube is important to make clear the confinement effect. In this paper, the ultimate stress of the steel tube in circular concrete-filled steel tube columns subjected to axial compression was studied. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the effects of the parameters, including concrete strength, steel strength, and D/t ratio, on the ultimate stress of the steel tube. The stress of the steel tube was determined by employing the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule associated with isotropic strain hardening. Results indicate that the stress of steel tube was influenced by the parameters. Specimen with higher strength ratio fy/fc and smaller D/t ratio generally leads to a higher utilization efficiency of the steel tube.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube, axial compression, ultimate stress, utilization efficiency

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1579 Architectural Strategies for Designing Durable Steel Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi


Nowadays, steel structures are used for not only common buildings but also high-rise construction and wide span covering. The advanced methods of construction as well as the advanced structural connections have a great effect on architecture. However a better use of steel structural systems will be achieved with the deep understanding of steel structures specifications and their substantial advantages. On the other hand, the steel structures face to the different environmental factors such as air flow which cause erosion and corrosion. With the time passing, the amount of these steel mass damages and also the imposed stress will be increased. In other words, the position of erosion in steel structures related to existing stresses indicates that effective environmental conditions will gradually decrease the structural resistance of steel components and result in decreasing the durability of steel components. In this paper, the durability of different steel structural components is evaluated and on the basis of these stress, architectural strategies for designing the system and the components of steel structures is recognized in order to achieve an optimum life cycle.

Keywords: durability, bending stress, erosion in steel structure, life cycle

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1578 Steel Industry Waste as Recyclable Raw Material for the Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça


The study aims to assess if high-purity iron powder in iron-aluminum alloys can be replaced by SAE 1020 steel chips with an atomicity proportion of 50% for each element. Chips of SAE 1020 are rejected in industrial processes. Thus, the use of SAE 1020 as a replaceable composite for iron increase the sustainability of ferrous alloys by recycling industrial waste. The alloys were processed by high energy milling, of which the main advantage is the minimal loss of raw material. The raw material for three of the six samples were high purity iron powder and recyclable aluminum cans. For the other three samples, the high purity iron powder has been replaced with chips of SAE 1020 steel. The process started with the separate milling of chips of aluminum and SAE 1020 steel to obtain the powder. Subsequently, the raw material was mixed in the pre-defined proportions, milled together for five hours and then underwent a closed-die hot compaction at the temperature of 500 °C. Thereafter, the compacted samples underwent heat treatments known as sintering and solubilization. All samples were sintered one hour, and 4 samples were solubilized for either 4 or 10 hours under well-controlled atmosphere conditions. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. The samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing. The results of the analysis showed a similar chemical composition and interesting hardness levels with low standard deviations. This verified that the use of SAE 1020 steel chips can be a low-cost alternative for high-purity iron powder and could possibly replace high-purity Iron in industrial applications.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, iron-aluminum alloys, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy, recycling ferrous alloy, SAE 1020 steel recycling

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1577 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of SA 210 Gr. C Pipes Welded by Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: H. Demirtaş, İ. H. Kara, H. Ahlatcı


Welding failures of steel pipes in power plants usually occur in weld zones. This is similar for the economizer, water walls and superheaters in the power plants where SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes are used. Although these steel pipes have very good welding properties, the welding parameters are also important for the welding life. Welding processes of this pipes are carried out by TIG and SMA techniques. In this study SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes were welded by TIG method and investigated how PWHT affected the welding properties. The results show that this steel does not require post weld heat treatment.

Keywords: SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes, TIG welding, HAZ region, Widmanstatten ferrite

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1576 Enhancement of Mechanical and Biological Properties in Wollastonite Bioceramics by MgSiO3 Addition

Authors: Jae Hong Kim, Sang Cheol Um, Jong Kook Lee


Strong and biocompatible wollastonite (CaSiO3) was fabricated by pressureless sintering at temperature range of 1250~ 1300 ℃ and phase transition of to β-wollastonite with an addition of MgSiO3. Starting pure α-wollastonite powder were prepared by solid state reaction, and MgSiO3 powder was added to α-wollastonite powder to induce the phase transition α to β-wollastonite over 1250℃. Sintered wollastonite samples at 1250℃ with 5 and 10 wt% MgSiO3 were α+β phase and β phase respectively, and showed higher densification rate than that of α or β-wollastonite, which are almost the same as the theoretical density. Hardness and Young’s modulus of sintered wollastonite were dependent on the apparent density and the amount of β-wollastonite. Young’s modulus (78GPa) of β-wollastonite added 10 wt% MgSiO3 was almost double time of sintered α-wollastonite. From the in-vitro test, biphasic (α+β) wollastonite with 5wt% MgSiO3 addition had good bioactivity in simulated body fluid solution.

Keywords: β-wollastonite, high density, MgSiO3, phase transition

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1575 Behaviour of Beam Reinforced with Longitudinal Steel-CFRP Composite Reinforcement under Static Load

Authors: Faris A. Uriayer, Mehtab Alam


The concept of using a hybrid composite by combining two or more different materials to produce bilinear stress–strain behaviour has become a subject of interest. Having studied the mechanical properties of steel-CFRP specimens (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips), full size steel-CFRP composite reinforcement were fabricated and used as a new reinforcing material inside beams in lieu of traditional steel bars. Four beams, three beams reinforced with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement and one beam reinforced with traditional steel bars were cast, cured and tested under quasi-static loading. The flexural test results of the beams reinforced with this composite reinforcement showed that the beams with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement had comparable flexural strength and flexural ductility with beams reinforced with traditional steel bars.

Keywords: CFRP laminate, steel strip, flexural behaviour, modified model, concrete beam

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1574 Investigation of the Corroded Steel Beam

Authors: Hesamaddin Khoshnoodi, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji


Corrosion in steel structures is one of the most important issues that should be considered in designing and constructing. Corrosion reduces the cross section and load capacity of element and leads to costly damage of structures. In this paper, the corrosion has been modeled for moment stresses. Moreover, the steel beam has been modeled using ABAQUS advanced finite element software. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the displacement of the analyzed composite steel girder bridge might increase.

Keywords: Abaqus, Corrosion, deformation, Steel Beam

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1573 Using Recyclable Steel Material in Tall Buildings

Authors: O. Eren, L. Zakar


Recycling steel building components is key to the sustainability of a structure’s end-of-life, as it is the most economical solution. In this paper the effects of usage of recycled steel material in tall buildings aspects are investigated.

Keywords: building, recycled material, steel, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1572 Bond Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed Sarhan Sarhan


This paper presents an experimental study of the bond behaviour of confined concrete beams reinforced with a chequer steel plate or a deformed steel bar by using the beam-bending pullout test. A total of three beams of 225 mm width, 300 mm height, and 600 mm length were cast and tested. All the beams had the same details of compression reinforcement and stirrups; two plain steel bars of 10 mm diameter (R10) were used for the compression reinforcement, and plain steel bars (R10) at a distance of 80 mm centre to centre were used for the stirrups. The first beam was reinforced with a deformed steel bar while the remaining beams were reinforced with horizontal or vertical chequer steel plates. The results showed no significant difference in the bond force between the beams reinforced with a deformed steel bar or a horizontal steel plate. The beam reinforced with a vertical steel plate considerably presented a bond force higher than the beam reinforced with a horizontal steel plate.

Keywords: bond, pullout, reinforced concrete, steel plate

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1571 Estimation of World Steel Production by Process

Authors: Reina Kawase


World GHG emissions should be reduced 50% by 2050 compared with 1990 level. CO2 emission reduction from steel sector, an energy-intensive sector, is essential. To estimate CO2 emission from steel sector in the world, estimation of steel production is required. The world steel production by process is estimated during the period of 2005-2050. The world is divided into aggregated 35 regions. For a steel making process, two kinds of processes are considered; basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF). Steel production by process in each region is decided based on a current production capacity, supply-demand balance of steel and scrap, technology innovation of steel making, steel consumption projection, and goods trade. World steel production under moderate countermeasure scenario in 2050 increases by 1.3 times compared with that in 2012. When domestic scrap recycling is promoted, steel production in developed regions increases about 1.5 times. The share in developed regions changes from 34 %(2012) to about 40%(2050). This is because developed regions are main suppliers of scrap. 48-57% of world steel production is produced by EAF. Under the scenario which thinks much of supply-demand balance of steel, steel production in developing regions increases is 1.4 times and is larger than that in developed regions. The share in developing regions, however, is not so different from current level. The increase in steel production by EAF is the largest under the scenario in which supply-demand balance of steel is an important factor. The share reaches 65%.

Keywords: global steel production, production distribution scenario, steel making process, supply-demand balance

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1570 The Corrosion Resistance of P/M Alumix 431D Compacts

Authors: J. Kazior, A. Szewczyk-Nykiel, T. Pieczonka, M. Laska


Aluminium alloys are an important class of engineering materials for structural applications. This is due to the fact that these alloys have many interesting properties, namely, low density, high ratio of strength to density, good thermal and electrical conductivity, good corrosion resistance as well as extensive capabilities for shaping processes. In case of classical PM technology a particular attention should be paid to the selection of appropriate parameters of compacting and sintering processes and to keeping them. The latter need arises from the high sensitivity of aluminium based alloy powders on any fluctuation of technological parameters, in particular those related to the temperature-time profile and gas flow. Only then the desired sintered compacts with residual porosity may be produced. Except high mechanical properties, the other profitable properties of almost fully dense sintered components could be expected. Among them is corrosion resistance, rarely investigated on PM aluminium alloys. Thus, in the current study the Alumix 431/D commercial, press-ready grade powder was used for this purpose. Sintered compacts made of it in different conditions (isothermal sintering temperature, gas flow rate) were subjected to corrosion experiments in 0,1 M and 0,5 M NaCl solutions. The potentiodynamic curves were used to establish parameters characterising the corrosion resistance of sintered Alumix 431/D powder, namely, the corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the polarization resistance, the breakdown potential. The highest value of polarization resistance, the lowest value of corrosion current density and the most positive corrosion potential was obtained for Alumix431/D powder sintered at 600°C and for highest protective gas flow rate.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, sintering, corrosion resistance, industry

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1569 Investigation of Cascade Loop Heat Pipes

Authors: Nandy Putra, Atrialdipa Duanovsah, Kristofer Haliansyah


The aim of this research is to design a LHP with low thermal resistance and low condenser temperature. A Self-designed cascade LHP was tested by using biomaterial, sintered copper powder, and aluminum screen mesh as the wick. Using pure water as the working fluid for the first level of the LHP and 96% alcohol as the working fluid for the second level of LHP, the experiments were run with 10W, 20W, and 30W heat input. Experimental result shows that the usage of biomaterial as wick could reduce more temperature at evaporator than by using sintered copper powder and screen mesh up to 22.63% and 37.41% respectively. The lowest thermal resistance occurred during the usage of biomaterial as wick of heat pipe, which is 2.06 oC/W. The usage of cascade system could be applied to LHP to reduce the temperature at condenser and reduced thermal resistance up to 17.6%.

Keywords: biomaterial, cascade loop heat pipe, screen mesh, sintered Cu

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1568 Effect of Demineralized Water Purity on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel Alloys

Authors: A. M. El-Aziz, M. Elsehamy, H. Hussein


Steel or stainless steel have reasonable corrosion behavior in water, their corrosion resistance is significantly dependent on the water purity. It was not expected that demineralized water has an aggressive effect on steel alloys, in this study, the effect of water with different purity on steel X52 and stainless steel 316L was investigated. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were employed to measure the corrosion behavior. Samples were microscopically investigated after test. It was observed that the higher the water purity the more reactive it is. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different water purity showed the aggressiveness of the demineralised water (conductivity of 0.05 microSiemens per cm) over the distilled water. Whereas, the corrosion rates of stainless steel 858 and 623 nm/y for demi and distilled water respectively. On the other hand, the corrosion rates of carbon steel x52 were estimated about 4.8 and 3.6 µm/y for demi and distilled water, respectively. Open circuit potential (OCP) recorded more positive potentials in case of stainless steel than carbon steel in different water purities. Generally, stainless steel illustrated high pitting resistance than carbon steel alloy, the surface film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This behavior was explained based on that demi and distilled water might be considered as ‘hungry water’ in which it wants to be in equilibrium and will pull ions out of the surrounding metals trying to satisfy its ‘hunger’.

Keywords: corrosion, demineralized water, distilled water, steel alloys

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