Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20397

Search results for: physical vapor deposition coating method

20397 Computational Study and Wear Prediction of Steam Turbine Blade with Titanium-Nitride Coating Deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Karuna Tuchinda, Sasithon Bland

Abstract:

This work investigates the wear of a steam turbine blade coated with titanium nitride (TiN), and compares to the wear of uncoated blades. The coating is deposited on by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. The working conditions of the blade were simulated and surface temperature and pressure values as well as flow velocity and flow direction were obtained. This data was used in the finite element wear model developed here in order to predict the wear of the blade. The wear mechanisms considered are erosive wear due to particle impingement and fluid jet, and fatigue wear due to repeated impingement of particles and fluid jet. Results show that the life of the TiN-coated blade is approximately 1.76 times longer than the life of the uncoated one.

Keywords: physical vapour deposition, steam turbine blade, titanium-based coating, wear prediction

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20396 Tool Wear of Aluminum/Chromium/Tungsten Based Coated Cemented Carbide Tools in Cutting Sintered Steel

Authors: Tadahiro Wada, Hiroyuki Hanyu

Abstract:

In this study, to clarify the effectiveness of an aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coated tool for cutting sintered steel, tool wear was experimentally investigated. The sintered steel was turned with the (Al60,Cr25,W15)N-, (Al60,Cr25,W15)(C,N)- and (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coated cemented carbide tools according to the physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Moreover, the tool wear of the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coated item was compared with that of the (Al,Cr)N coated tool. Furthermore, to clarify the tool wear mechanism of the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-coating film for cutting sintered steel, Scanning Electron Microscope observation and Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy mapping analysis were conducted on the abraded surface. The following results were obtained: (1) The wear progress of the (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coated tool was the slowest among that of the five coated tools. (2) Adding carbon (C) to the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coating film was effective for improving the wear-resistance. (3) The main wear mechanism of the (Al60,Cr25,W15)N-, the (Al60,Cr25,W15)(C,N)- and the (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coating films was abrasive wear.

Keywords: cutting, physical vapor deposition coating method, tool wear, tool wear mechanism, (Al, Cr, W)N-coating film, (Al, Cr, W)(C, N)-coating film, sintered steel

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20395 Antireflection Performance of Graphene Directly Deposited on Silicon Substrate by the Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Samira Naghdi, Kyong Yop Rhee

Abstract:

Transfer-free synthesis of graphene on dielectric substrates is highly desirable but remains challenging. Here, by using a thin sacrificial platinum layer as a catalyst, graphene was deposited on a silicon substrate through a simple and transfer-free synthesis method. During graphene growth, the platinum layer evaporated, resulting in direct deposition of graphene on the silicon substrate. In this work, different growth conditions of graphene were optimized. Raman spectra of the produced graphene indicated that the obtained graphene was bilayer. The sheet resistance obtained from four-point probe measurements demonstrated that the deposited graphene had high conductivity. Reflectance spectroscopy of graphene-coated silicon showed a decrease in reflectance across the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, indicating that the graphene coating on the silicon surface had antireflection capabilities.

Keywords: antireflection coating, chemical vapor deposition, graphene, the sheet resistance

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20394 Corrosion Behavior of Different Electroplated Systems Coated With Physical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Jorge Santos, Ana V. Girão, F. J. Oliveira, Alexandre C. Bastos

Abstract:

Protective or decorative coatings containing hexavalent chromium compounds are still used on metal and plastic parts. These hexavalent chromium compounds represent a risk to living beings and the environment, and, for this reason, there is a great need to investigate alternatives. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is an environmentally friendly process that allows the deposition of wear and corrosion resistant thin films with excellent optical properties. However, PVD thin films are porous and if deposited onto low corrosion resistant substrates, lead to a degradation risk. The corrosion behavior of chromium-free electroplated coating systems finished with magnetron sputtered PVD thin films was investigated in this work. The electroplated systems consisted of distinct nickel layers deposited on top of a copper interlayer on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plates. Electrochemical and corrosion evaluation was conducted by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization curves on the different electroplated coating systems, with and without PVD thin film on top. The results show that the corrosion resistance is lower for the electroplated coating systems finished with PVD thin film for extended exposure periods when compared to those without the PVD overlay.

Keywords: PVD, electroplating, corrosion, thin film

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20393 Surface Functionalization of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Graphene Film

Authors: Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari

Abstract:

We report the introduction of the active surface functionalization group on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene film by wet deposition method. The activity of surface functionalized group was tested with surface modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and found that both materials were amalgamated by chemical bonding. The introduction of functional group on the graphene film surface and its vigorous role to bind CNTs with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition, graphene film, surface functionalization

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20392 Ni-B Coating Production on Magnesium Alloy by Electroless Deposition

Authors: Ferhat Bülbül

Abstract:

The use of magnesium alloys is limited due to their susceptibility to corrosion although they have many attractive physical and mechanical properties. To increase mechanical and corrosion properties of these alloys, many deposition method and coating types are used. Electroless Ni–B coatings have received considerable interest recently due to its unique properties such as cost-effectiveness, thickness uniformity, good wear resistance, lubricity, good ductility and corrosion resistance, excellent solderability and electrical properties and antibacterial property. In this study, electroless Ni-B coating could been deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy. The obtained coating exhibited an amorphous and rougher structure.

Keywords: magnesium, electroless Ni–B, X-ray diffraction, amorphous

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20391 Effect of the Deposition Time of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Si Grown on Porous Alumina Film on Glass Substrate by Plasma Processing Chemical Vapor Deposition

Authors: F. Laatar, S. Ktifa, H. Ezzaouia

Abstract:

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) method is used to deposit hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films (nc-Si: H) on Porous Anodic Alumina Films (PAF) on glass substrate at different deposition duration. Influence of the deposition time on the physical properties of nc-Si: H grown on PAF was investigated through an extensive correlation between micro-structural and optical properties of these films. In this paper, we present an extensive study of the morphological, structural and optical properties of these films by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques and a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. It was found that the changes in DT can modify the films thickness, the surface roughness and eventually improve the optical properties of the composite. Optical properties (optical thicknesses, refractive indexes (n), absorption coefficients (α), extinction coefficients (k), and the values of the optical transitions EG) of this kind of samples were obtained using the data of the transmittance T and reflectance R spectra’s recorded by the UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer. We used Cauchy and Wemple–DiDomenico models for the analysis of the dispersion of the refractive index and the determination of the optical properties of these films.

Keywords: hydragenated nanocrystalline silicon, plasma processing chemical vapor deposition, X-ray diffraction, optical properties

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20390 Approximation of PE-MOCVD to ALD for TiN Concerning Resistivity and Chemical Composition

Authors: D. Geringswald, B. Hintze

Abstract:

The miniaturization of circuits is advancing. During chip manufacturing, structures are filled for example by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since this process reaches its limits in case of very high aspect ratios, the use of alternatives such as the atomic layer deposition (ALD) is possible, requiring the extension of existing coating systems. However, it is an unsolved question to what extent MOCVD can achieve results similar as an ALD process. In this context, this work addresses the characterization of a metal organic vapor deposition of titanium nitride. Based on the current state of the art, the film properties coating thickness, sheet resistance, resistivity, stress and chemical composition are considered. The used setting parameters are temperature, plasma gas ratio, plasma power, plasma treatment time, deposition time, deposition pressure, number of cycles and TDMAT flow. The derived process instructions for unstructured wafers and inside a structure with high aspect ratio include lowering the process temperature and increasing the number of cycles, the deposition and the plasma treatment time as well as the plasma gas ratio of hydrogen to nitrogen (H2:N2). In contrast to the current process configuration, the deposited titanium nitride (TiN) layer is more uniform inside the entire test structure. Consequently, this paper provides approaches to employ the MOCVD for structures with increasing aspect ratios.

Keywords: ALD, high aspect ratio, PE-MOCVD, TiN

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20389 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Titanium Alloy Dental Implants Coated by Bio-ceramic Apatite Wollastonite (Aw) and Hydroxyapatite (Ha) by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Betsy S. Thomas, Manjeet Marpara, K. M. Bhat

Abstract:

Introduction: After the initial enthusiasm and interest in hydroxyapatite products subsided due to dissolution of the coating and failure at the coating interface, this was a unique attempt to create a next generation of dental implant. Materials and Methods: The adhesion property of AW and HA coatings at various temperature by pulsed laser deposition was assessed on titanium plates. Moreover, AW/HA coated implants implanted in the femur of the rabbits was evaluated at various intervals. Results: Decohesion load was more for AW in scratch test and more bone formation around AW coated implants on histological evaluation. Discussion: AW coating by pulsed laser deposition was more adherent to the titanium surface and led to faster bone formation than HA. Conclusion: This experiment opined that AW coated by pulsed laser deposition seems to be a promising method in achieving bioactive coatings on titanium implants.

Keywords: surface coating, dental implants, osseo integration, biotechnology

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20388 Effect of Epoxy-ZrP Nanocomposite Top Coating on Inorganic Barrier Layer

Authors: Haesook Kim, Ha Na Ra, Mansu Kim, Hyun Gi Kim, Sung Soo Kim

Abstract:

Epoxy-ZrP (α-zirconium phosphate) nanocomposites were coated on inorganic barrier layer such as sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD) to improve the barrier properties and protect the layer. ZrP nanoplatelets were synthesized using a reflux method and exfoliated in the polymer matrix. The barrier properties of coating layer were characterized by measuring water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). The WVTR dramatically decreased after epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite coating, while maintaining the optical properties. It was also investigated the effect of epoxy-ZrP coating on inorganic layer after bending and reliability test. The optimal structure composed of inorganic and epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite layers was used in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) encapsulation.

Keywords: α-zirconium phosphate, barrier properties, epoxy nanocomposites, OLED encapsulation

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20387 Studies on Plasma Spray Deposited La2O3 - YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia) Composite Thermal Barrier Coating

Authors: Prashant Sharma, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar

Abstract:

The present study concerns development of a composite thermal barrier coating consisting of a mixture of La2O3 and YSZ (with 8 wt.%, 32 wt.% and 50 wt.% 50% La2O3) by plasma spray deposition technique on a CoNiCrAlY based bond coat deposited on Inconel 718 substrate by high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF) technique. The addition of La2O3 in YSZ causes the formation of pyrochlore (La2Zr2O7) phase in the inter splats boundary along with the presence of LaYO3 phase. The coefficient of thermal expansion is significantly reduced from due to the evolution of different phases and structural defects in the sprayed coating. The activation energy for TGO growth under isothermal and cyclic oxidation was increased in the composite coating as compared to YSZ coating.

Keywords: plasma spraying, oxidation resistance, thermal barrier coating, microstructure, X-ray method

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20386 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Nanotube Based Supercapacitor

Authors: Jafar Khan Kasi, Ajab Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube is one of the most attractive materials for the potential applications of nanotechnology due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report a supercapacitor made of nickel foil electrodes, coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thin film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. Chemical vapor deposition method was used for the growth of MWCNTs and ethanol was used as a hydrocarbon source. High graphitic multiwall carbon nanotube was found at 750 C analyzing by Raman spectroscopy. We observed the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes of supercapacitor fabricated from MWCNTs exhibit considerably small equivalent series resistance (ESR), and a high specific power density. Electrophoretic deposition is an easy method in fabricating MWCNT electrodes for high performance supercapacitor.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, charge, cyclic voltammetry

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20385 Fabrication of Pure and Doped MAPbI3 Thin Films by One Step Chemical Vapor Deposition Method for Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: S. V. N. Pammi, Soon-Gil Yoon

Abstract:

In the present study, we report a facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for Perovskite MAPbI3 thin films by doping with Br and Cl. We performed a systematic optimization of CVD parameters such as deposition temperature, working pressure and annealing time and temperature to obtain high-quality films of CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction pattern showed that the perovskite films have a large grain size when compared to traditional spin coated thin films. To the best of our knowledge, there are very few reports on highly quality perovskite thin films by various doping such as Br and Cl using one step CVD and there is scope for significant improvement in device efficiency. In addition, their band-gap can be conveniently and widely tuned via doping process. This deposition process produces perovskite thin films with large grain size, long diffusion length and high surface coverage. The enhancement of the output power, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) dye films when compared to spin coated films and enhancement in output power by doping in doped films was demonstrated in detail. The facile one-step method for deposition of perovskite thin films shows a potential candidate for photovoltaic and energy harvesting applications.

Keywords: perovskite thin films, chemical vapor deposition, energy harvesting, photovoltaics

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20384 Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) Process Investigation for Co Thin Film as a TSV Alternative Seed Layer

Authors: Sajjad Esmaeili, Robert Krause, Lukas Gerlich, Alireza Mohammadian Kia, Benjamin Uhlig

Abstract:

This investigation aims to develop the feasible and qualitative process parameters for the thin films fabrication into ultra-large through-silicon-vias (TSVs) as vertical interconnections. The focus of the study is on TSV metallization and its challenges employing new materials for the purpose of rapid signal propagation in the microsystems technology. Cobalt metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (Co-MOCVD) process enables manufacturing an adhesive and excellent conformal ultra-thin film all the way through TSVs in comparison with the conventional non-conformal physical vapor deposition (PVD) process of copper (Cu) seed layer. Therefore, this process provides a Cu seed-free layer which is capable of direct Cu electrochemical deposition (Cu-ECD) on top of it. The main challenge of this metallization module is to achieve the proper alternative seed layer with less roughness, sheet resistance and granular organic contamination (e.g. carbon) which intensify the Co corrosion under the influence of Cu electrolyte.

Keywords: Cobalt MOCVD, direct Cu electrochemical deposition (ECD), metallization technology, through-silicon-via (TSV)

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20383 Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition

Authors: Jeff Letcher, Dennis Tierney, Haider Raad

Abstract:

Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.

Keywords: thermal deposition, wearable antennas, bluetooth technology, flexible electronics

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20382 Nano Effects of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on TiN Hard Coatings Deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

Authors: Branko Skoric, Aleksandar Miletic, Pal Terek, Lazar Kovacevic, Milan Kukuruzovic

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin films which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD). In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N5+ ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of effects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densification of the films. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX).

Keywords: coating, super hard, ion implantation, nanohardness

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20381 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov

Abstract:

Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolytic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS

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20380 Growth Nanostructured CdO Thin Film via Solid-Vapor Deposition

Authors: A. S. Obaid, K. H. T. Hassan, A. M. Asij, B. M. Salih, M. Bououdina

Abstract:

Cadmium Oxide (CdO) thin films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation method on Si (111) substrate at room temperature using CdCl2 as a source of Cd. Detailed structural properties of the films are presented using XRD and SEM. The films was pure polycrystalline CdO phase with high crystallinity. The lattice constant average crystallite size of the nanocrystalline CdO thin films were calculated. SEM image confirms the formation nanostructure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra of CdO thin films shows the presence of Cd and O peaks only, no additional peaks attributed to impurities or contamination are observed.

Keywords: nanostructured CdO, solid-vapor deposition, quantum size effect, cadmium oxide

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20379 Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Deposition, pH and Temperature with the Varying Coating Bath Parameters on Impact Energy by Taguchi Method

Authors: D. Kari Basavaraja, M. G. Skanda, C. Soumya, V. Ramesh

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effects of sodium hypophosphite concentration, pH, and temperature on deposition rate. This paper also discusses the evaluation of coating strength, surface, and subsurface by varying the bath parameters, percentage of phosphate, plating temperature, and pH of the plating solution. Taguchi technique has been used for the analysis. In the experiment, nickel chloride which is a source of nickel when mixed with sodium hypophosphite has been used as the reducing agent and the source of phosphate and sodium hydroxide has been used to vary the pH of the coating bath. The coated samples are tested for impact energy by conducting impact test. Finally, the effects of coating bath parameters on the impact energy absorbed have been plotted, and analysis has been carried out. Further, percentage contribution of coating bath parameters using Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been analysed. Finally, it can be concluded that the bath parameters of the Ni-P coating will certainly influence on the strength of the specimen.

Keywords: bath parameters, coatings, design of experiment, fracture toughness, impact strength

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20378 Generation of Charged Nanoparticles in the Gas Phase and their Contribution to Deposition of GaN Films and Nanostructures during Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Jin-Woo Park, Sung-Soo Lee, Nong-Moon Hwang

Abstract:

The generation of charged nanoparticles in the gas phase during the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has been frequently reported with their subsequent deposition into films and nanostructures in many systems such as carbon, silicon and zinc oxide. The microstructure evolution of films and nanostructures is closely related with the size distribution of charged nanoparticles. To confirm the generation of charged nanoparticles during GaN, the generation of GaN charged nanoparticles was examined in an atmospheric pressure CVD process using a Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) combined with a Faraday Cup Electrometer (FCE). It was confirmed that GaN charged nanoparticles were generated under the condition where GaN nanostructures were synthesized on the bare and Au-coated Si substrates. In addition, the deposition behaviour depends strongly on the charge transfer rate of metal substrates. On the metal substrates of a lower CTR such as Mo, the deposition rate of GaN was much lower than on those of a higher CTR such as Fe. GaN nanowires tend to grow on the substrates of a lower CTR whereas GaN thin films tend to be deposited on the substrates of a higher CTR.

Keywords: chemical vapour deposition, charged cluster model, generation of charged nanoparticles, deposition behaviour, nanostructures, gan, charged transfer rate

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20377 Deposition and Properties of PEO Coatings on Zinc-Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Linlin Wang, Guangdong Bian, Jifeng Shen, Jingzhu Zeng

Abstract:

Zinc-aluminum alloys have been applied as alternatives to bronze, aluminum alloys, and cast iron due to their distinguishing features such as high as-cast strength, excellent bearing properties, as well as low energy requirements for melting. In this study, oxide coatings were produced on ZA27 zinc-aluminum alloy by a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Three coatings were deposited by using three various electrolytes, i.e. silicate, aluminate and aluminate/borate composite solutions. The current density is set at 0.1A/cm2, deposition time is 40 mins for all the deposition processes. The surface morphology and phase structure of the three coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pin-on-disc sliding wear tests were conducted to test the tribological properties of coatings. The results indicated that the coating produced using the aluminate/borate composite electrolyte had the highest deposition rate and best wear resistance among the three coatings.

Keywords: oxide coating, PEO, tribological properties, ZA27

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20376 Design and Fabrication of Piezoelectric Tactile Sensor by Deposition of PVDF-TrFE with Spin-Coating Method for Minimally Invasive Surgery

Authors: Saman Namvarrechi, Armin A. Dormeny, Javad Dargahi, Mojtaba Kahrizi

Abstract:

Since last two decades, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has grown significantly due to its advantages compared to the traditional open surgery like less physical pain, faster recovery time and better healing condition around incision regions; however, one of the important challenges in MIS is getting an effective sensing feedback within the patient’s body during operations. Therefore, surgeons need efficient tactile sensing like determining the hardness of contact tissue for investigating the patient’s health condition. In such a case, MIS tactile sensors are preferred to be able to provide force/pressure sensing, force position, lump detection, and softness sensing. Among different pressure sensor technologies, the piezoelectric operating principle is the fittest for MIS’s instruments, such as catheters. Using PVDF with its copolymer, TrFE, as a piezoelectric material, is a common method of design and fabrication of a tactile sensor due to its ease of implantation and biocompatibility. In this research, PVDF-TrFE polymer is deposited via spin-coating method and treated with various post-deposition processes to investigate its piezoelectricity and amount of electroactive β phase. These processes include different post thermal annealing, the effect of spin-coating speed, different layer of deposition, and the presence of additional hydrate salt. According to FTIR spectroscopy and SEM images, the amount of the β phase and porosity of each sample is determined. In addition, the optimum experimental study is established by considering every aspect of the fabrication process. This study clearly shows the effective way of deposition and fabrication of a tactile PVDF-TrFE based sensor and an enhancement methodology to have a higher β phase and piezoelectric constant in order to have a better sense of touch at the end effector of biomedical devices.

Keywords: β phase, minimally invasive surgery, piezoelectricity, PVDF-TrFE, tactile sensor

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20375 Fabrication of Titanium Diboride-Based High Emissive Paint Coating Using Economical Dip Coating Method for High Temperature Applications

Authors: Atasi Dan, Kamanio Chattopadhyay, Bikramjit Basu

Abstract:

A cost-effective titanium diboride (TiB2) paint coating has been developed on stainless steel substrate using commercially available polyvinylpyrrolidone as a binder by convenient dip-coating technique. The emittance of the coating has been explored by tailoring various process parameters to obtain highest thermal radiation. The optimized coating has achieved a high thermal emittance of 0.85. In addition, the coating exhibited an excellent thermal stability while heat-treated at 500 °C in air. Along with the emittance, the structural and physical properties of the As-deposited and heat-treated coatings have been investigated systematically. The high temperature annealing has not affected the emittance, chemical composition and morphology of the coating significantly. Hence, the fabricated paint coating is expected to open up new possibilities for using it as a low-cost, thermally stable emitter in high temperature applications.

Keywords: titanium diboride, emittance, paint coating, thermal stability

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20374 Cutting Performance of BDD Coating on WC-Co Tools

Authors: Feng Xu, Zhaozhi Liu, Junhua Xu, Xiaolong Tang, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated cutting tool has excellent cutting performance, it is the most ideal tool for the processing of nonferrous metals and alloys, composites, nonmetallic materials and other difficult-to-machine materials efficiently and accurately. Depositing CVD diamond coating on the cemented carbide with high cobalt content can improve its toughness and strength, therefore, it is very important to research on the preparation technology and cutting properties of CVD diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tool with high cobalt content. The preparation technology of boron-doped diamond (BDD) coating has been studied and the coated drills were prepared. BDD coating were deposited on the drills by using the optimized parameters and the SEM results show that there are no cracks or collapses in the coating. Cutting tests with the prepared drills against the silumin and aluminum base printed circuit board (PCB) have been studied. The results show that the wear amount of the coated drill is small and the machined surface has a better precision. The coating does not come off during the test, which shows good adhesion and cutting performance of the drill.

Keywords: cemented carbide with high cobalt content, CVD boron-doped diamond, cutting test, drill

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20373 Plasma Spray Deposition of Bio-Active Coating on Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Substrate

Authors: Renu Kumari, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar

Abstract:

In the present study, composite coating consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) + 50 wt% TiO2 has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition technique. Followed by plasma spray deposition, detailed surface roughness and microstructural characterization were carried out by using optical profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The composition and phase analysis were carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, respectively. The bio-activity behavior of the uncoated and coated samples was also compared by dipping test in Hank’s solution. The average surface roughness of the coating was 10 µm (as compared to 0.5 µm of as-received Ti-6Al-4V substrate) with the presence of porosities. The microstructure of the coating was found to be continuous with the presence of solidified splats. A detailed XRD analysis shows phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile, decomposition of hydroxyapatite, and formation of CaTiO3 phase. Standard dipping test confirmed a faster kinetics of deposition of calcium phosphate in the coated HA+50% wt.% TiO2 surface as compared to the as-received substrate.

Keywords: titanium, plasma spraying, microstructure, bio-activity, TiO2, hydroxyapatite

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20372 Electrical Properties of CVD-Graphene on SiC

Authors: Bilal Jabakhanji, Dimitris Kazazis, Adrien Michon, Christophe Consejo, Wilfried Desrat, Benoit Jouault

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the electrical properties of graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the Si face of SiC substrates. Depending on the growth condition, hole or electron doping can be achieved, down to a few 1011cm−2. The high homogeneity of the graphene and the low intrinsic carrier concentration, allow the remarkable observation of the Half Integer Quantum Hall Effect, typical of graphene, at the centimeter scale.

Keywords: graphene, quantum hall effect, chemical vapor, deposition, silicon carbide

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20371 Controlled Growth of Charge Transfer Complex Nanowire by Physical Vapor Deposition Method Using Dielectrophoretic Force

Authors: Rabaya Basori, Arup K. Raychaudhuri

Abstract:

In recent years, a variety of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has been synthesized and used as basic building blocks for the development of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely investigated as a scalable technique to trap and manipulate polarizable objects. This includes biological cells, nanoparticles, DNA molecules, organic or inorganic NWs and proteins using electric field gradients. In this article, we have used DEP force to localize nanowire growth by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method as well as control of NW diameter on field assisted growth of the NWs of CuTCNQ (Cu-tetracyanoquinodimethane); a metal-organic charge transfer complex material which is well known of resistive switching. We report a versatile analysis platform, based on a set of nanogap electrodes, for the controlled growth of nanowire. Non-uniform electric field and dielectrophoretic force is created in between two metal electrodes, patterned by electron beam lithography process. Suspended CuTCNQ nanowires have been grown laterally between two electrodes in the vicinity of electric field and dielectric force by applying external bias. Growth and diameter dependence of the nanowires on external bias has been investigated in the framework of these two forces by COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. This report will help successful in-situ nanodevice fabrication with constrained number of NW and diameter without any post treatment.

Keywords: nanowire, dielectrophoretic force, confined growth, controlled diameter, comsol multiphysics simulation

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20370 Microstructure and Oxidation Behaviors of Al, Y Modified Silicide Coatings Prepared on an Nb-Si Based Ultrahigh Temperature Alloy

Authors: Xiping Guo, Jing Li

Abstract:

The microstructure of an Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating prepared on an Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy by pack cementation process at 1250°C for eight hours was studied. The results showed that the coating was composed of a (Nb,X)Si₂ (X represents Ti, Cr and Hf elements) outer layer, a (Ti,Nb)₅Si₄ middle layer and an Al, Cr-rich inner layer. For comparison, the oxidation behaviors of the coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C were investigated respectively. Linear oxidation kinetics was found with the parabolic rate constants of 5.29×10⁻², 9×10⁻²and 5.81 mg² cm⁻⁴ h⁻¹, respectively. Catastrophic pesting oxidation has not been found at 800°C even for 100 h. The surface of the scale was covered by compact glassy SiO₂ film. The coating was able to effectively protect the Nb-Si based alloy from oxidation at 1350°C for at least 100 h. The formation process of the scale was testified following an epitaxial growth mechanism. The mechanism responsible for the oxidation behavior of the Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C was proposed.

Keywords: Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy, oxidation resistance, pack cementation, silicide coating, Al and Y modified

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20369 Effect of Pack Aluminising Conditions on βNiAl Coatings

Authors: A. D. Chandio, P. Xiao

Abstract:

In this study, nickel aluminide coatings were deposited onto CMSX-4 single crystal superalloy and pure Ni substrates by using in-situ chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The microstructural evolutions and coating thickness (CT) were studied upon the variation of processing conditions i.e. time and temperature. The results demonstrated (under identical conditions) that coating formed on pure Ni contains no substrate entrapments and have lower CT in comparison to one deposited on the CMSX-4 counterpart. In addition, the interdiffusion zone (IDZ) of Ni substrate is a γ’-Ni3Al in comparison to the CMSX-4 alloy that is βNiAl phase. The higher CT on CMSX-4 superalloy is attributed to presence of γ-Ni/γ’-Ni3Al structure which contains ~ 15 at.% Al before deposition (that is already present in superalloy). Two main deposition parameters (time and temperature) of the coatings were also studied in addition to standard comparison of substrate effects. The coating formation time was found to exhibit profound effect on CT, whilst temperature was found to change coating activities. In addition, the CT showed linear trend from 800 to 1000 °C, thereafter reduction was observed. This was attributed to the change in coating activities.

Keywords: βNiAl, in-situ CVD, CT, CMSX-4, Ni, microstructure

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20368 Preparation and Cutting Performance of Boron-Doped Diamond Coating on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools with High Cobalt Content

Authors: Zhaozhi Liu, Feng Xu, Junhua Xu, Xiaolong Tang, Ying Liu, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated cutting tool has excellent cutting performance, it is the most ideal tool for the processing of nonferrous metals and alloys, composites, nonmetallic materials and other difficult-to-machine materials efficiently and accurately. Depositing CVD diamond coating on the cemented carbide with high cobalt content can improve its toughness and strength, therefore, it is very important to research on the preparation technology and cutting properties of CVD diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tool with high cobalt content. The preparation technology of boron-doped diamond (BDD) coating has been studied and the coated drills were prepared. BDD coating were deposited on the drills by using the optimized parameters and the SEM results show that there are no cracks or collapses in the coating. Cutting tests with the prepared drills against the silumin and aluminum base printed circuit board (PCB) have been studied. The results show that the wear amount of the coated drill is small and the machined surface has a better precision. The coating does not come off during the test, which shows good adhesion and cutting performance of the drill.

Keywords: cemented carbide with high cobalt content, CVD boron-doped diamond, cutting test, drill

Procedia PDF Downloads 350