Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: F. A. Hamad

61 Occupational Cumulative Effective Doses of Radiation Workers in Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar

Authors: Omar Bobes, Abeer Al-Attar, Mohammad Hassan Kharita, Huda Al-Naemi

Abstract:

The number of radiological examinations has increased steadily in recent years. As a result, the risk of possible radiation-induced consequential damage also increases through continuous, lifelong, and increasing exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore, radiation dose monitoring in medicine became an essential element of medical practice. In this study, the occupational cumulative doses for radiation workers in Hamad medical corporation in Qatar have been assessed for a period of five years. The number of monitored workers selected for this study was 555 (out of a total of 1250 monitored workers) who have been working continuously -with no interruption- with ionizing radiation over the past five years from 2015 to 2019. The aim of this work is to examine the occupational groups and the activities where the higher radiation exposure occurred and in what order of magnitude. The most exposed group was the nuclear medicine technologist staff, with an average cumulative dose of 8.4 mSv. The highest individual cumulative dose was 9.8 mSv recorded for the PET-CT technologist category.

Keywords: cumulative dose, effective dose, monitoring, occupational exposure, dosimetry

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60 A Social Network Analysis for Formulating Construction Defect Generation Mechanisms

Authors: Hamad Aljassmi, Sangwon Han

Abstract:

Various solutions for preventing construction defects have been suggested. However, a construction company may have difficulties adopting all these suggestions due to financial and practical constraints. Based on this recognition, this paper aims to identify the most significant defect causes and formulate their defect generation mechanism in order to help a construction company to set priorities of its defect prevention strategies. For this goal, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 106 industry professionals and identified five most significant causes including: (1) organizational culture, (2) time pressure and constraints, (3) workplace quality system, (4) financial constraints upon operational expenses and (5) inadequate employee training or learning opportunities.

Keywords: defect, quality, failure, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
59 Enhancement of the Performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV Transmission Line Using STATCOM: A Case Study

Authors: Ali Hamad, Ibrahim Al-Drous, Saleh Al-Jufout

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This paper presents a case study of using STATCOM to enhance the performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV transmission line. The location of the STATCOM was identified maintaining minimum voltage drops at the 110 load nodes. The transmission line and the 110 load nodes have been modeled by MATLAB/Simulink. The suggested STATCOM and its location will increase the transmission capability of this transmission line and overcome the overload expected in the year 2020. The annual percentage loading rise has been considered as 14%. A graphical representation of the line voltages and the voltage drops at different load nodes has been illustrated.

Keywords: FACTS, MATLAB, STATCOM, transmission line, voltage drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
58 Computational Investigation of Gas-Solid Flow in High Pressure High Temperature Filter

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, Hamad M. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi

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This paper reports a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigation for a high-temperature high-pressure filtration (ceramic candle filter). However, parallel flow to the filter is considered in this study. Different face (filtration) velocities are examined using the CFD code, FLUENT. Different sizes of particles are tracked through the domain to find the height at which the particles will impinge on the filter surface. Furthermore, particle distribution around the filter (or filter cake) is studied to design efficient cleaning mechanisms. Gravity effect to the particles with various inlet velocities and pressure drop are both considered. In the CFD study, it is found that the gravity influence should not be ignored if the particle sizes exceed 1 micron.

Keywords: fluid flow, CFD, filtration, HTHP

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57 Effectiveness of Adopting Software Quality Frameworks in Software Organizations: A Qualitative Review

Authors: Sarah K. Amer, Nagwa Badr, Osman Ibrahim, Ahmed Hamad

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This paper surveys the effectiveness of software process quality assurance frameworks, with some focus on Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) - a framework that has become widely adopted in software organizations. The importance of quality improvement in software development, and the differences in the outcomes of quality framework implementation between Middle Eastern and North African (MENA-region) countries and non-MENA-region countries are discussed. The greatest challenges met in the MENA region are identified, with particular focus on Egypt and its rising software development industry.

Keywords: software quality, software process improvement, software development methodologies, capability maturity model integration

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56 Fluid Flow in Roughened Square Tube for Internal Blade Cooling

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, Hamad M. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi, Abdulrahman Almutairi, Ayedh Alajmi

Abstract:

A computational investigation has been undertaken to study fluid flow through roughened tube with turbulators. Such flows are of particular interest in cooling internally high pressure turbine blades. Turbulators are fixed in each side of the passage (tube) to promote turbulence and enhance heat transfer. The tube had an aspect ratio of 1 and the position of the ribs closest to the bend are at 0.45d from the entrance and exit of the bend. The aim of this study is to examine the tube roughened by turbulator by studying some flow parameters upstream and downstream of the turbulator. It is cleared that the eddies sizes are decreased downstream in the first two turbulators and increased after the turbulators increases the turbulence in the tube and enhanced the heat transfer in the blade.

Keywords: fluid flow, turbulator, computation, blade

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55 Numerical Analysis of Swirling Chamber Using Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Turbulence Model

Authors: Hamad M. Alhajeri

Abstract:

Swirling chamber is a promising cooling method for heavily thermally loaded parts like turbine blades due to the additional circumferential velocity and therefore improved turbulent mixing of the fluid. This paper investigates numerically the effect of turbulence model on the heat convection of the swirling chamber. Grid independence analysis is conducted to obtain the proper grid dimension. The work validated with experimental data available in the literature. Flow analysis using improved delayed detached eddy simulation turbulence model and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes k-ɛ turbulence model is carried. The flow characteristic near the exit is reformed when improved delayed detached eddy simulation model used.

Keywords: gas turbine, Nusselt number, flow characteristics, heat transfer

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54 Numerical Simulation of Two-Dimensional Porous Cylinder Flow in In-Line Arrangement

Authors: Hamad Alhajeri, Abdulrahman Almutairi, A. H. Alenezi, M. H. Alhajeri, Ayedh Alajmi

Abstract:

The flow around three porous cylinders in inline arrangement is investigated in this paper computationally using the commercial code FLUENT. The arrangement generally operates with the dirty gases passing through the porous cylinders, the particulate material being deposited on the outside of the cylinders. However, in a combined cycle power plant, filtration is required to allow the hot exhaust gases to be fed to a turbine without causing any physical damage to the turbine blades. Three cylinder elements are placed in a two-dimensional rectangle duct with fixed face velocity and varying the velocity ratio between the approach and face velocity. Particle trajectories are obtained for a number of particle diameters and different inlet (approach) velocity to face filtration velocity ratios to investigate the behavior of particles around the cylinder.

Keywords: porous cylinders, CFD, fluid flow, filtration

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53 Stress Intensity Factor for Dynamic Cracking of Composite Material by X-FEM Method

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Hamad, H. Kebir

Abstract:

The work involves develops attended by a numerical execution of the eXtend Finite Element Method premises a measurement by the fracture process cracked so many cracked plates an application will be processed for the calculation of the stress intensity factor SIF. In the first we give in statically part the distribution of stress, displacement field and strain of composite plate in two cases uncrack/edge crack, also in dynamical part the first six modes shape. Secondly, we calculate Stress Intensity Factor SIF for different orientation angle θ of central crack with length (2a=0.4mm) in plan strain condition, KI and KII are obtained for mode I and mode II respectively using X-FEM method. Finally from crack inclined involving mixed modes results, the comparison we chose dangerous inclination and the best crack angle when K is minimal.

Keywords: stress intensity factor (SIF), crack orientation, glass/epoxy, natural frequencies, X-FEM

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52 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer in Square Duct with Turbulators

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, Hamad M. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi

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Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of heat transfer in U-duct with turbulators is presented in this paper. The duct passages used to cool internally the blades in gas turbine. The study is focused in the flow behavior and the Nusselt number (Nu) distributions. The model of the u-duct contains two square legs that are connected by 180* turn. Four turbulators are located in each surface of the leg and distributed in a staggered arrangement. The turbulator height and width are equal to 0.1 of the duct width, and the turbulator height is 0.1 of the distance between the turbulators. The Reynolds number (Re) used in this study is 95000 and the inlet velocity is 10 m/s. It was noticed that, after the flow resettles from the interruptions generated by the first turbulator or the turn, the flow construct two eddies, one large and the other is small after and before the turbulator, respectively. The maximum values of the Nu are found at a distance of approximately one turbulator width w before of the flow reattachment point.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, rib, heat transfer, blade

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51 Permeodynamic Particulate Matter Filtration for Improved Air Quality

Authors: Hamad M. Alnagran, Mohammed S. Imbabi

Abstract:

Particulate matter (PM) in the air we breathe is detrimental to health. Overcoming this problem has attracted interest and prompted research on the use of PM filtration in commercial buildings and homes to be carried out. The consensus is that tangible health benefits can result from the use of PM filters in most urban environments, to clean up the building’s fresh air supply and thereby reduce exposure of residents to airborne PM. The authors have investigated and are developing a new large-scale Permeodynamic Filtration Technology (PFT) capable of permanently filtering and removing airborne PMs from outdoor spaces, thus also benefiting internal spaces such as the interiors of buildings. Theoretical models were developed, and laboratory trials carried out to determine, and validate through measurement permeodynamic filtration efficiency and pressure drop as functions of PM particle size distributions. The conclusion is that PFT offers a potentially viable, cost effective end of pipe solution to the problem of airborne PM.

Keywords: air filtration, particulate matter, particle size distribution, permeodynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
50 Investigation of Droplet Size Produced in Two-Phase Gravity Separators

Authors: Kul Pun, F. A. Hamad, T. Ahmed, J. O. Ugwu, J. Eyers, G. Lawson, P. A. Russell

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Determining droplet size and distribution is essential when determining the separation efficiency of a two/three-phase separator. This paper investigates the effect of liquid flow and oil pad thickness on the droplet size at the lab scale. The findings show that increasing the inlet flow rates of the oil and water results in size reduction of the droplets and increasing the thickness of the oil pad increases the size of the droplets. The data were fitted with a simple Gaussian model, and the parameters of mean, standard deviation, and amplitude were determined. Trends have been obtained for the fitted parameters as a function of the Reynolds number, which suggest a way forward to better predict the starting parameters for population models when simulating separation using CFD packages. The key parameter to predict to fix the position of the Gaussian distribution was found to be the mean droplet size.

Keywords: two-phase separator, average bubble droplet, bubble size distribution, liquid-liquid phase

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49 Defect-Based Urgency Index for Bridge Maintenance Ranking and Prioritization

Authors: Saleh Abu Dabous, Khaled Hamad, Rami Al-Ruzouq

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Bridge condition assessment and rating provide essential information needed for bridge management. This paper reviews bridge inspection and condition rating practices and introduces a defect-based urgency index. The index is estimated at the element-level based on the extent and severity of the different defects typical to the bridge element. The urgency index approach has the following advantages: (1) It facilitates judgment submission, i.e. instead of rating the bridge element with a specific linguistic overall expression (which can be subjective and used differently by different people), the approach is based on assessing the defects; (2) It captures multiple defects that can be present within a deteriorated element; and (3) It reflects how critical the element is through quantifying critical defects and their severity. The approach can be further developed and validated. It is expected to be useful for practical purposes as an early-warning system for critical bridge elements.

Keywords: condition rating, deterioration, inspection, maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
48 Utilization of Watermelon Rind Extract as Green Anti-Scalent for Cooling Water Systems

Authors: Elsayed G. Zaki, Nora A. Hamad, Hadeel G. El-Shorbagy

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The effect of watermelon rind extract as green inhibitors for the formation of calcium sulphate scale have been investigated using conductivity measurements concurrently with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopic examinations. Mineral scales were deposited from the brine solution by cathodic polarization of the steel surface. The results show up that the anti-scaling property of the extracts could be attributed to the presence of citrulline. In solution, citrulline retards calcium sulphate precipitation via formation of a complex with the calcium cations. Thin, smooth and non adherent film formed over the steel surface, under cathodic polarization, by the deposition of the calcium- citrulline complex. The stability of the aqueous extracts with time was also investigated.

Keywords: anti-scaling, scale inhibitor, green extracts, water treatment

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47 Evaluation of AR-4BL-MAST with Multiple Markers Interaction Technique for Augmented Reality Based Engineering Application

Authors: Waleed Maqableh, Ahmad Al-Hamad, Manjit Sidhu

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Augmented reality (AR) technology has the capability to provide many benefits in the field of education as a modern technology which aided learning and improved the learning experience. This paper evaluates AR based application with multiple markers interaction technique (touch-to-print) which is designed for analyzing the kinematics of 4BL mechanism in mechanical engineering. The application is termed as AR-4BL-MAST and it allows the users to touch the symbols on a paper in natural way of interaction. The evaluation of this application was performed with mechanical engineering students and human–computer interaction (HCI) experts to test its effectiveness as a tangible user interface application where the statistical results show its ability as an interaction technique, and it gives the users more freedom in interaction with the virtual mechanical objects.

Keywords: augmented reality, multimedia, user interface, engineering, education technology

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46 Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of the College Readiness Questionnaire

Authors: Muna Al-Kalbani, Thuwayba Al Barwani, Otherine Neisler, Hussain Alkharusi, David Clayton, Humaira Al-Sulaimani, Mohammad Khan, Hamad Al-Yahmadi

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This study describes the psychometric properties and factor structure of the University Readiness Survey (URS). Survey data were collected from sample of 2652 students from Sultan Qaboos University. Exploratory factor analysis identified ten significant factors underlining the structure. The results of Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the data where the indices for the revised model were χ2(df = 1669) = 6093.4; CFI = 0.900; GFI =0.926; PCLOSE = 1.00 and RMSAE = 0.030 where each of these indices were above threshold. The overall value of Cronbach’s alpha was 0.899 indicating that the instrument score was reliable. Results imply that the URS is a valid measure describing the college readiness pattern among Sultan Qaboos University students and the Arabic version could be used by university counselors to identify students’ readiness factors. Nevertheless, further validation of the of the USR is recommended.

Keywords: college readiness, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability, validity

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45 Electrospinning Parameters: Effect on the Morphology of Polylactic Acid/Polybutylene Succinate Fibers

Authors: Hamad Al-Turaif, Usman Saeed

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The development of nanofibers with the help of electrospinning is being prioritized as a method of choice because of the simplicity and efficiency of the process. The parameters of the electrospinning process effectively convert the polymer solution into an electrospun final product made of the desired diameter of nanofiber. The aim of the study presented is to recognize and analyze the effect of proposed parameters on biodegradable and biocompatible polylactic acid (PLA)/polybutylene succinate (PBS) nanofiber developed by the electrospinning process. The morphology of the fiber is characterized by implementing Scanning Electron Microscope. Studies were conducted to characterize the result of using different electrospinning parameters on the final diameter and orientation of fiber. It was determined that varying polymer solution concentration, feed rate, and applied voltage show different outcomes. The best results were obtained at 6% polymer solution concentration, 20 kV, and 0.5 ml/h, which can be applicable for biomedical applications. Finally, protein adsorption and mechanical testing were conducted on the PLA/PBS fiber.

Keywords: electrospinning, polylactic acid, polybutylene succinate, morphology

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44 Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of New Series of Oil Sorbers Based on Maleate Esters

Authors: Nora A. Hamad, Ayman M. Atta, Adel A. H. Abdel-Rahman

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Two malice anhydride esters were prepared using long chain aliphatic alcohols (C8H17OH and C12H25OH, 1:1 mole ratio). Three series of crosslinked homo and copolymers of maleate esters with octadecyl acrylate and acrylic acid were prepared respectively through suspension copolymerization. The monomers were mixed with 0.02 Wt% of BP initiator, PVA 1% (170 ml for each 100g of monomers) and different weight ratios of DVB crosslinked (1% and 4%) in cyclohexane. The prepared crosslinked homo and copolymers were characterized by SEM, TGA and FTIR spectroscopic analyses. The prepared polymers were coated onto poly (ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET). The effect of copolymerization feed composition, crosslinker wt% and reaction media or solvent on swelling properties of crosslinked polymers were studied through the oil absorption tests in toluene and 10% of diluted crude oil with toluene.

Keywords: acrylic acid, crosslinked copolymers, maleate ester, poly(ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET), oil absorbency, octadecyl acrylat

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43 Immunological and Genetic Studies of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Alaa Jawad Hassan, Saad Marza Al-Aaraji, Fadil Abbas Hamad

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The current study was designed to assess some immunological parameters and pedigree analysis for atopic dermatitis patients, as the study included 64 patients (37 males and 27 females) and 24 healthy individuals (12 males and 12 females) with no history of the AD. The cases of this study were divided into two age groups; the first is infant and children (1-10 years), while the second is adolescent and adults (11- 60 years). The number of cases was 51 and 13 in each age group respectively. Sera samples from confirmed AD patients and healthy control were analysed by mean of ELISA for assessment the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4 and IgE. The study showed that a significant increase (P < 0.05) in IL-1β, IL-4 and IgE levels in the patients compared with the control group in both age groups and gender, while there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the concentration of IL-2. The study of pedigree analysis shows the genetic tendency in the frequency of disease depending on the genetic history of family, where more patients returning to families in which both parents or one of them infected with AD, whereas the patients were no parents infected with AD they are suffering from asthma and the disease recurs in their uncles.

Keywords: atopic dermatitis, cytokines, IgE, molecular biology

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42 Investigation of Steady State Infiltration Rate for Different Head Condition

Authors: Nour Aljafari, Mariam, S. Maani, Serter Atabay, Tarig Ali, Said Daker, Lara Daher, Hamad Bukhammas, Mohammed Abou Shakra

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This paper aims at determining the soil characteristics that influence the irrigation process of green landscapes and deciding on the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the constant head methodology to determine the soil infiltration rates. The steady state infiltration rate was reached after 10 minutes of infiltration at a rate of 200 mm/hr. The effects of different water heads on infiltration rates were also investigated, and the head of 11 cm was found to be the optimum head for the test. The experimental results showed consistent infiltration results for the range between 11 cm and 15 cm. The study also involved finding the initial moisture content, which ranged between 5% and 25%, and finding the organic content, which occupied 1% to 2% of the soil. These results will be later utilized, using the water balance approach, to estimate the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation for changing weather conditions.

Keywords: infiltration rate, moisture content, grass type, organic content

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41 Real-Time Sensor Fusion for Mobile Robot Localization in an Oil and Gas Refinery

Authors: Adewole A. Ayoade, Marshall R. Sweatt, John P. H. Steele, Qi Han, Khaled Al-Wahedi, Hamad Karki, William A. Yearsley

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Understanding the behavioral characteristics of sensors is a crucial step in fusing data from several sensors of different types. This paper introduces a practical, real-time approach to integrate heterogeneous sensor data to achieve higher accuracy than would be possible from any one individual sensor in localizing a mobile robot. We use this approach in both indoor and outdoor environments and it is especially appropriate for those environments like oil and gas refineries due to their sparse and featureless nature. We have studied the individual contribution of each sensor data to the overall combined accuracy achieved from the fusion process. A Sequential Update Extended Kalman Filter(EKF) using validation gates was used to integrate GPS data, Compass data, WiFi data, Inertial Measurement Unit(IMU) data, Vehicle Velocity, and pose estimates from Fiducial marker system. Results show that the approach can enable a mobile robot to navigate autonomously in any environment using a priori information.

Keywords: inspection mobile robot, navigation, sensor fusion, sequential update extended Kalman filter

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40 Gender Discrepancies in Current Pedagogical and Curricular Practices in EFL Higher Education Settings

Authors: Hamad Aldosari

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of sexism, or gender discrepancies, in current pedagogical and curricular practices in EFL learning higher education settings. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of both course contents and pedagogies in Saudi higher education institutions are to be discussed with reference to female/male topic presentation in dialogs and reading passages, sex-based activity types, stereotyped sex roles and the masculine generic conceptions of male superiority subliminally related in EFL curriculum and pedagogical practices, as well as the causes and effects of segregated language education practices in Saudi Arabia from a holistic vantage point of analysis. Analysis findings show that language educational practices including educational settings and segregation are gender-biased in attitude, but with regard to curriculum, sexism has not been traced. Findings also show that sexism is rampant due to socio-cultural aspects of language education rather than to religious reasons: a finding that seems to mirror the institutionalized unfair sex discrimination to the disadvantage of women in the Arabian societies at large.

Keywords: genderism, sex segregation, Saudi Arabia, EFL

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39 Incidence of Anaemia in Female Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Fatima Abu Baker Hamad

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Anaemia is a public health problem that affects population in both rich and poor countries. Although the primary cause is iron deficiency, it is seldom present in isolation. More frequently it coexists with a number of other causes, such as malaria, parasitic infection, nutritional deficiencies and hemoglobin apathies. That was the people in Sudan suffered from it .Anaemia has a high prevalence in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to find the incidence of anaemia in new cases of Sudanese female breast patients attending the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Gezira University, Sudan. The study was performed on 250 female breast cancer patients, the age range was (20-70) years and the mean age was 45.99±0.82. The hemoglobin level was measured by SYSMEX-KX2lM.As result 144(58.8) of patients presented with anaemia, between moderate to severe. Forty four (17.6%) of the patients were found to be under weight, 31 of them were anaemic. While 105(42%) of the patients were overweight and obese, 52 of them were anaemic. The incidence of anaemia in newly diagnosed Sudanese female breast cancer patients presented at NCI is association presentation with advance disease stage. Also it is related to age, state of nutrition and social economic factors. Early cancer detection which leads to effective treatment and reduced complication of diseases included anaemia is recommended.

Keywords: anaemia, breast cancer, stages of disease, malaria

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38 Long Term Strength Behavior of Hemp-Concrete

Authors: Elie Awwad, Bilal Hamad, Mounir Mabsout, Helmi Khatib

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The paper reports test results on the long-term behavior of sustainable hemp-concrete material prepared in research work conducted at the American University of Beirut. The tests results are in terms of compressive and splitting tensile tests conducted on standard 150x300 mm cylinders. A control mix without fibers, one polypropylene-concrete mix, and ten hemp-concrete mixes were prepared with different percentages of industrial hemp fibers and reduced coarse aggregate contents. The objective was to investigate the strength properties of hemp-reinforced concrete at 1.5 years age as compared with control mixes. The results indicated that both the compressive strength and the splitting tensile strength results of all tested cylinders increased as compared with the 28-days values. Also, the difference between the hemp-concrete samples and the control samples at 28 days was maintained at 1.5 years age indicating that hemp fibers did not exhibit any negative effect on the long-term strength properties of concrete.

Keywords: hemp-reinforced concrete, natural fibers, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength

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37 The Reality of Engineering Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Its Suitainability to The Requirements of The Labor Market

Authors: Hamad Albadr

Abstract:

With the development that has occurred in the orientation of universities from liability cognitive and maintain the culture of the community to responsibility job formation graduates to work according to the needs of the community development; representing universities in today's world, the prime motivator for the wheel of development in the community and find appropriate solutions to the problems they are facing and adapt to the demands of the changing environment. In this paper review of the reality of engineering education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its suitability to the requirements of the labor market, where they will be looking at the university as a system administrator educational using System Analysis Approach as one of the methods of modern management to analyze the performance of organizations and institutions, administrative and quality assessment. According to this approach is to deal with the system as a set of subsystems as components of the main divided into : input, process, and outputs, and the surrounding environment, will also be used research descriptive method and analytical , to gather information, data and analysis answers of the study population that consisting of a random sample of the beneficiaries of these services that the universities provided that about 500 professionals about employment in the business sector.

Keywords: universities in Saudi Arabia, engineering education, labor market, administrative, quality assessment

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36 Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified with Cellulose Date Palm Fibers

Authors: Howaidi M. Al-Otaibi, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani, Hamad A. Alsoliman

Abstract:

Fibers are extensively used in civil engineering applications for many years. In this study, empty fruit bunch of date palm trees were used to produce cellulose fiber that were used as additives in the asphalt binder. Two sizes (coarse and fine) of cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with various contents of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, and 7.5% by weight of asphalt binder. The physical and rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders were tested by using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP test such as dynamic shear rheometer. The results indicated that the fiber modified asphalt binders were higher in softening point, viscosity, and complex shear modulus, and lower in penetration compared to pure asphalt. The fiber modified binders showed an improvement in rheological properties since it was possible to raise the control binder (pure asphalt) PG from 64 to 70 by adding 6% (by weight) of either fine or coarse fibers. Such improvement in stiffness of fiber modified binder is expected to improve pavement resistance to rutting.

Keywords: cellulose date palm fiber, fiber modified asphalt, physical properties, rheological properties

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35 A Study on the Annual Doses Received by the Workers of Some Medical Practices

Authors: Eltayeb Hamad Elneel Yousif

Abstract:

This paper describes occupational radiation doses of workers in non-destructive testing (NDT) and some medical practices during the year 2007. The annual doses received by the workers of a public hospital are presented in this report. The Department is facilitated with HARSHAW Reader model 6600 and assigned the rule of personal monitoring to contribute in controlling and reducing the doses received by radiation workers. TLD cards with two TLD chips type LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) were calibrated to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Around 150 medical radiation workers were monitored throughout the year. Each worker received a single TLD card worn on the chest above lead apron and returned for laboratory reading every two months. The average annual doses received by the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology were evaluated. The annual doses for individual radiation workers ranged between 0.55-4.42 mSv, 0.48-1.86 mSv, and 0.48-0.91 mSv for the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology, respectively. The mean dose per worker was 1.29±1, 1.03±0.4, and 0.69±0.2 mSv, respectively. The results showed compliance with international dose limits. Our results reconfirm the importance of personal dosimetry service in assuring the radiation protection of medical staff in developing countries.

Keywords: radiation medicine, non-destructive testing, TLD, public hospital

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34 Synthesis and Characterization of Partially Oxidized Graphite Oxide for Solar Energy Storage Applications

Authors: Ghada Ben Hamad, Zohir Younsi, Fabien Salaun, Hassane Naji, Noureddine Lebaz

Abstract:

The graphene oxide (GO) material has attracted much attention for solar energy applications. This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of partially oxidized graphite oxide (GTO). GTO was obtained by modified Hummers method, which is based on the chemical oxidation of natural graphite. Several samples were prepared with different oxidation degree by an adjustment of the oxidizing agent’s amount. The effect of the oxidation degree on the chemical structure and on the morphology of GTO was determined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The thermal stability of GTO was evaluated by using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in Nitrogen atmosphere. The results indicate high degree oxidation of graphite oxide for each sample, proving that the process is efficient. The GTO synthesized by modified Hummers method shows promising characteristics. Graphene oxide (GO) obtained by exfoliation of GTO are recognized as a good candidate for thermal energy storage, and it will be used as solid shell material in the encapsulation of phase change materials (PCM).

Keywords: modified hummers method, graphite oxide, oxidation degree, solar energy storage

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33 Comparison of Rheological Properties for Polymer Modified Asphalt Produced in Riyadh

Authors: Ali M. Babalghaith, Hamad A. Alsoliman, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani

Abstract:

Flexible pavement made with neat asphalt binder is not enough to resist heavy traffic loads as well as harsh environmental condition found in Riyadh region. Therefore, there is a need to modify asphalt binder with polymers to satisfy such conditions. There are several types of polymers that are used to modify asphalt binder. The objective of this paper is to compare the rheological properties of six polymer modified asphalt binders (Lucolast7010, Anglomak2144, Paveflex140, SBS KTR401, EE-2 and Crumb rubber) obtained from asphalt manufacturer plants. The rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders were tested using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP tests such as dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer. The results have indicated that the polymer modified asphalt binders have lower penetration and higher softening point than neat asphalt indicating an improvement in stiffness of asphalt binder, and as a result, more resistant to rutting. Moreover, the dynamic shear rheometer results have shown that all modifiers used in this study improved the binder properties and satisfied the Superpave specifications except SBS KTR401 which failed to satisfy the rutting parameter (G*/sinδ).

Keywords: polymer modified asphalt, rheological properties, SBS, crumb rubber, EE-2

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32 Heat Transfer from a Cylinder in Cross-Flow of Single and Multiphase Flows

Authors: F. A. Hamad, S. He

Abstract:

In this paper, the average heat transfer characteristics for a cross flow cylinder of 16 mm diameter in a vertical pipe has been studied for single-phase flow (water/oil) and multicomponent (non-boiling) flow (water-air, water-oil, oil-air and water-oil-air). The cylinder is uniformly heated by electrical heater placed at the centre of the element. The results show that the values of average heat transfer coefficients for water are around four times the values for oil flow. Introducing air as a second phase with water has very little effect on heat transfer rate, while the heat transfer increased by 70% in case of oil. For water–oil flow, the heat transfer coefficient values are reflecting the percentage of water up to 50%, but increasing the water more than 50% leads to a sharp increase in the heat transfer coefficients to become close to the values of pure water. The enhancement of heat transfer by mixing two phases may be attributed to the changes in flow structure near to cylinder surface which lead to thinner boundary layer and higher turbulence. For three-phase flow, the heat transfer coefficients for all cases fall within the limit of single-phase flow of water and oil and are very close to pure water values. The net effect of the turbulence augmentation due to the introduction of air and the attenuation due to the introduction of oil leads to a thinner boundary layer of oil over the cylinder surface covered by a mixture of water and air bubbles.

Keywords: circular cylinder, cross flow, hear transfer, multicomponent multiphase flow

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