Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3964

Search results for: single walled nanotube (SWNT)

3964 Chaotic Motion of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Subject to Damping Effect

Authors: Tai-Ping Chang

Abstract:

In the present study, the effects on chaotic motion of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) due to the linear and nonlinear damping are investigated. By using the Hamilton’s principle, the nonlinear governing equation of the single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a matrix is derived. The Galerkin’s method is adopted to simplify the integro-partial differential equation into a nonlinear dimensionless governing equation for the SWCNT, which turns out to be a forced Duffing equation. The variations of the Lyapunov exponents of the SWCNT with damping and harmonic forcing amplitudes are investigated. Based on the computations of the top Lyapunov exponent, it is concluded that the chaotic motion of the SWCNT occurs when the amplitude of the periodic excitation exceeds certain value, besides, the chaotic motion of the SWCNT occurs with small linear damping and tiny nonlinear damping.

Keywords: chaotic motion, damping, Lyapunov exponents, single-walled carbon nanotube

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3963 Investigation of Chlorophylls a and b Interaction with Inner and Outer Surfaces of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: M. Dehestani, M. Ghasemi-Kooch

Abstract:

In this work, adsorption of chlorophylls a and b pigments in aqueous solution on the inner and outer surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) has been studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The linear interaction energy algorithm has been used to calculate the binding free energy. The results show that the adsorption of two pigments is fine on the both positions. Although there is the close similarity between these two pigments, their interaction with the nanotube is different. This result is useful to separate these pigments from one another. According to interaction energy between the pigments and carbon nanotube, interaction between these pigments-SWCNT on the inner surface is stronger than the outer surface. The interaction of SWCNT with chlorophylls phytol tail is stronger than the interaction of SWCNT with porphyrin ring of chlorophylls.

Keywords: adsorption, chlorophyll, interaction, molecular dynamics simulation, nanotube

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3962 Noninvasive Disease Diagnosis through Breath Analysis Using DNA-functionalized SWNT Sensor Array

Authors: W. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Du, M. L. Wang

Abstract:

Noninvasive diagnostics of diseases via breath analysis has attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest for many years and become more and more promising with the rapid advancement in nanotechnology and biotechnology. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, which are mainly blood borne, particularly provide highly valuable information about individuals’ physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Additionally, breath analysis is noninvasive, real-time, painless and agreeable to patients. We have developed a wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for the detection of a number of physiological indicators in breath. Eight DNA sequences were used to functionalize SWNT sensors to detect trace amount of methanol, benzene, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, acetone and ethanol, which are indicators of heavy smoking, excessive drinking, and diseases such as lung cancer, breast cancer, cirrhosis and diabetes. Our tests indicated that DNA functionalized SWNT sensors exhibit great selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and repeatability. Furthermore, different molecules can be distinguished through pattern recognition enabled by this sensor array. Thus, the DNA-SWNT sensor array has great potential to be applied in chemical or bimolecular detection for the noninvasive diagnostics of diseases and health monitoring.

Keywords: breath analysis, diagnosis, DNA-SWNT sensor array, noninvasive

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3961 Determination of Bisphenol A and Uric Acid by Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube with Magnesium Layered Hydroxide 3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)Propionic Acid Nanocomposite

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Maryam Musfirah Che Sobry, Mohamad Syahrizal Ahmad, Nurashikin Abd Azis

Abstract:

A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that has been modified with magnesium layered hydroxide 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid nanocomposite was proposed for the determination of uric acid and bisphenol A by square wave voltammetry. The results obtained denote that MLH-MPP nanocomposites enhance the sensitivity of the voltammetry detection responses. The best performance is shown by the modified carbon nanotube paste electrode (CNTPE) with the composition of single-walled carbon nanotube: magnesium layered hydroxide 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid nanocomposite at 100:15 (% w/w). The linear range where the sensor works well is within the concentration 1.0 10-7 – 1.0 10-4 and 3.0 10-7 – 1.0 10-4 for uric acid and bisphenol A respectively with the limit of detection of 1.0 10-7 M for both organics. The interferences of uric acid and bisphenol A with other organic were studied and most of them did not interfere. The results shown for each experimental parameter on the proposed CNTPE showed that it has high sensitivity, good selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. Therefore, the modified CNTPE can be used for the determination of uric acid and bisphenol A in real samples such as blood, plastic bottles and foods.

Keywords: bisphenol A, magnesium layered hydroxide 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid nanocomposite, Nanocomposite, uric acid

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3960 Vibration Behavior of Nanoparticle Delivery in a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Using Nonlocal Timoshenko Beam Theory

Authors: Haw-Long Lee, Win-Jin Chang, Yu-Ching Yang

Abstract:

In the paper, the coupled equation of motion for the dynamic displacement of a fullerene moving in a (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is derived using nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, including the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation. The effects of confined stiffness between the fullerene and nanotube, foundation stiffness, and nonlocal parameter on the dynamic behavior are analyzed using the Runge-Kutta Method. The numerical solution is in agreement with the analytical result for the special case. The numerical results show that increasing the confined stiffness and foundation stiffness decrease the dynamic displacement of SWCNT. However, the dynamic displacement increases with increasing the nonlocal parameter. In addition, result using the Euler beam theory and the Timoshenko beam theory are compared. It can be found that ignoring the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation leads to an underestimation of the displacement.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube, nanoparticle delivery, Nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, Runge-Kutta Method, Van der Waals force

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3959 Functionalization of Carboxylated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with 2-En 4-Hydroxy Cyclo 1-Octanon and Toxicity Investigation

Authors: D. ChobfroushKhoei, S. K. Heidari , Sh. Dariadel

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes were used in medical sciences especially in drug delivery system and cancer therapy. In this study, we functionalized carboxylated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT-COOH) with 2-en 4-hydroxy cyclo 1-octanon. Synthesized sample was characterized by FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TGA and cellular investigations. The results showed well formation of SWNT-Ester. Cell viability assay results and microscopic observations demonstrated that cancerous cells were killed in the sample. The synthesized sample can be used as a toxic material for cancer therapy.

Keywords: MWNT-COOH, functionalization, phenylisocyanate, phenylisothiocyanate, 1, 4-phenylendiamine, toxicity investigation

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3958 Urea Amperometric Biosensor Based on Entrapment Immobilization of Urease onto a Nanostructured Polypyrrol and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Hamide Amani, Afshin FarahBakhsh, Iman Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

In this paper, an amprometric biosensor based on surface modified polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed for the quantitative estimation of urea in aqueous solutions. The incorporation of urease (Urs) into a bipolymeric substrate consisting of PPy was performed by entrapment to the polymeric matrix, PPy acts as amperometric transducer in these biosensors. To increase the membrane conductivity, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were added to the PPy solution. The entrapped MWCNT in PPy film and the bipolymer layers were prepared for construction of Pt/PPy/MWCNT/Urs. Two different configurations of working electrodes were evaluated to investigate the potential use of the modified membranes in biosensors. The evaluation of two different configurations of working electrodes suggested that the second configuration, which was composed of an electrode-mediator-(pyrrole and multi-walled carbon nanotube) structure and enzyme, is the best candidate for biosensor applications.

Keywords: urea biosensor, polypyrrole, multi-walled carbon nanotube, urease

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3957 Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Su Jeong Lee, Tae Il Lee, Jung Han Kim, Chul-Hong Kim, Gee Sung Chae, Jae-Min Myoung

Abstract:

The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V∙s at 250 °C.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticle, contact resistance, thin-film transistor (TFT)

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3956 Growth of SWNTs from Alloy Catalyst Nanoparticles

Authors: S. Forel, F. Bouanis, L. Catala, I. Florea, V. Huc, F. Fossard, A. Loiseau, C. Cojocaru

Abstract:

Single wall carbon nanotubes are seen as excellent candidate for application on nanoelectronic devices because of their remarkable electronic and mechanical properties. These unique properties are highly dependent on their chiral structures and the diameter. Therefore, structure controlled growth of SWNTs, especially directly on final device’s substrate surface, are highly desired for the fabrication of SWNT-based electronics. In this work, we present a new approach to control the diameter of SWNTs and eventually their chirality. Because of their potential to control the SWNT’s chirality, bi-metalics nanoparticles are used to prepare alloy nanoclusters with specific structure. The catalyst nanoparticles are pre-formed following a previously described process. Briefly, the oxide surface is first covered with a SAM (self-assembled monolayer) of a pyridine-functionalized silane. Then, bi-metallic (Fe-Ru, Co-Ru and Ni-Ru) complexes are assembled by coordination bonds on the pre-formed organic SAM. The resultant alloy nanoclusters were then used to catalyze SWNTs growth on SiO2/Si substrates via CH4/H2 double hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (d-HFCVD). The microscopy and spectroscopy analysis demonstrate the high quality of SWNTs that were furthermore integrated into high-quality SWNT-FET.

Keywords: nanotube, CVD, device, transistor

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3955 Effects of α-IFN –SingleWalled Carbon NanoTube and α-IFN-PLGA Encapsulated on Breast Cancer in Rats Induced by DMBA by Using CA15-3 Tumor Marker

Authors: Anoosh Eghdami

Abstract:

Background and aim: Conventional anticancer drugs display significant shortcomings which limit their use in cancer therapy. For this reason, important progress has been achieved in the field of nanotechnology to solve these problems and offer a promising and effective alternative for cancer treatment. Tumor markers may also be measured periodically during cancer therapy. Tumor markers may also be measured after treatment has ended to check for recurrence the return of cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nano drug delivery in induced breast cancer with DMBA by using CA15-3 tumor marker. Material and method: the rats were divided into five groups. The first group (control n=15) were fed only sesame oil as a gavage. In the second group n=15,10 mg DMBA was dissolved in 5ml of sesame oil and were fed as a gavage. In addition to DMBA treatment as the second group, in the 3,4and 5 groups after cancer creation, respectively affected by alpha interferon (α-IFN),alpha interferon conjugated with single walled carbon nano tube (α-IFN-SWNT) and encapsulated in poly lactic poly glycolic acid (α-IFN-PLGA). Tumor marker was measured in recent three groups. Results: The ANOVA test was used to determine the differences among the groups. Cancer inducing in rats (group 2) caused a significant increase in blood levels of CA15-3 (P<0.05). Administration of α-IFN, α-IFN –SWNT and α-IFN-PLGA in 3 groups of cancerous rats caused a significant decrease in blood levels of CA15-3 only the group that treated with α-IFN-PLGA (p<0.05). Conclusion: the results of this study indicate that nano drugs more effective than traditional drug in cancer treatment, although further work is needed to elucidate the safety and side effect of these compound in human.

Keywords: breast cancer, nano drug, tumor markers, CA15-3, α-IFN-PLGA, -IFN –SWNT

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3954 Analysis the Different Types of Nano Sensors on Based of Structure and It’s Applications on Nano Electronics

Authors: Hefzollah Mohammadiyan, Mohammad Bagher Heidari, Ensiyeh Hajeb

Abstract:

In this paper investigates and analyses the structure of nano sensors will be discussed. The structure can be classified based of nano sensors: quantum points, carbon nanotubes and nano tools, which details into each other and in turn are analyzed. Then will be fully examined to the Carbon nanotubes as chemical and mechanical sensors. The following discussion, be examined compares the advantages and disadvantages as different types of sensors and also it has feature and a wide range of applications in various industries. Finally, the structure and application of Chemical sensor transistors and the sensors will be discussed in air pollution control.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, quantum points, chemical sensors, mechanical sensors, chemical sensor transistors, single walled nanotube (SWNT), atomic force microscope (AFM)

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3953 Thermal Property of Multi-Walled-Carbon-Nanotube Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Min Ye Koo, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, epoxy composite specimens reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotube filler were fabricated using shear mixer and ultra-sonication processor. The mechanical and thermal properties of the fabricated specimens were measured and evaluated. From the electron microscope images and the results from the measurements of tensile strengths, the specimens having 0.6 wt% nanotube content show better dispersion and higher strength than those of the other specimens. The Young’s moduli of the specimens increased as the contents of the nanotube filler in the matrix were increased. The specimen having a 0.6 wt% nanotube filler content showed higher thermal conductivity than that of the other specimens. While, in the measurement of thermal expansion, specimens having 0.4 and 0.6 wt% filler contents showed a lower value of thermal expansion than that of the other specimens. On the basis of the measured and evaluated properties of the composites, we believe that the simple and time-saving fabrication process used in this study was sufficient to obtain improved properties of the specimens.

Keywords: carbon nanotube filler, epoxy composite, ultra-sonication, shear mixer, mechanical property, thermal property

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3952 Gas-Phase Noncovalent Functionalization of Pristine Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with 3D Metal(II) Phthalocyanines

Authors: Vladimir A. Basiuk, Laura J. Flores-Sanchez, Victor Meza-Laguna, Jose O. Flores-Flores, Lauro Bucio-Galindo, Elena V. Basiuk

Abstract:

Noncovalent nanohybrid materials combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with phthalocyanines (Pcs) is a subject of increasing research effort, with a particular emphasis on the design of new heterogeneous catalysts, efficient organic photovoltaic cells, lithium batteries, gas sensors, field effect transistors, among other possible applications. The possibility of using unsubstituted Pcs for CNT functionalization is very attractive due to their very moderate cost and easy commercial availability. However, unfortunately, the deposition of unsubstituted Pcs onto nanotube sidewalls through the traditional liquid-phase protocols turns to be very problematic due to extremely poor solubility of Pcs. On the other hand, unsubstituted free-base H₂Pc phthalocyanine ligand, as well as many of its transition metal complexes, exhibit very high thermal stability and considerable volatility under reduced pressure, which opens the possibility for their physical vapor deposition onto solid surfaces, including nanotube sidewalls. In the present work, we show the possibility of simple, fast and efficient noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a series of 3d metal(II) phthalocyanines Me(II)Pc, where Me= Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The functionalization can be performed in a temperature range of 400-500 °C under moderate vacuum and requires about 2-3 h only. The functionalized materials obtained were characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, UV-visible and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA suggested that Me(II)Pc weight content is 30%, 17% and 35% for NiPc, CuPc, and ZnPc, respectively (CoPc exhibited anomalous thermal decomposition behavior). The above values are consistent with those estimated from EDS spectra, namely, of 24-39%, 27-36% and 27-44% for CoPc, CuPc, and ZnPc, respectively. A strong increase in intensity of D band in the Raman spectra of SWNT‒Me(II)Pc hybrids, as compared to that of pristine nanotubes, implies very strong interactions between Pc molecules and SWNT sidewalls. Very high absolute values of binding energies of 32.46-37.12 kcal/mol and the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO and LUMO, respectively) distribution patterns, calculated with density functional theory by using Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof general gradient approximation correlation functional in combination with the Grimme’s empirical dispersion correction (PBE-D) and the double numerical basis set (DNP), also suggested that the interactions between Me(II) phthalocyanines and nanotube sidewalls are very strong. The authors thank the National Autonomous University of Mexico (grant DGAPA-IN200516) and the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT, grant 250655) for financial support. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Natalia Alzate-Carvajal (CCADET of UNAM), Eréndira Martínez (IF of UNAM) and Iván Puente-Lee (Faculty of Chemistry of UNAM) for technical assistance with FTIR, TGA measurements, and TEM imaging, respectively.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, functionalization, gas-phase, metal(II) phthalocyanines

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3951 Critical Buckling Load of Carbon Nanotube with Non-Local Timoshenko Beam Using the Differential Transform Method

Authors: Tayeb Bensattalah, Mohamed Zidour, Mohamed Ait Amar Meziane, Tahar Hassaine Daouadji, Abdelouahed Tounsi

Abstract:

In this paper, the Differential Transform Method (DTM) is employed to predict and to analysis the non-local critical buckling loads of carbon nanotubes with various end conditions and the non-local Timoshenko beam described by single differential equation. The equation differential of buckling of the nanobeams is derived via a non-local theory and the solution for non-local critical buckling loads is finding by the DTM. The DTM is introduced briefly. It can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and it reduces the size of computational work. Influence of boundary conditions, the chirality of carbon nanotube and aspect ratio on non-local critical buckling loads are studied and discussed. Effects of nonlocal parameter, ratios L/d, the chirality of single-walled carbon nanotube, as well as the boundary conditions on buckling of CNT are investigated.

Keywords: boundary conditions, buckling, non-local, differential transform method

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3950 Experimental Study on Hardness and Impact Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Composites

Authors: Armin Najipour, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM: D6110 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels and injection pressure in 2 levels on the hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the impact strength and hardness of the samples improved to 74% and 46.7% respectively. Also, according to the results, the effect of injection pressure on the results was much less than that of carbon nanotube weight percentage.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, injection molding, mechanical properties, nanocomposite, polyethylene

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3949 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Water Filter for Virus Pathogen Removal

Authors: K. Domagala, D. Kata, T. Graule

Abstract:

Diseases caused by contaminated drinking water are the worldwide problem, which leads to the death and severe illnesses for hundreds of millions million people each year. There is an urgent need for efficient water treatment techniques for virus pathogens removal. The aim of the research was to develop safe and economic solution, which help with the water treatment. In this study, the synthesis of copper-based multi-walled carbon nanotube composites is described. Proposed solution utilize combination of a low-cost material with a high active surface area and copper antiviral properties. Removal of viruses from water was possible by adsorption based on electrostatic interactions of negatively charged virus with a positively charged filter material.

Keywords: multi walled carbon nanotubes, water purification, virus removal, water treatment

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3948 Experimental Study on Tensile Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Injected Composites

Authors: Armin Najipour, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM:D638 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels on the tensile strength, elastic modulus and elongation of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving tensile strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the tensile strength 23.4%,elastic modulus 60.4%and elongation 29.7% of the samples improved. Also, according to the results, Manera approximation model at percentages about 0.5% weight and modified Halpin-Tsai at percentages about 1% weight lead to favorite and reliable results.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, injection molding, Mechanical properties, Nanocomposite, polyethylene

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3947 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Platinum-Group Metal Catalysts

Authors: T. Maruyama, T. Saida, S. Naritsuka, S. Iijima

Abstract:

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are generally synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe, Co, and Ni as catalysts. However, due to the Ostwald ripening of metal catalysts, the diameter distribution of the grown SWCNTs is considerably wide (>2 nm), which is not suitable for electronics applications. In addition, reduction in the growth temperature is desirable for fabricating SWCNT devices compatible with the LSI process. Herein, we performed SWCNT growth by alcohol catalytic CVD using platinum-group metal catalysts (Pt, Rh, and Pd) because these metals have high melting points, and the reduction in the Ostwald ripening of catalyst particles is expected. Our results revealed that web-like SWCNTs were obtained from Pt and Rh catalysts at growth temperature between 500 °C and 600 °C by optimizing the ethanol pressure. The SWCNT yield from Pd catalysts was considerably low. By decreasing the growth temperature, the diameter and chirality distribution of SWCNTs from Pt and Rh catalysts became small and narrow. In particular, the diameters of most SWCNTs grown using Pt catalysts were below 1 nm and their diameter distribution was considerably narrow. On the contrary, SWCNTs can grow from Rh catalysts even at 300 °C by optimizing the growth condition, which is the lowest temperature recorded for SWCNT growth. Our results demonstrated that platinum-group metals are useful for the growth of small-diameter SWCNTs and facilitate low-temperature growth.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, platinum, rhodium, palladium

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3946 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Vibration Analysis at Nanocomposite Plates

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

Polymer/carbon nanotube nanocomposites have a wide range of promising applications Due to their enhanced properties. In this work, free vibration analysis of single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates is conducted in which carbon nanotubes are embedded in an amorphous polyethylene. The rule of mixture based on various types of plate model namely classical plate theory (CLPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), and higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) was employed to obtain fundamental frequencies of the nanocomposite plates. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was used to discretize the governing differential equations along with the simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite plates were evaluated using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-(10,10) SWCNT composites. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were fitted with those calculated by the rule of mixture to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results are presented to address the influences of nanotube volume fraction and edge supports on the value of fundamental frequency of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates corresponding to both long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, free vibration, generalized, differential quadrature (GDQ) method

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3945 Computing Some Topological Descriptors of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Amir Bahrami

Abstract:

In the fields of chemical graph theory, molecular topology, and mathematical chemistry, a topological index or a descriptor index also known as a connectivity index is a type of a molecular descriptor that is calculated based on the molecular graph of a chemical compound. Topological indices are numerical parameters of a graph which characterize its topology and are usually graph invariant. Topological indices are used for example in the development of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in which the biological activity or other properties of molecules are correlated with their chemical structure. In this paper some descriptor index (descriptor index) of single-walled carbon nanotubes, is determined.

Keywords: chemical graph theory, molecular topology, molecular descriptor, single-walled carbon nanotubes

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3944 Simulation of Carbon Nanotubes/GaAs Hybrid PV Using AMPS-1D

Authors: Nima E. Gorji

Abstract:

The performance and characteristics of a hybrid heterojunction single-walled carbon nanotube and GaAs solar cell is modelled and numerically simulated using AMPS-1D device simulation tool. The device physics and performance parameters with different junction parameters are analysed. The results suggest that the open-circuit voltage changes very slightly by changing the work function, acceptor and donor density while the other electrical parameters reach to an optimum value. Increasing the concentration of a discrete defect density in the absorber layer decreases the electrical parameters. The current-voltage characteristics, quantum efficiency, band gap and thickness variation of the photovoltaic response will be quantitatively considered.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, GaAs, hybrid solar cell, AMPS-1D modelling

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3943 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Buckling Analysis at Nanocomposite Beams

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

In the present study we have investigated axial buckling characteristics of nanocomposite beams reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Various types of beam theories including Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Timoshenko beam theory and Reddy beam theory were used to analyze the buckling behavior of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite beams. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was utilized to discretize the governing differential equations along with four commonly used boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite beams were obtained using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-(10,10) SWCNT composites which were embedded by amorphous polyethylene matrix. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were matched with those calculated by the mixture rule to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results were presented to indicate the influences of nanotube volume fractions and end supports on the critical axial buckling loads of nanocomposite beams relevant to long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, axial buckling, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ)

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3942 Development of a Myocardial Patch with 3D Hydrogel Electrical Stimulation System

Authors: Yung-Gi Chen, Pei-Leun Kang, Yu-Hsin Lin, Shwu-Jen Chang

Abstract:

Myocardial tissue has limited self-repair ability due to its loss of differentiation characteristic for most mature cardiomyocytes. Therefore, the effective use of stem cell technology in regenerative medicine is an important development to alleviate the current difficulties in cardiac disease treatment. The main purpose of this project was to develop a 3-D hydrogel electrical stimulating system for promoting the differentiation of stem cells into myocardial cells, and the patch will be used to repair damaged myocardial tissue. This project was focused on the preparation of the electrical stimulation system with carbon/CaCl₂ electrodes covered with carbon nanotube-hydrogel. In this study, we utilized screen imprinting techniques and used Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) membranes as printing substrates to fabricate a carbon/CaCl₂ interdigitated electrode that covered with alginate/carbon nanotube hydrogels. The single-walled carbon nanotube was added in the hydrogel to enhance the mechanical strength and conductivity of hydrogel. In this study, we used PLGA (85:15) as electrode preparing substrate. The CaCl₂/ EtOH solution (80% w/v) was mixed into carbon paste to prepare various concentration calcium-containing carbon paste (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% v/v). Different concentrations of alginate (1%, 1.5%, 2% v/v) and SWCNT(Diameter < 2nm, length between 5-15μm) (1, 1.5, 3 mg/ml) are gently immobilized on the electrode by cross-linking with calcium chloride. The three-dimensional hydrogel electrode was tested for its redox efficiency by cyclic voltammetry to determine the optimal parameters for the hydrogel electrode preparation. From the result of the final electrodes, it indicated that the electrode was not easy to maintain the pattern of the interdigitated electrode when the concentration of calcium of chloride was more than 10%. According to the gel rate test and cyclic voltammetry experiment results showed the SWCNT could increase the electron conduction of hydrogel electrodes significantly. So far the 3D electrode system has been completed, 2% alginate mixed with 3mg SWCNT is the optimal condition to construct the most complete structure for the hydrogel preparation.

Keywords: myocardial tissue engineering, screen printing technology, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), alginate, single walled carbon nanotube

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3941 Investigation of Atomic Adsorption on the Surface of BC3 Nanotubes

Authors: S. V. Boroznin, I. V. Zaporotskova, N. P. Polikarpova

Abstract:

Studing of nanotubes sorption properties is very important for researching. These processes for carbon and boron nanotubes described in the high number of papers. But the sorption properties of boron containing nanotubes, susch as BC3-nanotubes haven’t been studied sufficiently yet. In this paper we present the results of theoretical research into the mechanism of atomic surface adsorption on the two types of boron-carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) within the framework of an ionic-built covalent-cyclic cluster model and an appropriately modified MNDO quantum chemical scheme and DFT method using B3LYP functional with 6-31G basis. These methods are well-known and the results, obtained using them, were in good agreement with the experiment. Also we studied three position of atom location above the nanotube surface. These facts suggest us to use them for our research and quantum-chemical calculations. We studied the mechanism of sorption of Cl, O and F atoms on the external surface of single-walled BC3 arm-chair nanotubes. We defined the optimal geometry of the sorption complexes and obtained the values of the sorption energies. Analysis of the band structure suggests that the band gap is insensitive to adsorption process. The electron density is located near atoms of the surface of the tube. Also we compared our results with others, which have been obtained earlier for pure carbon and boron nanotubes. The most stable adsorption complex has been between boron-carbon nanotube and oxygen atom. So, it suggests us to make a research of oxygen molecule adsorption on the BC3 nanotube surface. We modeled five variants of molecule orientation above the nanotube surface. The most stable sorption complex has been defined between the oxygen molecule and nanotube when the oxygen molecule is located above the nanotube surface perpendicular to the axis of the tube.

Keywords: Boron-carbon nanotubes, nanostructures, nanolayers, quantum-chemical calculations, nanoengineering

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3940 Characterization of Inkjet-Printed Carbon Nanotube Electrode Patterns on Cotton Fabric

Authors: N. Najafi, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya

Abstract:

An aqueous conductive ink of single-walled carbon nanotubes for inkjet printing was formulated. To prepare the homogeneous SWCNT ink in a size small enough not to block a commercial inkjet printer nozzle, we used a kinetic ball-milling process to disperse the SWCNTs in an aqueous suspension. When a patterned electrode was overlaid by repeated inkjet printings of the ink on various types of fabric, the fabric resistance decreased rapidly following a power law, reaching approximately 760 X/sq, which is the lowest value ever for a dozen printings. The Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the oxidation of the SWCNTs was the source of the doped impurities. This study proved also that the droplet ejection velocity can have an impact on the CNT distribution and consequently on the electrical performances of the ink.

Keywords: ink-jet printing, carbon nanotube, fabric ink, cotton fabric, raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dozen printings

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
3939 Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor - a Review

Authors: P. Geetha, R. S. D. Wahida Banu

Abstract:

The crowning advances in Silicon based electronic technology have dominated the computation world for the past decades. The captivating performance of Si devices lies in sustainable scaling down of the physical dimensions, by that increasing device density and improved performance. But, the fundamental limitations due to physical, technological, economical, and manufacture features restrict further miniaturization of Si based devices. The pit falls are due to scaling down of the devices such as process variation, short channel effects, high leakage currents, and reliability concerns. To fix the above-said problems, it is needed either to follow a new concept that will manage the current hitches or to support the available concept with different materials. The new concept is to design spintronics, quantum computation or two terminal molecular devices. Otherwise, presently used well known three terminal devices can be modified with different materials that suits to address the scaling down difficulties. The first approach will occupy in the far future since it needs considerable effort; the second path is a bright light towards the travel. Modelling paves way to know not only the current-voltage characteristics but also the performance of new devices. So, it is desirable to model a new device of suitable gate control and project the its abilities towards capability of handling high current, high power, high frequency, short delay, and high velocity with excellent electronic and optical properties. Carbon nanotube became a thriving material to replace silicon in nano devices. A well-planned optimized utilization of the carbon material leads to many more advantages. The unique nature of this organic material allows the recent developments in almost all fields of applications from an automobile industry to medical science, especially in electronics field-on which the automation industry depends. More research works were being done in this area. This paper reviews the carbon nanotube field effect transistor with various gate configurations, number of channel element, CNT wall configurations and different modelling techniques.

Keywords: array of channels, carbon nanotube field effect transistor, double gate transistor, gate wrap around transistor, modelling, multi-walled CNT, single-walled CNT

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3938 Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation

Authors: Gholamhosein Khosravi, Mohammad Azadi, Hamidreza Ghezavati

Abstract:

In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, vibration control, piezoelectric layers, elastic foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3937 C4H6 Adsorption on the Surface of A BN Nanotube: A DFT Studies

Authors: Maziar Noei

Abstract:

Adsorption of a boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) was examined toward ethylacetylene (C4H6) molecule by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G (d) level, and it was found that the adsorption energy (Ead) of ethylacetylene the pristine nanotubes is about -1.60kcal/mol. But when nanotube have been doped with Si and Al atomes, the adsorption energy of ethylacetylene molecule was increased. Calculation showed that when the nanotube is doping by Al, the adsorption energy is about -24.19kcal/mol and also the amount of HOMO/LUMO energy gap (Eg) will reduce significantly. Boron nitride nanotube is a suitable adsorbent for ethylacetylene and can be used in separation processes ethylacetylene. It is seem that nanotube (BNNT) is a suitable semiconductor after doping, and the doped BNNT in the presence of ethylacetylene an electrical signal is generating directly and therefore can potentially be used for ethylacetylene sensors.

Keywords: sensor, nanotube, DFT, ethylacetylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
3936 Functionalized Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Targeting, Cellular Uptake, and Applications in Photodynamic Therapy

Authors: Prabhavathi Sundaram, Heidi Abrahamse

Abstract:

In recent years, nanotechnology coupled with photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received considerable attention in terms of improving the effectiveness of drug delivery in cancer therapeutics. The development of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has become revolutionary in targeted photosensitizers delivery since it improves the therapeutic index of drugs. The objective of this study was to prepare, characterize and evaluate the potential of functionalized SWCNTs using hyaluronic acid and loading it with photosensitizer and to effectively target colon cancer cells. The single-walled carbon nanotubes were covalently functionalized with hyaluronic acid and the loaded photosensitizer by non-covalent interaction. The photodynamic effect of SWCNTs is detected under laser irradiation in vitro. The hyaluronic acid-functionalized nanocomposites had a good affinity with CD44 receptors, and it avidly binds on to the surface of CACO-2 cells. The cellular uptake of nanocomposites was studied using fluorescence microscopy using lyso tracker. The anticancer activity of nanocomposites was analyzed in CACO-2 cells using different studies such as cell morphology, cell apoptosis, and nuclear morphology. The combined effect of nanocomposites and PDT improved the therapeutic effect of cancer treatment. The study suggested that the nanocomposites and PDT have great potential in the treatment of colon cancer.

Keywords: colon cancer, hyaluronic acid, single walled carbon nanotubes, photosensitizers, photodynamic therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
3935 Stability and Rheological Study of Carbon Nanotube Water Based Nanofluid

Authors: S. Rashidi, L. C. Abdullah, R. Walvekar, K. Mohammad, F-R. Ahmadun, M. Y. Faizah

Abstract:

In this research, stability and rheology behavior of Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanofluids by using Xanthan Gum as a dispersant were measured. This paper addresses the effects of Xanthan Gum (XG) concentration and nanoparticle loading on stability and viscosity of nanofluids. The stability of nanofluids is measured by Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS (Malvern Instruments, ZEN 3600). The zeta potential of the stable samples was analyzed. The rheological behavior of carbon nanotube CNT nanofluids was analyzed using rheometer (Model AR G2, TA Instrument). Both stability and viscosity of the nanofluids increased with increasing CNT and XG concentration. The experimental results indicated that the zeta potential of nanofluid samples is stable. The results demonstrated that the zeta potential was affected by the CNT concentration and is augmented in parallel with increasing CNT concentration. The rheology results showed that the viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid was increased. The escalated viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid is owing to the higher van der Waals interaction between the CNT nanoparticles. On the other hand, the viscosity of the CNT/XG nanofluid decreases with increasing temperature. In summary, this research provides useful insight into the behavior of CNT nanofluids.

Keywords: nanofluid, carbon nanotube, stability, rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 66