Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2878

Search results for: atomic force microscope (AFM)

2878 The Effect of Tip Parameters on Vibration Modes of Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever

Authors: Mehdi Shekarzadeh, Pejman Taghipour Birgani


In this paper, the effect of mass and height of tip on the flexural vibration modes of an atomic force microscope (AFM) rectangular cantilever is analyzed. A closed-form expression for the sensitivity of vibration modes is derived using the relationship between the resonant frequency and contact stiffness of cantilever and sample. Each mode has a different sensitivity to variations in surface stiffness. This sensitivity directly controls the image resolution. It is obtained an AFM cantilever is more sensitive when the mass of tip is lower and the first mode is the most sensitive mode. Also, the effect of changes of tip height on the flexural sensitivity is negligible.

Keywords: atomic force microscope, AFM, vibration analysis, flexural vibration, cantilever

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2877 Using Atomic Force Microscope to Investigate the Influence of UVA Radiation and HA on Cell Behaviour and Elasticity of Dermal Fibroblasts

Authors: Pei-Hsiu Chiang, Ling Hong Huang, Hsin-I Chang


In this research, we used UVA irradiation, which can penetrate into dermis and fibroblasts, the most abundant cells in dermis, to investigate the effect of UV light on dermis, such as inflammation, ECM degradation and elasticity loss. Moreover, this research is focused on the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) on UVA treated dermal fibroblasts. We aim to establish whether HA can effectively relief ECM degradation, and restore the elasticity of UVA-damaged fibroblasts. Prolonged exposure to UVA radiation can damage fibroblasts and led variation in cell morphology and reduction in cell viability. Besides, UVA radiation can induce IL-1β expression on fibroblasts and then promote MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression, which can accelerate ECM degradation. On the other hand, prolonged exposure to UVA radiation reduced collagen and elastin synthesis on fibroblasts. Due to the acceleration of ECM degradation and the reduction of ECM synthesis, Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to analyze the elasticity reduction on UVA-damaged fibroblasts. UVA irradiation causes photoaging on fibroblasts. UVA damaged fibroblasts with HA treatment can down-regulate the gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and then slow down ECM degradation. On the other hand, HA may restore elastin and collagen synthesis in UV-damaged fibroblasts. Based on the slowdown of ECM degradation, UVA-damaged fibroblast elasticity can be effectively restored by HA treatment. In summary, HA can relief the photoaging conditions on fibroblasts, but may not be able to return fibroblasts to normal, healthy state. Although HA cannot fully recover UVA-damaged fibroblasts, HA is still potential for repairing photoaging skin.

Keywords: atomic force microscope, hyaluronic acid, UVA radiation, dermal fibroblasts

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2876 Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Based on Porous In0.08Ga0.92N

Authors: Saleh H. Abud, Z. Hassan, F. K. Yam


Characteristics of MSM photodetector based on a porous In0.08Ga0.92N thin film were reported. Nanoporous structures of n-type In0.08Ga0.92N/AlN/Si thin films were synthesized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching at a ratio of 1:4 of HF:C2H5OH solution for 15 min. The structural and optical properties of pre- and post-etched thin films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images showed that the pre-etched thin film has a sufficiently smooth surface over a large region and the roughness increased for porous film. Blue shift has been observed in photoluminescence emission peak at 300 K for porous sample. The photoluminescence intensity of the porous film indicated that the optical properties have been enhanced. A high work function metals (Pt and Ni) were deposited as a metal contact on the porous films. The rise and recovery times of the devices were investigated at 390 nm chopped light. Finally, the sensitivity and quantum efficiency were also studied.

Keywords: porous InGaN, photoluminescence, SMS photodetector, atomic force microscopy

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2875 Surface Sensing of Atomic Behavior of Polymer Nanofilms via Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Ling Dai


Surface-sensing devices such as atomic force microscope have been widely used to characterize the surface structure and properties of nanoscale polymer films. However, using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that there is intrinsic and unavoidable inelastic deformation at polymer surfaces induced by the sensing tip. For linear chain polymers like perfluoropolyether, such tip-induced deformation derives from the differences in the atomic interactions which are atomic specie-based Van der Waals interactions, and resulting in atomic shuffling and causing inelastic alternation in both molecular structures and mechanical properties at the regions of the polymer surface. For those aromatic chain polymers like epoxy, the intrinsic deformation is depicted as the intra-chain rotation of aromatic rings and kinking of linear atomic connections. The present work highlights the need to reinterpret the data obtained from surface-sensing tests by considering this intrinsic inelastic deformation occurring at polymer surfaces.

Keywords: polymer, surface, nano, molecular dynamics

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2874 Probing Neuron Mechanics with a Micropipette Force Sensor

Authors: Madeleine Anthonisen, M. Hussain Sangji, G. Monserratt Lopez-Ayon, Margaret Magdesian, Peter Grutter


Advances in micromanipulation techniques and real-time particle tracking with nanometer resolution have enabled biological force measurements at scales relevant to neuron mechanics. An approach to precisely control and maneuver neurite-tethered polystyrene beads is presented. Analogous to an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), this multi-purpose platform is a force sensor with imaging acquisition and manipulation capabilities. A mechanical probe composed of a micropipette with its tip fixed to a functionalized bead is used to incite the formation of a neurite in a sample of rat hippocampal neurons while simultaneously measuring the tension in said neurite as the sample is pulled away from the beaded tip. With optical imaging methods, a force resolution of 12 pN is achieved. Moreover, the advantages of this technique over alternatives such as AFM, namely ease of manipulation which ultimately allows higher throughput investigation of the mechanical properties of neurons, is demonstrated.

Keywords: axonal growth, axonal guidance, force probe, pipette micromanipulation, neurite tension, neuron mechanics

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2873 Modelling of Atomic Force Microscopic Nano Robot's Friction Force on Rough Surfaces

Authors: M. Kharazmi, M. Zakeri, M. Packirisamy, J. Faraji


Micro/Nanorobotics or manipulation of nanoparticles by Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) is one of the most important solutions for controlling the movement of atoms, particles and micro/nano metrics components and assembling of them to design micro/nano-meter tools. Accurate modelling of manipulation requires identification of forces and mechanical knowledge in the Nanoscale which are different from macro world. Due to the importance of the adhesion forces and the interaction of surfaces at the nanoscale several friction models were presented. In this research, friction and normal forces that are applied on the AFM by using of the dynamic bending-torsion model of AFM are obtained based on Hurtado-Kim friction model (HK), Johnson-Kendall-Robert contact model (JKR) and Greenwood-Williamson roughness model (GW). Finally, the effect of standard deviation of asperities height on the normal load, friction force and friction coefficient are studied.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, contact model, friction coefficient, Greenwood-Williamson model

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2872 The Role of Graphene Oxide on Titanium Dioxide Performance for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Abdelmajid Timoumi, Salah Alamri, Hatem Alamri


TiO₂ Graphene Oxide (TiO₂-GO) nanocomposite was prepared using the spin coating technique of suspension of Graphene Oxide (GO) nanosheets and Titanium Tetra Isopropoxide (TIP). The prepared nanocomposites samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to examine their structures and morphologies. UV-vis transmittance and reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band gap energies. From the TiO₂-GO samples, a 0.25 μm thin layer on a piece of glass 2x2 cm was created. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the as-deposited layers are amorphous in nature. The surface morphology images demonstrate that the layers grew in distributed with some spherical/rod-like and partially agglomerated TiGO on the surface of the composite. The Atomic Force Microscopy indicated that the films are smooth with slightly larger surface roughness. The analysis of optical absorption data of the layers showed that the values of band gap energy decreased from 3.46 eV to 1.40 eV, depending on the grams of GO doping. This reduction might be attributed to electron and/or hole trapping at the donor and acceptor levels in the TiO₂ band structure. Observed results have shown that the inclusion of GO in the TiO₂ matrix have exhibited significant and excellent properties, which would be promising for application in the photovoltaic application.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, graphene oxide, thin films, solar cells

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2871 Single Atom Manipulation with 4 Scanning Tunneling Microscope Technique

Authors: Jianshu Yang, Delphine Sordes, Marek Kolmer, Christian Joachim


Nanoelectronics, for example the calculating circuits integrating at molecule scale logic gates, atomic scale circuits, has been constructed and investigated recently. A major challenge is their functional properties characterization because of the connecting problem from atomic scale to micrometer scale. New experimental instruments and new processes have been proposed therefore. To satisfy a precisely measurement at atomic scale and then connecting micrometer scale electrical integration controller, the technique improvement is kept on going. Our new machine, a low temperature high vacuum four scanning tunneling microscope, as a customer required instrument constructed by Omicron GmbH, is expected to be scaling down to atomic scale characterization. Here, we will present our first testified results about the performance of this new instrument. The sample we selected is Au(111) surface. The measurements have been taken at 4.2 K. The atomic resolution surface structure was observed with each of four scanners with noise level better than 3 pm. With a tip-sample distance calibration by I-z spectra, the sample conductance has been derived from its atomic locally I-V spectra. Furthermore, the surface conductance measurement has been performed using two methods, (1) by landing two STM tips on the surface with sample floating; and (2) by sample floating and one of the landed tips turned to be grounding. In addition, single atom manipulation has been achieved with a modified tip design, which is comparable to a conventional LT-STM.

Keywords: low temperature ultra-high vacuum four scanning tunneling microscope, nanoelectronics, point contact, single atom manipulation, tunneling resistance

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2870 Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of DNA Binding Properties of the Archaeal Mini Chromosome Maintenance Complex

Authors: Amna Abdalla Mohammed Khalid, Pietro Parisse, Silvia Onesti, Loredana Casalis


Basic cellular processes as DNA replication are crucial to cell life. Understanding at the molecular level the mechanisms that govern DNA replication in proliferating cells is fundamental to understand disease connected to genomic instabilities, as a genetic disease and cancer. A key step for DNA replication to take place, is unwinding the DNA double helix and this carried out by proteins called helicases. The archaeal MCM (minichromosome maintenance) complex from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus have being studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), imaging in air and liquid (Physiological environment). The accurate analysis of AFM topographic images allowed to understand the static conformations as well the interaction dynamic of MCM and DNA double helix in the present of ATP.

Keywords: DNA, protein-DNA interaction, MCM (mini chromosome manteinance) complex, atomic force microscopy (AFM)

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2869 Method and Experiment of Fabricating and Cutting the Burr for Y Shape Nanochannel

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Shih-Hung Ma


The present paper proposes using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) to establish a method for fabricating and cutting the burr for Y shape nanochannel on silicon (Si) substrate. For fabricating Y shape nanochannel, it first makes the experimental cutting path planning for fabricating Y shape nanochannel until the fifth cutting layer. Using the constant down force by AFM and SDFE theory and following the experimental cutting path planning, the cutting depth and width of each pass of Y shape nanochannel can be predicted by simulation. The paper plans the path for cutting the burr at the edge of Y shape nanochannel. Then, it carries out cutting the burr along the Y nanochannel edge by using a smaller down force. The height of standing burr at the edge is required to be below the set value of 0.54 nm. The results of simulation and experiment of fabricating and cutting the burr for Y shape nanochannel is further compared.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanochannel, specific down force energy (SDFE), Y shape, burr, silicon

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2868 Corrosion Control of Carbon Steel Surface by Phosphonic Acid Nano-Layers

Authors: T. Abohalkuma, J. Telegdi


Preparation, characterization, and application of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) formed by fluorophosphonic and undecenyl phosphonic acids on carbon steel surfaces as anticorrosive nanocoatings were demonstrated. The anticorrosive efficacy of these SAM layers was followed by atomic force microscopy, as the change in the surface morphology caused by layer deposition and corrosion processes was monitored. The corrosion process was determined by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization, whereas the surface wettability of the carbon steel samples was tested with the use of static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Results showed that both chemicals produced good protection against corrosion as they performed as anodic inhibitors, especially with increasing the time of layer formation, which results in a more compact molecular film. According to the atomic force microscope (AFM) images, the fluoro-phosphonic acid self-assembled molecular layer can control the general as well as the pitting corrosion, but the SAM layers of the undecenyl-phosphonic acid cannot inhibit the pitting corrosion. The AFM and the contact angle measurements confirmed the results achieved by electrochemical measurements.

Keywords: nanolayers, corrosion, phosphonic acids, coatings

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2867 Inherent Relation Between Atomic-Level Stresses and Nanoscale Spatial Heterogeneity in a Rejuvenated Bulk Metallic Glass

Authors: Majid Samavatian, Reza Gholamipour, Vahid Samavatian


This study addresses the role of rejuvenation on the fluctuation of atomic-level stresses and nanoscale topological heterogeneity in ZrCuNiAl bulk metallic glass (BMG). Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the rejuvenation process leads to an increase in nanoscale spatial heterogeneity manifested by the intensification of the local viscoelastic response of the BMG nanostructure. It means that the rejuvenation process induces more loose-packing structures which behave towards an external load in a viscoelastic way. Hence, it is suggested that the alteration of such heterogeneity may be attributed to the variation of positional atomic rearrangement during the evolution of structural rejuvenation. On the other side, the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the rejuvenation intensifies the variation of internal stresses at the atomic level. This conclusion unfolds that the increase of atomic-level stresses during rejuvenation induces structural disordering and nanoscale heterogeneity in the amorphous material.

Keywords: bulk metallic glass, heterogeneity, rejuvenation, nanostructure

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2866 Carbon Nanofilms on Diamond for All-Carbon Chemical Sensors

Authors: Vivek Kumar, Alexander M. Zaitsev


A study on chemical sensing properties of carbon nanofilms on diamond for developing all-carbon chemical sensors is presented. The films were obtained by high temperature graphitization of diamond followed by successive plasma etchings. Characterization of the films was done by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. Fast and selective response to common organic vapors as seen as sensitivity of electrical conductance was observed. The phenomenological description of the chemical sensitivity is proposed as a function of the surface and bulk material properties of the films.

Keywords: chemical sensor, carbon nanofilm, graphitization of diamond, plasma etching, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy

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2865 Preparation of Nanophotonics LiNbO3 Thin Films and Studying Their Morphological and Structural Properties by Sol-Gel Method for Waveguide Applications

Authors: A. Fakhri Makram, Marwa S. Alwazni, Al-Douri Yarub, Evan T. Salim, Hashim Uda, Chin C. Woei


Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanostructures are prepared on quartz substrate by the sol-gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentration and annealed at 500°C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The measured results showed an importance increasing in molarity concentrations that indicate the structure starts to become crystal, regular, homogeneous, well crystal distributed, which made it more suitable for optical waveguide application.

Keywords: lithium niobate, morphological properties, thin film, pechini method, XRD

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2864 Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ Alloys with Tuneable Energy Band Gap on GaAs (100) Substrate Manufactured by a Modified Magnetron Co-Sputtering

Authors: Li Qian, Jinchao Tong, Daohua Zhang, Weijun Fan, Fei Suo


Photonic applications based on group IV semiconductors have always been an interest but also a challenge for the research community. We report manufacturing group IV Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ alloys with tuneable energy band gap on (100) GaAs substrate by a modified radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering. Images were taken by atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope clearly demonstrates a smooth surface profile, and Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ nano clusters are with the size of several tens of nanometers. Transmittance spectra were measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that showed changing energy gaps with the variation in elementary composition. Calculation results by 8-band k.p method are consistent with measured gaps. Our deposition system realized direct growth of Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ thin film on GaAs (100) substrate by sputtering. This simple deposition method was modified to be able to grow high-quality photonic materials with tuneable energy gaps. This work provides an alternative and successful method for fabricating Group IV photonic semiconductor materials.

Keywords: GeSn, crystal growth, sputtering, photonic

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2863 Rare-Earth Ions Doped Zirconium Oxide Layers for Optical and Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Sylwia Gieraltowska, Lukasz Wachnicki, Bartlomiej S. Witkowski, Marek Godlewski


Oxide layers doped with rare-earth (RE) ions in optimized way can absorb short (ultraviolet light), which will be converted to visible light by so-called down-conversion. Down-conversion mechanisms are usually exploited to modify the incident solar spectrum. In down conversion, multiple low-energy photons are generated to exploit the energy of one incident high-energy photon. These RE-doped oxide materials have attracted a great deal of attention from researchers because of their potential for optical manipulation in optical devices (detectors, temperature sensors, and compact solid-state lasers, light-emitting diodes), bio-analysis, medical therapy, display technologies, and light harvesting (such as in photovoltaic cells). The zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) doped RE ions (Eu, Tb, Ce) multilayer structures were tested as active layers, which can convert short wave emission to light in the visible range (the down-conversion mechanism). For these applications original approach of deposition ZrO2 layers using the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method and doping these layers with RE ions using the spin-coating technique was used. ALD films are deposited at relatively low temperature (well below 250°C). This can be an effective method to achieve the white-light emission and to improve on this way light conversion efficiency, by an extension of absorbed spectral range by a solar cell material. Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurement are analyzed. The research was financially supported by the National Science Centre (decision No. DEC-2012/06/A/ST7/00398 and DEC- 2013/09/N/ST5/00901).

Keywords: ALD, oxide layers, photovoltaics, thin films

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2862 Carbon-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers Prepared by Electrospinning

Authors: ChoLiang Chung, YuMin Chen


C-doped TiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning successfully. Different amounts of carbon were added into the nanofibers by using chitosan, aiming to shift the wave length that is required to excite the photocatalyst from ultraviolet light to visible light. Different amounts of carbon and different atmosphere fibers were calcined at 500oC, and the optical characteristic of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers had been changed. characterizes of nanofibers were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), UV-vis, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD is used to identify the phase composition of nanofibers. The morphology of nanofibers were explored by FE-SEM and AFM. Optical characteristics of absorption were measured by UV-Vis. Three dimension surface images of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers revealed different effects of processing. The results of XRD showed that the phase of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers transformed to rutile phase and anatase phase successfully. The results of AFM showed that the surface morphology of nanofibers became smooth after high temperature treatment. Images from FE-SEM revealed the average size of nanofibers. UV-vis results showed that the band-gap of TiO2 were reduced. Finally, we found out C-doped TiO2 nanofibers can change countenance of nanofiber and make it smoother.

Keywords: carbon, TiO2, chitosan, electrospinning

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2861 Development of a New Polymeric Material with Controlled Surface Micro-Morphology Aimed for Biosensors Applications

Authors: Elham Farahmand, Fatimah Ibrahim, Samira Hosseini, Ivan Djordjevic, Leo. H. Koole


Compositions of different molar ratios of polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA) were synthesized via free- radical polymerization. Polymer coated surfaces have been produced on silicon wafers. Coated samples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results have shown that the roughness of the surfaces have increased by increasing the molar ratio of monomer methacrylic acid (MAA). This study reveals that the gradual increase in surface roughness is due to the fact that carboxylic functional groups have been generated by MAA segments. Such surfaces can be desirable platforms for fabrication of the biosensors for detection of the viruses and diseases.

Keywords: polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA), polymeric material, atomic force microscopy, roughness, carboxylic functional groups

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2860 Preparation and Characterization of the TiO₂ Photocatalytic Membrane for the Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye

Authors: Shruti Sakarkar, Jega Jegatheesan, Srinivasan Madapusi


Photocatalytic membranes have shown great potential for the removal of an organic and inorganic pollutant from wastewater as it combines the degradation and antibacterial properties from photocatalysis and physical separation by the membrane in a single unit. Incorporation of the semiconductor in membrane structure results in enhancing the performance and the properties of the membrane. In this study porous ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with entrapped TiO₂ nanoparticle were prepared by phase inversion method and further used for the degradation of reactive orange 16 (RO16). Prepared photocatalytic membranes were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The addition of TiO₂ nanopartparticles improves the strength and thermal stability of the membrane. In particular hydrophilicity and permeability increases with the increase of TiO₂ nanoparticles into the membrane. The photocatalytic membrane achieves 80-85% degrdation of RO16. The impact of different parameters such as pH, concentration of photocatalyst, dye concentration and effect of H₂O₂ were analysed. The best conditions for dye degradation were an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, with a membrane containing TiO₂ loading of 2wt%. It was observed that in the presence of H₂O₂, degradation increases with increasing H₂O₂ concentration and reached up to 95-98%. The high quality permeates obtained from the photocatalytic membrane can be reused.

Keywords: photocatalytic membrane, TiO₂, PVDF, nanoparticles

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2859 Characterization of Electrical Transport across Ultra-Thin SrTiO₃ and BaTiO₃ Barriers in Tunnel Junctions

Authors: Henry Navarro, Martin Sirena, Nestor Haberkorn


We report the electrical transport through voltage-current curves (I-V) in tunnels junction GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d/ insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d, and Nb/insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d is analyzed using a conducting atomic force microscope (CAFM) at room temperature. The measurements were obtained on tunnel junctions with different areas (900 μm², 400 μm² and 100 μm²). Trilayers with GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d (GBCO) as the bottom electrode, SrTiO₃ (STO) or BaTiO₃ (BTO) as the insulator barrier (thicknesses between 1.6 nm and 4 nm), and GBCO or Nb as the top electrode were grown by DC sputtering on (100) SrTiO₃ substrates. For STO and BTO barriers, asymmetric IV curves at positive and negative polarization can be obtained using electrodes with different work function. The main difference is that the BTO is a ferroelectric material, while in the STO the ferroelectricity can be produced by stress or deformation at the interfaces. In addition, hysteretic IV curves are obtained for BTO barriers, which can be ascribed to a combined effect of the FE reversal switching polarization and an oxygen vacancy migration. For GBCO/ BTO/ GBCO heterostructures, the IV curves correspond to that expected for asymmetric interfaces, which indicates that the disorder affects differently the properties at the bottom and top interfaces. Our results show the role of the interface disorder on the electrical transport of conducting/ insulator/ conduction heterostructures, which is relevant for different applications, going from resistive switching memories (at room temperature) to Josephson junctions (at low temperatures). The superconducting transition of the GBCO electrode was characterized by electrical transport using the 4-prong configuration with low density of topological defects and with Tc over liquid N₂ can be obtained for thicknesses of 16 nm, our results demonstrate that GBCO films with an average root-mean-square (RMS) smaller than 1 nm and areas (up 100 um²) free of 3-D topological defects can be obtained.

Keywords: thin film, sputtering, conductive atomic force microscopy, tunnel junctions

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2858 A Platform to Screen Targeting Molecules of Ligand-EGFR Interactions

Authors: Wei-Ting Kuo, Feng-Huei Lin


Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often constitutively stimulated in cancer owing to the binding of ligands such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), so it is necessary to investigate the interaction between EGFR and its targeting biomolecules which were over ligands binding. This study would focus on the binding affinity and adhesion force of two targeting products anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) and peptide A to EGFR comparing with EGF. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to obtain the equilibrium dissociation constant to evaluate the binding affinity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed to detect adhesion force. The result showed that binding affinity of mAb to EGFR was higher than that of EGF to EGFR, and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. The adhesion force between EGFR and mAb that was higher than EGF and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. From the studies, we could conclude that mAb had better adhesion force and binding affinity to EGFR than that of EGF and peptide A. SPR and AFM could confirm the interaction between receptor and targeting ligand easily and carefully. It provide a platform to screen ligands for receptor targeting and drug delivery.

Keywords: adhesion force, binding affinity, epidermal growth factor receptor, target molecule

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2857 Magnetic Field Induced Tribological Properties of Magnetic Fluid

Authors: Kinjal Trivedi, Ramesh V. Upadhyay


Magnetic fluid as a nanolubricant is a most recent field of study due to its unusual properties that can be tuned by applying a magnetic field. In present work, four ball tester has been used to investigate the tribological properties of the magnetic fluid having a 4 wt% of nanoparticles. The structural characterization of fluid shows crystallite size of particle is 11.7 nm and particles are nearly spherical in nature. The magnetic characterization shows the fluid saturation magnetization is 2.2 kA/m. The magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet (0 to 1.6 mT) on the faces of the lock nut and fixing a solenoid (0 to 50 mT) around a shaft, such that shaft rotates freely. The magnetic flux line for both the systems analyzed using finite elemental analysis. The coefficient of friction increases with the application of magnetic field using permanent strip magnet compared to zero field value. While for the solenoid, it decreases at 20 mT. The wear scar diameter is lower for 1.1 mT and 20 mT when the magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet and solenoid, respectively. The coefficient of friction and wear scar reduced by 29 % and 7 % at 20 mT using solenoid. The worn surface analysis carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to understand the wear mechanism. The results are explained on the basis of structure formation in a magnetic fluid upon application of magnetic field. It is concluded that the tribological properties of magnetic fluid depend on magnetic field and its applied direction.

Keywords: four ball tester, magnetic fluid, nanolubricant, tribology

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2856 Nano Effects of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on TiN Hard Coatings Deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

Authors: Branko Skoric, Aleksandar Miletic, Pal Terek, Lazar Kovacevic, Milan Kukuruzovic


In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin films which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD). In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N5+ ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of effects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densification of the films. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX).

Keywords: coating, super hard, ion implantation, nanohardness

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2855 Ferroelectricity in Nano-Composite Films of Sodium Nitrite: Starch Prepared by Drop Cast Technique

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Baljinder Kaur, Lakhbir Singh, V. Annapu Reddy, R. Nath, Dae-Yong Jeong, Jasbir S. Hundal


Nano-composite films of sodium nitrite (NaNO2): Starch with different proportions of NaNO2 and Starch have been prepared by drop cast technique. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops (P-V) have been traced using modified Sawyar-Tower circuit. The films containing equal proportions of NaNO2 and Starch exhibit optimized ferroelectric properties. The stability of the remanent polarization, Pr in the optimized nano-composite films exhibit improved stability over the pure NaNO2 films. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been employed to investigate the surface morphology. AFM images clearly reveal the nano sized particles of NaNO2 dispersed in starch with small value of surface roughness.

Keywords: ferroelectricity, nano-composite films, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), nano composite film

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2854 Chitosan-Aluminum Monostearate Dispersion as Fabricating Liquid for Constructing Controlled Drug Release Matrix

Authors: Kotchamon Yodkhum, Thawatchai Phaechamud


Hydrophobic chitosan-based materials have been developed as controlled drug delivery system. This study was aimed to prepare and evaluate chitosan-aluminum monostearate composite dispersion (CLA) as fabricating liquid for construct a hydrophobic, controlled-release solid drug delivery matrix. This work was attempted to blend hydrophobic substance, aluminum monostearate (AMS), with chitosan in acidic aqueous medium without using any surfactants or grafting reaction, and high temperature during mixing that are normally performed when preparing hydrophobic chitosan system. Lactic acid solution (2%w/v) was employed as chitosan solvent. CLA dispersion was prepared by dispersing different amounts of AMS (1-20% w/w) in chitosan solution (4% w/w) with continuous agitation using magnetic stirrer for 24 h. Effect of AMS amount on physicochemical properties of the dispersion such as viscosity, rheology and particle size was evaluated. Morphology of chitosan-AMS complex (dispersant) was observed under inverted microscope and atomic force microscope. Stability of CLA dispersions was evaluated after preparation within 48 h. CLA dispersions containing AMS less than 5 % w/w exhibited rheological behavior as Newtonian while that containing higher AMS amount exhibited as pseudoplastic. Particle size of the dispersant was significantly smaller when AMS amount was increased up to 5% w/w and was not different between the higher AMS amount system. Morphology of the dispersant under inverted microscope displayed irregular shape and their size exhibited the same trend with particle size measurement. Observation of the dispersion stability revealed that phase separation occurred faster in the system containing higher AMS amount which indicated lower stability of the system. However, the dispersions were homogeneous and stable more than 12 hours after preparation that enough for fabrication process. The prepared dispersions had ability to be fabricated as a porous matrix via lyophilization technique.

Keywords: chitosan, aluminum monostearate, dispersion, controlled-release

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2853 Analysis the Different Types of Nano Sensors on Based of Structure and It’s Applications on Nano Electronics

Authors: Hefzollah Mohammadiyan, Mohammad Bagher Heidari, Ensiyeh Hajeb


In this paper investigates and analyses the structure of nano sensors will be discussed. The structure can be classified based of nano sensors: quantum points, carbon nanotubes and nano tools, which details into each other and in turn are analyzed. Then will be fully examined to the Carbon nanotubes as chemical and mechanical sensors. The following discussion, be examined compares the advantages and disadvantages as different types of sensors and also it has feature and a wide range of applications in various industries. Finally, the structure and application of Chemical sensor transistors and the sensors will be discussed in air pollution control.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, quantum points, chemical sensors, mechanical sensors, chemical sensor transistors, single walled nanotube (SWNT), atomic force microscope (AFM)

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2852 Load-Deflecting Characteristics of a Fabricated Orthodontic Wire with 50.6Ni 49.4Ti Alloy Composition

Authors: Aphinan Phukaoluan, Surachai Dechkunakorn, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Anak Khantachawana, Pongpan Kaewtathip, Julathep Kajornchaiyakul, Peerapong Tua-Ngam


Aims: The objectives of this study was to determine the load-deflecting characteristics of a fabricated orthodontic wire with alloy composition of 50.6% (atomic weight) Ni and 49.4% (atomic weight) Ti and to compare the results with Ormco, a commercially available pre-formed NiTi orthodontic archwire. Materials and Methods: The ingots alloys with atomic weight ratio 50.6 Ni: 49.4 Ti alloy were used in this study. Three specimens were cut to have wire dimensions of 0.016 inch x0.022 inch. For comparison, a commercially available pre-formed NiTi archwire, Ormco, with dimensions of 0.016 inch x 0.022 inch was used. Three-point bending tests were performed at the temperature 36+1 °C using a Universal Testing Machine on the newly fabricated and commercial archwires to assess the characteristics of the load-deflection curve with loading and unloading forces. The loading and unloading features at the deflection points 0.25, 0.50, 0.75. 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 mm were compared. Descriptive statistics was used to evaluate each variables, and independent t-test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the mean differences between the two groups. Results: The load-deflection curve of the 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wires exhibited the characteristic features of superelasticity. The curves at the loading and unloading slope of Ormco NiTi archwire were more parallel than the newly fabricated NiTi wires. The average deflection force of the 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wire was 304.98 g and 208.08 g for loading and unloading, respectively. Similarly, the values were 358.02 g loading and 253.98 g for unloading of Ormco NiTi archwire. The interval difference forces between each deflection points were in the range 20.40-121.38 g and 36.72-92.82 g for the loading and unloading curve of 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wire, respectively, and 4.08-157.08 g and 14.28-90.78 g for the loading and unloading curve of commercial wire, respectively. The average deflection force of the 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wire was less than that of Ormco NiTi archwire, which could have been due to variations in the wire dimensions. Although a greater force was required for each deflection point of loading and unloading for the 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wire as compared to Ormco NiTi archwire, the values were still within the acceptable limits to be clinically used in orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: The 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wires presented the characteristics of a superelastic orthodontic wire. The loading and unloading force were also suitable for orthodontic tooth movement. These results serve as a suitable foundation for further studies in the development of new orthodontic NiTi archwires.

Keywords: 50.6 ni 49.4 Ti alloy wire, load deflection curve, loading and unloading force, orthodontic

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2851 Effect of Retained Austenite Stability in Corrosion Mechanism of Dual Phase High Carbon Steel

Authors: W. Handoko, F. Pahlevani, V. Sahajwalla


Dual-phase high carbon steels (DHCS) are commonly known for their improved strength, hardness, and abrasive resistance properties due to co-presence of retained austenite and martensite at the same time. Retained austenite is a meta-stable phase at room temperature, and stability of this phase governs the response of DHCS at different conditions. This research paper studies the effect of RA stability on corrosion behaviour of high carbon steels after they have been immersed into 1.0 M NaCl solution for various times. For this purpose, two different steels with different RA stabilities have been investigated. The surface morphology of the samples before and after corrosion attack was observed by secondary electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), along with the weight loss and Vickers hardness analysis. Microstructural investigations proved the preferential attack to retained austenite phase during corrosion. Hence, increase in the stability of retained austenite in dual-phase steels led to decreasing the weight loss rate.

Keywords: high carbon steel, austenite stability, atomic force microscopy, corrosion

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2850 Loading Forces following Addition of 5% Cu in Nickel-Titanium Alloy Used for Orthodontics

Authors: Aphinan Phukaoluan, Surachai Dechkunakorn, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Anak Khantachawana, Pongpan Kaewtathip, Julathep Kajornchaiyakul, Wassana Wichai


Aims: This study aims to address the amount of force delivered by a NiTiCu orthodontic wire with a ternary composition ratio of 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu and to compare the results with a commercial NiTiCu 35 °C orthodontic archwire. Materials and Methods: Nickel (purity 99.9%), Titanium (purity 99.9%), and Copper (purity 99.9%) were used in this study with the atomic weight ratio 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu. The elements were melted to form an alloy using an electrolytic arc furnace in argon gas atmosphere and homogenized at 800 °C for 1 hr. The alloys were subsequently sliced into thin plates (1.5mm) by EDM wire cutting machine to obtain the specimens and were cold-rolled with 30% followed by heat treatment in a furnace at 400 °C for 1 hour. Then, the three newly fabricated NiTiCu specimens were cut in nearly identical wire sizes of 0.016 inch x0.022 inch. Commercial preformed Ormco NiTiCu35 °C archwire with size 0.016 inch x 0.022 inches were used for comparative purposes. Three-point bending test was performed using a Universal Testing Machine to investigate the force of the load-deflection curve at oral temperature (36 °C+ 1) with deflection points at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0. 1.25, and 1.5 mm. Descriptive statistics was used to evaluate each variables and independent t-test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. Results: Both NiTiCu wires presented typical superelastic properties as observed from the load-deflection curve. The average force was 341.70 g for loading, and 264.18 g for unloading for 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire. Similarly, the values were 299.88 g for loading, and 201.96 g for unloading of Ormco NiTiCu35°C. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean loading and unloading forces between the two NiTiCu wires. The deflection forces in loading and unloading force for Ormco NiTiCu at each point were less than 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire, except at the deflection point of 0.25mm. Regarding the force difference between each deflection point of loading and unloading force, Ormco NiTiCu35 °C exerted less force than 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire, except at difference deflection at 1.5-1.25 mm of unloading force. However, there were still within the acceptable limits for orthodontic use. Conclusion: The fabricated ternary alloy of 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu (atomic weight) with 30% reduction and heat treatment at 400°C for 1 hr. and Ormco 35 °C NiTiCu presented the characteristics of the shape memory in their wire form. The unloading forces of both NiTiCu wires were in the range of orthodontic use. This should be a good foundation for further studies towards development of new orthodontic NiTiCu archwires.

Keywords: loading force, ternary alloy, NiTiCu, shape memory, orthodontic wire

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2849 A Machining Method of Cross-Shape Nano Channel and Experiments for Silicon Substrate

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Zih-Wun Jhang


The paper innovatively proposes using the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) and AFM machine to establish a machining method of cross-shape nanochannel on single-crystal silicon substrate. As for machining a cross-shape nanochannel by AFM machine, the paper develop a method of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove at a fixed down force by using SDFE theory and combining the planned cutting path of cross-shape nanochannel up to 5th machining layer it finally achieves a cross-shape nanochannel at a cutting depth of around 20nm. Since there may be standing burr at the machined cross-shape nanochannel edge, the paper uses a smaller down force to cut the edge of the cross-shape nanochannel in order to lower the height of standing burr and converge the height of standing burr at the edge to below 0.54nm as set by the paper. Finally, the paper conducts experiments of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove on single-crystal silicon by AFM probe, and compares the simulation and experimental results. It is proved that this proposed machining method of cross-shape nanochannel is feasible.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy (AFM), cross-shape nanochannel, silicon substrate, specific down force energy (SDFE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 295