Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4036

Search results for: mechanical sensors

4036 Analysis the Different Types of Nano Sensors on Based of Structure and It’s Applications on Nano Electronics

Authors: Hefzollah Mohammadiyan, Mohammad Bagher Heidari, Ensiyeh Hajeb

Abstract:

In this paper investigates and analyses the structure of nano sensors will be discussed. The structure can be classified based of nano sensors: quantum points, carbon nanotubes and nano tools, which details into each other and in turn are analyzed. Then will be fully examined to the Carbon nanotubes as chemical and mechanical sensors. The following discussion, be examined compares the advantages and disadvantages as different types of sensors and also it has feature and a wide range of applications in various industries. Finally, the structure and application of Chemical sensor transistors and the sensors will be discussed in air pollution control.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, quantum points, chemical sensors, mechanical sensors, chemical sensor transistors, single walled nanotube (SWNT), atomic force microscope (AFM)

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4035 Model Based Fault Diagnostic Approach for Limit Switches

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Surayya Naz, Nazir Shah Khattak

Abstract:

The degree of freedom relates to our capability to observe or model the energy paths within the system. Higher the number of energy paths being modeled leaves to us a higher degree of freedom, but increasing the time and modeling complexity rendering it useless for today’s world’s need for minimum time to market. Since the number of residuals that can be uniquely isolated are dependent on the number of independent outputs of the system, increasing the number of sensors required. The examples of discrete position sensors that may be used to form an array include limit switches, Hall effect sensors, optical sensors, magnetic sensors, etc. Their mechanical design can usually be tailored to fit in the transitional path of an STME in a variety of mechanical configurations. The case studies into multi-sensor system were carried out and actual data from sensors is used to test this generic framework. It is being investigated, how the proper modeling of limit switches as timing sensors, could lead to unified and neutral residual space while keeping the implementation cost reasonably low.

Keywords: low-cost limit sensors, fault diagnostics, Single Throw Mechanical Equipment (STME), parameter estimation, parity-space

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4034 Polydimethylsiloxane Applications in Interferometric Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: Zeenat Parveen, Ashiq Hussain

Abstract:

This review paper consists of applications of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) materials for enhanced performance, optical fiber sensors in acousto-ultrasonic, mechanical measurements, current applications, sensing, measurements and interferometric optical fiber sensors. We will discuss the basic working principle of fiber optic sensing technology, various types of fiber optic and the PDMS as a coating material to increase the performance. Optical fiber sensing methods for detecting dynamic strain signals, including general sound and acoustic signals, high frequency signals i.e. ultrasonic/ultrasound, and other signals such as acoustic emission and impact induced dynamic strain. Optical fiber sensors have Industrial and civil engineering applications in mechanical measurements. Sometimes it requires different configurations and parameters of sensors. Optical fiber current sensors are based on Faraday Effect due to which we obtain better performance as compared to the conventional current transformer. Recent advancement and cost reduction has simulated interest in optical fiber sensing. Optical techniques are also implemented in material measurement. Fiber optic interferometers are used to sense various physical parameters including temperature, pressure and refractive index. There are four types of interferometers i.e. Fabry–perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. This paper also describes the future work of fiber optic sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic sensing, PDMS materials, acoustic, ultrasound, current sensor, mechanical measurements

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4033 Training of Sensors for Early Warning System of Rainfall Induced Landslides

Authors: M. Naresh, Pratik Chaturvedi, Srishti Yadav, Varun Dutt, K. V. Uday

Abstract:

Changes in the Earth’s climate are likely to increase natural hazards such as drought, floods, earthquakes, landslides, etc. The present study focusing on to early warning systems (EWS) of landslides, major issues in Himalayan region without prominence to deforestation, encroachments and un-engineered cutting of slopes and reforming for infrastructural purposes. EWS can be depicted by conducting a series of flume tests using micro-electro mechanical systems sensors data after reaching threshold values under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the threshold value database, an alert will be sent via SMS.

Keywords: slope-instability, flume test, sensors, early warning system

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
4032 A Real-time Classification of Lying Bodies for Care Application of Elderly Patients

Authors: E. Vazquez-Santacruz, M. Gamboa-Zuniga

Abstract:

In this paper, we show a methodology for bodies classification in lying state using HOG descriptors and pressures sensors positioned in a matrix form (14 x 32 sensors) on the surface where bodies lie down. it will be done in real time. Our system is embedded in a care robot that can assist the elderly patient and medical staff around to get a better quality of life in and out of hospitals. Due to current technology a limited number of sensors is used, wich results in low-resolution data array, that will be used as image of 14 x 32 pixels. Our work considers the problem of human posture classification with few information (sensors), applying digital process to expand the original data of the sensors and so get more significant data for the classification, however, this is done with low-cost algorithms to ensure the real-time execution.

Keywords: real-time classification, sensors, robots, health care, elderly patients, artificial intelligence

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4031 Electrical Equivalent Analysis of Micro Cantilever Beams for Sensing Applications

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, J. S. Kadadevarmath

Abstract:

Microcantilevers are the basic MEMS devices, which can be used as sensors, actuators, and electronics can be easily built into them. The detection principle of microcantilever sensors is based on the measurement of change in cantilever deflection or change in its resonance frequency. The objective of this work is to explore the analogies between the mechanical and electrical equivalent of microcantilever beams. Normally scientists and engineers working in MEMS use expensive software like CoventorWare, IntelliSuite, ANSYS/Multiphysics, etc. This paper indicates the need of developing the electrical equivalent of the MEMS structure and with that, one can have a better insight on important parameters, and their interrelation of the MEMS structure. In this work, considering the mechanical model of the microcantilever, the equivalent electrical circuit is drawn and using a force-voltage analogy, it is analyzed with circuit simulation software. By doing so, one can gain access to a powerful set of intellectual tools that have been developed for understanding electrical circuits. Later the analysis is performed using ANSYS/Multiphysics - software based on finite element method (FEM). It is observed that both mechanical and electrical domain results for a rectangular microcantilevers are in agreement with each other.

Keywords: electrical equivalent circuit analogy, FEM analysis, micro cantilevers, micro sensors

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4030 Development of a Serial Signal Monitoring Program for Educational Purposes

Authors: Jungho Moon, Lae-Jeong Park

Abstract:

This paper introduces a signal monitoring program developed with a view to helping electrical engineering students get familiar with sensors with digital output. Because the output of digital sensors cannot be simply monitored by a measuring instrument such as an oscilloscope, students tend to have a hard time dealing with digital sensors. The monitoring program runs on a PC and communicates with an MCU that reads the output of digital sensors via an asynchronous communication interface. Receiving the sensor data from the MCU, the monitoring program shows time and/or frequency domain plots of the data in real time. In addition, the monitoring program provides a serial terminal that enables the user to exchange text information with the MCU while the received data is plotted. The user can easily observe the output of digital sensors and configure the digital sensors in real time, which helps students who do not have enough experiences with digital sensors. Though the monitoring program was programmed in the Matlab programming language, it runs without the Matlab since it was compiled as a standalone executable.

Keywords: digital sensor, MATLAB, MCU, signal monitoring program

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
4029 Quantum Conductance Based Mechanical Sensors Fabricated with Closely Spaced Metallic Nanoparticle Arrays

Authors: Min Han, Di Wu, Lin Yuan, Fei Liu

Abstract:

Mechanical sensors have undergone a continuous evolution and have become an important part of many industries, ranging from manufacturing to process, chemicals, machinery, health-care, environmental monitoring, automotive, avionics, and household appliances. Concurrently, the microelectronics and microfabrication technology have provided us with the means of producing mechanical microsensors characterized by high sensitivity, small size, integrated electronics, on board calibration, and low cost. Here we report a new kind of mechanical sensors based on the quantum transport process of electrons in the closely spaced nanoparticle films covering a flexible polymer sheet. The nanoparticle films were fabricated by gas phase depositing of preformed metal nanoparticles with a controlled coverage on the electrodes. To amplify the conductance of the nanoparticle array, we fabricated silver interdigital electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate(PET) by mask evaporation deposition. The gaps of the electrodes ranged from 3 to 30μm. Metal nanoparticles were generated from a magnetron plasma gas aggregation cluster source and deposited on the interdigital electrodes. Closely spaced nanoparticle arrays with different coverage could be gained through real-time monitoring the conductance. In the film coulomb blockade and quantum, tunneling/hopping dominate the electronic conduction mechanism. The basic principle of the mechanical sensors relies on the mechanical deformation of the fabricated devices which are translated into electrical signals. Several kinds of sensing devices have been explored. As a strain sensor, the device showed a high sensitivity as well as a very wide dynamic range. A gauge factor as large as 100 or more was demonstrated, which can be at least one order of magnitude higher than that of the conventional metal foil gauges or even better than that of the semiconductor-based gauges with a workable maximum applied strain beyond 3%. And the strain sensors have a workable maximum applied strain larger than 3%. They provide the potential to be a new generation of strain sensors with performance superior to that of the currently existing strain sensors including metallic strain gauges and semiconductor strain gauges. When integrated into a pressure gauge, the devices demonstrated the ability to measure tiny pressure change as small as 20Pa near the atmospheric pressure. Quantitative vibration measurements were realized on a free-standing cantilever structure fabricated with closely-spaced nanoparticle array sensing element. What is more, the mechanical sensor elements can be easily scaled down, which is feasible for MEMS and NEMS applications.

Keywords: gas phase deposition, mechanical sensors, metallic nanoparticle arrays, quantum conductance

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4028 Textile Based Physical Wearable Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring in Medical and Protective Garments

Authors: Sejuti Malakar

Abstract:

Textile sensors have gained a lot of interest in recent years as it is instrumental in monitoring physiological and environmental changes, for a better diagnosis that can be useful in various fields like medical textiles, sports textiles, protective textiles, agro textiles, and geo-textiles. Moreover, with the development of flexible textile-based wearable sensors, the functionality of smart clothing is augmented for a more improved user experience when it comes to technical textiles. In this context, conductive textiles using new composites and nanomaterials are being developed while considering its compatibility with the textile manufacturing processes. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed overview of the contemporary advancements in textile-based wearable physical sensors, used in the field of medical, security, surveillance, and protection, from a global perspective. The methodology used is through analysing various examples of integration of wearable textile-based sensors with clothing for daily use, keeping in mind the technological advances in the same. By comparing various case studies, we come across various challenges textile sensors, in terms of stability, the comfort of movement, and reliable sensing components to enable accurate measurements, in spite of progress in the engineering of the wearable. Addressing such concerns is critical for the future success of wearable sensors.

Keywords: flexible textile-based wearable sensors, contemporary advancements, conductive textiles, body conformal design

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4027 Potentiometric Determination of Moxifloxacin in Some Pharmaceutical Formulation Using PVC Membrane Sensors

Authors: M. M. Hefnawy, A. M. A. Homoda, M. A. Abounassif, A. M. Alanazia, A. Al-Majed, Gamal A. E. Mostafa

Abstract:

PVC membrane sensors using different approach e.g. ion-pair, ionophore, and Schiff-base has been used as testing membrane sensor. Analytical applications of membrane sensors for direct measurement of variety of different ions in complex biological and environmental sample are reported. The most important step of such PVC membrane sensor is the sensing active material. The potentiometric sensors have some outstanding advantages including simple design, operation, wide linear dynamic range, relative fast response time, and rotational selectivity. The analytical applications of these techniques to pharmaceutical compounds in dosage forms are also discussed. The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of Poly (vinyl chloride) membrane sensors for moxifloxacin HCl (MOX) are described. The sensing membranes incorporate ion association complexes of moxifloxacin cation and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) (sensor 1), phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) (sensor 2) or phosphotungstic acid (PTA) (sensor 3) as electroactive materials. The sensors display a fast, stable and near-Nernstian response over a relative wide moxifloxacin concentration range (1 ×10-2-4.0×10-6, 1 × 10-2-5.0×10-6, 1 × 10-2-5.0×10-6 M), with detection limits of 3×10-6, 4×10-6 and 4.0×10-6 M for sensor 1, 2 and 3, respectively over a pH range of 6.0-9.0. The sensors show good discrimination of moxifloxacin from several inorganic and organic compounds. The direct determination of 400 µg/ml of moxifloxacin show an average recovery of 98.5, 99.1 and 98.6 % and a mean relative standard deviation of 1.8, 1.6 and 1.8% for sensors 1, 2, and 3 respectively. The proposed sensors have been applied for direct determination of moxifloxacin in some pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained by determination of moxifloxacin in tablets using the proposed sensors are comparable favorably with those obtained using the US Pharmacopeia method. The sensors have been used as indicator electrodes for potentiometric titration of moxifloxacin.

Keywords: potentiometry, PVC, membrane sensors, ion-pair, ionophore, schiff-base, moxifloxacin HCl, sodium tetraphenyl borate, phosphomolybdic acid, phosphotungstic acid

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4026 Design and Implementation of Pseudorandom Number Generator Using Android Sensors

Authors: Mochamad Beta Auditama, Yusuf Kurniawan

Abstract:

A smartphone or tablet require a strong randomness to establish secure encrypted communication, encrypt files, etc. Therefore, random number generation is one of the main keys to provide secrecy. Android devices are equipped with hardware-based sensors, such as accelerometer, gyroscope, etc. Each of these sensors provides a stochastic process which has a potential to be used as an extra randomness source, in addition to /dev/random and /dev/urandom pseudorandom number generators. Android sensors can provide randomness automatically. To obtain randomness from Android sensors, each one of Android sensors shall be used to construct an entropy source. After all entropy sources are constructed, output from these entropy sources are combined to provide more entropy. Then, a deterministic process is used to produces a sequence of random bits from the combined output. All of these processes are done in accordance with NIST SP 800-22 and the series of NIST SP 800-90. The operation conditions are done 1) on Android user-space, and 2) the Android device is placed motionless on a desk.

Keywords: Android hardware-based sensor, deterministic process, entropy source, random number generation/generators

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4025 Fault Detection and Isolation in Sensors and Actuators of Wind Turbines

Authors: Shahrokh Barati, Reza Ramezani

Abstract:

Due to the countries growing attention to the renewable energy producing, the demand for energy from renewable energy has gone up among the renewable energy sources; wind energy is the fastest growth in recent years. In this regard, in order to increase the availability of wind turbines, using of Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system is necessary. Wind turbines include of various faults such as sensors fault, actuator faults, network connection fault, mechanical faults and faults in the generator subsystem. Although, sensors and actuators have a large number of faults in wind turbine but have discussed fewer in the literature. Therefore, in this work, we focus our attention to design a sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation algorithm and Fault-tolerant control systems (FTCS) for Wind Turbine. The aim of this research is to propose a comprehensive fault detection and isolation system for sensors and actuators of wind turbine based on data-driven approaches. To achieve this goal, the features of measurable signals in real wind turbine extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extracted features. Features are selected that led to maximum separation networks that implemented in parallel and results of classifiers fused together. In order to maximize the reliability of decision on fault, the property of fault repeatability is used.

Keywords: FDI, wind turbines, sensors and actuators faults, renewable energy

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4024 Development of a Highly Flexible, Sensitive and Stretchable Polymer Nanocomposite for Strain Sensing

Authors: Shaghayegh Shajari, Mehdi Mahmoodi, Mahmood Rajabian, Uttandaraman Sundararaj, Les J. Sudak

Abstract:

Although several strain sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported, the stretchability and sensitivity of these sensors have remained as a challenge. Highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensors are in great demand for human motion monitoring and human-machine interface. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of strain sensors based on a stretchable fluoropolymer / CNT nanocomposite system made via melt-mixing technique. Electrical and mechanical characterizations were obtained. The results showed that this nanocomposite sensor has high stretchability up to 280% of strain at an optimum level of filler concentration. The piezoresistive properties and the strain sensing mechanism of the strain sensor were investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). High sensitivity was obtained (gauge factor as large as 12000 under 120% applied strain) in particular at the concentrations above the percolation threshold. Due to the tunneling effect, a non- linear piezoresistivity was observed at high concentrations of CNT loading. The nanocomposites with good conductivity and lightweight could be a promising candidate for strain sensing applications.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fluoropolymer, piezoresistive, strain sensor

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4023 Study on Intensity Modulated Non-Contact Optical Fiber Vibration Sensors of Different Configurations

Authors: Dinkar Dantala, Kishore Putha, Padmavathi Manchineelu

Abstract:

Optical fibers are widely used in the measurement of several physical parameters like temperature, pressure, vibrations etc. Measurement of vibrations plays a vital role in machines. In this paper, three fiber optic non-contact vibration sensors were discussed, which are designed based on the principle of light intensity modulation. The Dual plastic optical fiber, Fiber optic fused 1x2 coupler and Fiber optic fused 2x2 coupler vibration sensors are compared based on range of frequency, resolution and sensitivity. It is to conclude that 2x2 coupler configuration shows better response than other two sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic, PMMA, vibration sensor, intensity-modulated

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4022 Design of Wireless and Traceable Sensors for Internally Illuminated Photoreactors

Authors: Alexander Sutor, David Demetz

Abstract:

We present methods for developing wireless and traceable sensors for photobioreactors or photoreactors in general. The main focus of application are reactors which are wirelessly powered. Due to the promising properties of the propagation of magnetic fields under water we implemented an inductive link with an on/off switched hartley-oscillator as transmitter and an LC-tank as receiver. For this inductive link we used a carrier frequency of 298 kHz. With this system we performed measurements to demonstrate the independence of the magnetic field from water or salty water. In contrast we showed the strongly reduced range of RF-transmitter-receiver systems at higher frequencies (433 MHz and 2.4 GHz) in water and in salty water. For implementing the traceability of the sensors, we performed measurements to show the well defined orientation of the magnetic field of a coil. This information will be used in future work for implementing an inductive link based traceability system for our sensors.

Keywords: wireless sensors, photoreactor, internal illumination, wireless power

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4021 Cavitas Sensors into Human Cavities: Soft-Contact Lens and Mouthguard Sensors

Authors: Kohji Mitsubayashi, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

Abstract:

‘Cavitas sensors’ attached to human body cavities such as a contact lens type and a mouthguard (‘no implantable', ‘no wearable’) attracted attention as self-detachable devices for daily medicine. In this contribution, the soft contact lens glucose sensor for tear sugar monitoring will be introduced. And the mouthguard sensor with dental materials integrated with Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wireless module for real-time monitoring of saliva glucose would also be demonstrated. In the near future, those self-detachable cavitas sensors are expected to improve quality of life in view of the aging of society.

Keywords: cavitas sensor, biosensor, contact lens, mouthguard

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
4020 Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments

Authors: Branislav Timotijevic, Yves Petremand, Markus Luetzelschwab, Dara Bayat, Laurent Aebi

Abstract:

Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.

Keywords: optical MEMS, temperature sensor, accelerometer, remote sensing, harsh environment

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4019 Proposal of Commutation Protocol in Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks for Intelligent Transport Systems

Authors: Taha Bensiradj, Samira Moussaoui

Abstract:

Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks (HSVN), represent a hybrid network, which uses several generations of Ad-Hoc networks. It is used especially in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). The HSVN allows making collaboration between the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) deployed on the border of the road and the Vehicular Network (VANET). This collaboration is defined by messages exchanged between the two networks for the purpose to inform the drivers about the state of the road, provide road safety information and more information about traffic on the road. Moreover, this collaboration created by HSVN, also allows the use of a network and the advantage of improving another network. For example, the dissemination of information between the sensors quickly decreases its energy, and therefore, we can use vehicles that do not have energy constraint to disseminate the information between sensors. On the other hand, to solve the disconnection problem in VANET, the sensors can be used as gateways that allow sending the messages received by one vehicle to another. However, because of the short communication range of the sensor and its low capacity of storage and processing of data, it is difficult to ensure the exchange of road messages between it and the vehicle, which can be moving at high speed at the time of exchange. This represents the time where the vehicle is in communication range with the sensor. This work is the proposition of a communication protocol between the sensors and the vehicle used in HSVN. The latter has as the purpose to ensure the exchange of road messages in the available time of exchange.

Keywords: HSVN, ITS, VANET, WSN

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4018 Fully Printed Strain Gauges: A Comparison of Aerosoljet-Printing and Micropipette-Dispensing

Authors: Benjamin Panreck, Manfred Hild

Abstract:

Strain sensors based on a change in resistance are well established for the measurement of forces, stresses, or material fatigue. Within the scope of this paper, fully additive manufactured strain sensors were produced using an ink of silver nanoparticles. Their behavior was evaluated by periodic tensile tests. Printed strain sensors exhibit two advantages: Their measuring grid is adaptable to the use case and they do not need a carrier-foil, as the measuring structure can be printed directly onto a thin sprayed varnish layer on the aluminum specimen. In order to compare quality characteristics, the sensors have been manufactured using two different technologies, namely aerosoljet-printing and micropipette-dispensing. Both processes produce structures which exhibit continuous features (in contrast to what can be achieved with droplets during inkjet printing). Briefly summarized the results show that aerosoljet-printing is the preferable technology for specimen with non-planar surfaces whereas both technologies are suitable for flat specimen.

Keywords: aerosoljet-printing, micropipette-dispensing, printed electronics, printed sensors, strain gauge

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4017 Film Sensors for the Harsh Environment Application

Authors: Wenmin Qu

Abstract:

A capacitance level sensor with a segmented film electrode and a thin-film volume flow sensor with an innovative by-pass sleeve is presented as industrial products for the application in a harsh environment. The working principle of such sensors is well known; however, the traditional sensors show some limitations for certain industrial measurements. The two sensors presented in this paper overcome this limitation and enlarge the application spectrum. The problem is analyzed, and the solution is given. The emphasis of the paper is on developing the problem-solving concepts and the realization of the corresponding measuring circuits. These should give advice and encouragement, how we can still develop electronic measuring products in an almost saturated market.

Keywords: by-pass sleeve, charge transfer circuit, fixed ΔT circuit, harsh environment, industrial application, segmented electrode

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4016 Abnormality Detection of Persons Living Alone Using Daily Life Patterns Obtained from Sensors

Authors: Ippei Kamihira, Takashi Nakajima, Taiyo Matsumura, Hikaru Miura, Takashi Ono

Abstract:

In this research, the goal was construction of a system by which multiple sensors were used to observe the daily life behavior of persons living alone (while respecting their privacy). Using this information to judge such conditions as a bad physical condition or falling in the home, etc., so that these abnormal conditions can be made known to relatives and third parties. The daily life patterns of persons living alone are expressed by the number of responses of sensors each time that a set time period has elapsed. By comparing data for the prior two weeks, it was possible to judge a situation as 'normal' when the person was in a good physical condition or as 'abnormal' when the person was in a bad physical condition.

Keywords: sensors, elderly living alone, abnormality detection, iifestyle habit

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4015 Piezo-Extracted Model Based Chloride/ Carbonation Induced Corrosion Assessment in Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Gupta. Ashok, V. talakokula, S. bhalla

Abstract:

Rebar corrosion is one of the main causes of damage and premature failure of the reinforced concrete (RC) structures worldwide, causing enormous costs for inspection, maintenance, restoration and replacement. Therefore, early detection of corrosion and timely remedial action on the affected portion can facilitate an optimum utilization of the structure, imparting longevity to it. The recent advent of the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique using piezo sensors (PZT) for structural health monitoring (SHM) has provided a new paradigm to the maintenance engineers to diagnose the onset of the damage at the incipient stage itself. This paper presents a model based approach for corrosion assessment based on the equivalent parameters extracted from the impedance spectrum of concrete-rebar system using the EMI technique via the PZT sensors.

Keywords: impedance, electro-mechanical, stiffness, mass, damping, equivalent parameters

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4014 In-Process Integration of Resistance-Based, Fiber Sensors during the Braiding Process for Strain Monitoring of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

Authors: Oscar Bareiro, Johannes Sackmann, Thomas Gries

Abstract:

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) are used in a wide variety of applications due to its advantageous properties and design versatility. The braiding process enables the manufacture of components with good toughness and fatigue strength. However, failure mechanisms of CFRPs are complex and still present challenges associated with their maintenance and repair. Within the broad scope of structural health monitoring (SHM), strain monitoring can be applied to composite materials to improve reliability, reduce maintenance costs and safely exhaust service life. Traditional SHM systems employ e.g. fiber optics, piezoelectrics as sensors, which are often expensive, time consuming and complicated to implement. A cost-efficient alternative can be the exploitation of the conductive properties of fiber-based sensors such as carbon, copper, or constantan - a copper-nickel alloy – that can be utilized as sensors within composite structures to achieve strain monitoring. This allows the structure to provide feedback via electrical signals to a user which are essential for evaluating the structural condition of the structure. This work presents a strategy for the in-process integration of resistance-based sensors (Elektrisola Feindraht AG, CuNi23Mn, Ø = 0.05 mm) into textile preforms during its manufacture via the braiding process (Herzog RF-64/120) to achieve strain monitoring of braided composites. For this, flat samples of instrumented composite laminates of carbon fibers (Toho Tenax HTS40 F13 24K, 1600 tex) and epoxy resin (Epikote RIMR 426) were manufactured via vacuum-assisted resin infusion. These flat samples were later cut out into test specimens and the integrated sensors were wired to the measurement equipment (National Instruments, VB-8012) for data acquisition during the execution of mechanical tests. Quasi-static tests were performed (tensile, 3-point bending tests) following standard protocols (DIN EN ISO 527-1 & 4, DIN EN ISO 14132); additionally, dynamic tensile tests were executed. These tests were executed to assess the sensor response under different loading conditions and to evaluate the influence of the sensor presence on the mechanical properties of the material. Several orientations of the sensor with regards to the applied loading and sensor placements inside the laminate were tested. Strain measurements from the integrated sensors were made by programming a data acquisition code (LabView) written for the measurement equipment. Strain measurements from the integrated sensors were then correlated to the strain/stress state for the tested samples. From the assessment of the sensor integration approach it can be concluded that it allows for a seamless sensor integration into the textile preform. No damage to the sensor or negative effect on its electrical properties was detected during inspection after integration. From the assessment of the mechanical tests of instrumented samples it can be concluded that the presence of the sensors does not alter significantly the mechanical properties of the material. It was found that there is a good correlation between resistance measurements from the integrated sensors and the applied strain. It can be concluded that the correlation is of sufficient accuracy to determinate the strain state of a composite laminate based solely on the resistance measurements from the integrated sensors.

Keywords: braiding process, in-process sensor integration, instrumented composite material, resistance-based sensor, strain monitoring

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4013 Optimal Configuration for Polarimetric Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

Authors: Ibrahim Watad, Ibrahim Abdulhalim

Abstract:

Conventional spectroscopic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used, both in fundamental research and environmental monitoring as well as healthcare diagnostics. However, they still lack the low limit of detection (LOD) and there still a place for improvement. SPR conventional sensors are based on the detection of a dip in the reflectivity spectrum which is relatively wide. To improve the performance of these sensors, many techniques and methods proposed either to reduce the width of the dip or to increase the sensitivity. Together with that, profiting from the sharp jump in the phase spectrum under SPR, several works suggested the extraction of the phase of the reflected wave. However, existing phase measurement setups are in general more complicated compared to the conventional setups, require more stability and are very sensitive to external vibrations and noises. In this study, a simple polarimetric technique for phase extraction under SPR is presented, followed by a theoretical error analysis and an experimental verification. The advantages of the proposed technique upon existing techniques will be elaborated, together with conclusions regarding the best polarimetric function, and its corresponding optimal metal layer range of thicknesses to use under the conventional Kretschmann-Raether configuration.

Keywords: plasmonics, polarimetry, thin films, optical sensors

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4012 Low Cost Inertial Sensors Modeling Using Allan Variance

Authors: A. A. Hussen, I. N. Jleta

Abstract:

Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers and gyroscopes are suitable for the inertial navigation system (INS) of many applications due to the low price, small dimensions and light weight. The main disadvantage in a comparison with classic sensors is a worse long term stability. The estimation accuracy is mostly affected by the time-dependent growth of inertial sensor errors, especially the stochastic errors. In order to eliminate negative effect of these random errors, they must be accurately modeled. Where the key is the successful implementation that depends on how well the noise statistics of the inertial sensors is selected. In this paper, the Allan variance technique will be used in modeling the stochastic errors of the inertial sensors. By performing a simple operation on the entire length of data, a characteristic curve is obtained whose inspection provides a systematic characterization of various random errors contained in the inertial-sensor output data.

Keywords: Allan variance, accelerometer, gyroscope, stochastic errors

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4011 Relationship between Response of the Resistive Sensors on the Chosen Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Their Concentration

Authors: Marek Gancarz, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Robert Rusinek, Marcin Tadla

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the fungi metabolites in the gaseous form produced during improper storage of agricultural commodities (e.g. grain, food). The spoilt commodities produce a wide range of VOCs including alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, alkenes, furans, phenols etc. The characteristic VOCs and odours can be determined by using electronic nose (e-Nose) which contains a matrix of different kinds of sensors e.g. resistive sensors. The aim of the present studies was to determine relationship between response of the resistive sensors on the chosen volatiles and their concentration. According to the literature, it was chosen volatiles characteristic for the cereals: ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and hexanal. Analysis of the sensor signals shows that a signal shape is different for the different substances. Moreover, each VOC signal gives information about a maximum of the normalized sensor response (R/Rmax), an impregnation time (tIM) and a cleaning time at half maximum of R/Rmax (tCL). These three parameters can be regarded as a ‘VOC fingerprint’. Seven resistive sensors (TGS2600-B00, TGS2602-B00, TGS2610-C00, TGS2611-C00, TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00, TGS2620-C00) produced by Figaro USA Inc., and one (AS-MLV-P2) produced by AMS AG, Austria were used. Two out of seven sensors (TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00) did not react to the chosen VOCs. The most responsive sensor was AS-MLV-P2. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: agricultural commodities, organic compounds, resistive sensors, volatile

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4010 Optimisation of Energy Harvesting for a Composite Aircraft Wing Structure Bonded with Discrete Macro Fibre Composite Sensors

Authors: Ali H. Daraji, Ye Jianqiao

Abstract:

The micro electrical devices of the wireless sensor network are continuously developed and become very small and compact with low electric power requirements using limited period life conventional batteries. The low power requirement for these devices, cost of conventional batteries and its replacement have encouraged researcher to find alternative power supply represented by energy harvesting system to provide an electric power supply with infinite period life. In the last few years, the investigation of energy harvesting for structure health monitoring has increased to powering wireless sensor network by converting waste mechanical vibration into electricity using piezoelectric sensors. Optimisation of energy harvesting is an important research topic to ensure a flowing of efficient electric power from structural vibration. The harvesting power is mainly based on the properties of piezoelectric material, dimensions of piezoelectric sensor, its position on a structure and value of an external electric load connected between sensor electrodes. Larger surface area of sensor is not granted larger power harvesting when the sensor area is covered positive and negative mechanical strain at the same time. Thus lead to reduction or cancellation of piezoelectric output power. Optimisation of energy harvesting is achieved by locating these sensors precisely and efficiently on the structure. Limited published work has investigated the energy harvesting for aircraft wing. However, most of the published studies have simplified the aircraft wing structure by a cantilever flat plate or beam. In these studies, the optimisation of energy harvesting was investigated by determination optimal value of an external electric load connected between sensor electrode terminals or by an external electric circuit or by randomly splitting piezoelectric sensor to two segments. However, the aircraft wing structures are complex than beam or flat plate and mostly constructed from flat and curved skins stiffened by stringers and ribs with more complex mechanical strain induced on the wing surfaces. This aircraft wing structure bonded with discrete macro fibre composite sensors was modelled using multiphysics finite element to optimise the energy harvesting by determination of the optimal number of sensors, location and the output resistance load. The optimal number and location of macro fibre sensors were determined based on the maximization of the open and close loop sensor output voltage using frequency response analysis. It was found different optimal distribution, locations and number of sensors bounded on the top and the bottom surfaces of the aircraft wing.

Keywords: energy harvesting, optimisation, sensor, wing

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
4009 Use of Nanosensors in Detection and Treatment of HIV

Authors: Sayed Obeidullah Abrar

Abstract:

Nanosensor is the combination of two terms nanoparticles and sensors. These are chemical or physical sensor constructed using nanoscale components, usually microscopic or submicroscopic in size. These sensors are very sensitive and can detect single virus particle or even very low concentrations of substances that could be potentially harmful. Nanosensors have a large scope of research especially in the field of medical sciences, military applications, pharmaceuticals etc.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, nanosensors, DNA, RNA

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4008 Overview of Wireless Body Area Networks

Authors: Rashi Jain

Abstract:

The Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is an emerging interdisciplinary area where small sensors are placed on/within the human body. These sensors monitor the physiological activities and vital statistics of the body. The data from these sensors is aggregated and communicated to a remote doctor for immediate attention or to a database for records. On 6 Feb 2012, the IEEE 802.15.6 task group approved the standard for Body Area Network (BAN) technologies. The standard proposes the physical and MAC layer for the WBANs. The work provides an introduction to WBANs and overview of the physical and MAC layers of the standard. The physical layer specifications have been covered. A comparison of different protocols used at MAC layer is drawn. An introduction to the network layer and security aspects of the WBANs is made. The WBANs suffer certain limitations such as regulation of frequency bands, minimizing the effect of transmission and reception of electromagnetic signals on the human body, maintaining the energy efficiency among others. This has slowed down their implementation.

Keywords: vehicular networks, sensors, MicroController 8085, LTE

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
4007 Power Management in Wireless Combustible Gas Sensors

Authors: Denis Spirjakin, Alexander Baranov, Saba Akbari, Natalia Kalenova, Vladimir Sleptsov

Abstract:

In this paper we propose the approach to power management in wireless combustible gas sensors. This approach makes possible drastically prolong sensor nodes autonomous lifetime. That is necessary to tie battery replacement to every year technical service procedures which are claimed by safety standards. Using this approach the current consumption of the wireless combustible gas sensor node was decreased from 80 mA to less than 2 mA and the power consumption from more than 220 mW to 4.6 mW. These values provide autonomous lifetime of the node more than one year.

Keywords: Gas sensors, power management, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 487