Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9210

Search results for: sustainable human settlements

9210 A GIS-Based Study on Geographical Divisions of Sustainable Human Settlements in China

Authors: Wu Yiqun, Weng Jiantao

Abstract:

The human settlements of China are picked up from the land use vector map by interpreting the Thematic Map of 2014. This paper established the sustainable human settlements geographical division evaluation system and division model using GIS. The results show that: The density of human residential areas in China is different, and the density of sustainable human areas is higher, and the west is lower than that in the West. The regional differences of sustainable human settlements are obvious: the north is larger than that the south, the plain regions are larger than those of the hilly regions, and the developed regions are larger than the economically developed regions. The geographical distribution of the sustainable human settlements is measured by the degree of porosity. The degree of porosity correlates with the sustainable human settlement density. In the area where the sustainable human settlement density is high the porosity is low, the distribution is even and the gap between the settlements is low.

Keywords: GIS, geographical division, sustainable human settlements, China

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9209 Creating Sustainable Human Settlements: An Analysis of Planning Intervention in Addressing Informal Settlements in South Africa

Authors: Takudzwa C. Taruza, Carel B. Schoeman, Ilse M. Schoeman

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The proliferation of informal settlements remains one of the major planning challenges in democratic South Africa. In spite of the various local, national and international initiatives to promote the creation of sustainable human settlements, informal settlements continue to exist as spatially marginalised societies characterised by poverty, unemployment, squalor conditions and disaster risks. It is argued that, in practice, intervention is mainly directed at achieving set quantitative targets and goals rather than improving the lives of the inhabitants. The relevant planning instruments do not adequately address the integration of informal settlements into the broader planning framework. This paper is based on the analysis of the informal settlement intervention within the North West Province. Financial constraints, bureaucracy in housing delivery and lack of horizontal and vertical integration in spatial planning and programme implementation are amongst the major factors that caused stagnation in some of the upgrading programmes which in turn hindered the attainment of the target set as part of the Outcome 8 Delivery Agreement. Moreover, the absence of distinct indicators for the assessment of the qualitative progress of upgrading programmes indicates shortcomings in the intervention policies and programmes to promote the creation of sustainable human settlements. Thus, this paper seeks to proffer an assessment toolkit as well as a framework for the implementation of a Sustainable Informal Settlement Programme.

Keywords: formalization of informal settlements, planning intervention, sustainable formalization indicators, sustainable human settlements

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9208 Urban Regeneration of Unplanned Settlements in Al-Ruwais

Authors: Rama Ajineh

Abstract:

Neighborhoods are defined as local zones within settlements and cities recognized by individuals who live there, with their identities and given boundaries. Neighborhoods mainly structure individual’s lives, the small box which various social groups interact with each other, develop and become one strong entity. Also, it is a platform for more activities, providing many of the social services to enhance the connections between the people, giving a sense of community. However, some of these neighborhoods were unplanned and caused many social, economical and architectural problems to its residents in the first place, and to the city. A great example of such case is in Saudi Arabia, Jeddah, Al-Ruwais neighborhood, where the authority is planning to regenerate the area and make it a landmark for the city. Urban Regeneration of Unplanned Settlements is a process to make people live and work, now and in the future, and meet the various needs of the current and coming inhabitants, with a high-quality life for all. Through research, it was discovered that Urban regeneration plans on Al-Ruwais were planned regardless to the collective agreement of the inhabitants, giving themselves the absolute right to demolish and reconstruct the desired locations with a low compensation. Consequently, a deep research will be done on integrating the residents with the process, by showcasing examples of successful Urban Regenerations of Unplanned settlements in different cities. The research aims to understand the sustainable, and well-planned regeneration strategies used to enhance people’s living without harming them, and give sustainable urban solutions. Moreover, the research explores the definition of Sustainable Communities. The used methods in this paper are secondary research on site analysis and the relationship between the human and the neighborhood. The conclusion reveals the most successful fashion of Urban regeneration of Unplanned settlements and applies it to Al-Ruwais neighborhood considering the human factor as a primary element.

Keywords: architecture, human integration, original residents, site analysis, sustainable communities, urban sustainable solutions, urban regeneration

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9207 Research on Spatial Pattern and Spatial Structure of Human Settlement from the View of Spatial Anthropology – A Case Study of the Settlement in Sizhai Village, City of Zhuji, Zhejiang Province, China

Authors: Ni Zhenyu

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A human settlement is defined as the social activities, social relationships and lifestyles generated within a certain territory, which is also relatively independent territorial living space and domain composed of common people. Along with the advancement of technology and the development of society, the idea, presented in traditional research, that human settlements are deemed as substantial organic integrity with strong autonomy, are more often challenged nowadays. Spatial form of human settlements is one of the most outstanding external expressions with its subjectivity and autonomy, nevertheless, the projections of social, economic activities on certain territories are even more significant. What exactly is the relationship between human beings and the spatial form of the settlements where they live in? a question worth thinking over has been raised, that if a new view, a spatial anthropological one , can be constructed to review and respond to spatial form of human settlements based on research theories and methods of cultural anthropology within the profession of architecture. This article interprets how the typical spatial form of human settlements in the basin area of Bac Giang Province is formed under the collective impacts of local social order, land use condition, topographic features, and social contracts. A particular case of the settlement in Sizhai Village, City of Zhuji, Zhejiang Province is chosen to study for research purpose. Spatial form of human settlements are interpreted as a modeled integrity affected corporately by dominant economy, social patterns, key symbol marks and core values, etc.. Spatial form of human settlements, being a structured existence, is a materialized, behavioral, and social space; it can be considered as a place where human beings realize their behaviors and a path on which the continuity of their behaviors are kept, also for social practice a territory where currant social structure and social relationships are maintained, strengthened and rebuilt. This article aims to break the boundary of understanding that spatial form of human settlements is pure physical space, furthermore, endeavors to highlight the autonomy status of human beings, focusing on their relationships with certain territories, their interpersonal relationships, man-earth relationships and the state of existence of human beings, elaborating the deeper connotation behind spatial form of human settlements.

Keywords: spatial anthropology, human settlement, spatial pattern, spatial structure

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9206 Understanding Informal Settlements: The Role of Geo-Information Tools

Authors: Musyimi Mbathi

Abstract:

Information regarding social, political, demographic, economic and other attributes of human settlement is important for decision makers at all levels of planning, as they have to grapple with dynamic environments often associated with settlements. At the local level, it is particularly important for both communities and urban managers to have accurate and reliable information regarding all planning attributes. Settlement mapping, in particular, informal settlements mapping in Kenya, has over the past few years been carried out using modern tools like Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing for spatial data analysis and planning. GIS tools offer a platform for integration of spatial and non-spatial data as well as visualisation of the settlements. The capabilities offered by these tools have enabled communities to participate especially in the planning and management of new infrastructure as well as settlement upgrading. Land tenure based projects within informal settlements have also relied on GIS and related tools with considerable success. Additionally, the adoption of participatory approaches and use of geo-information tools helped to provide a basis for all inclusive planning thus promoting accountability, transparency, legitimacy, and other dimensions of governance within human settlement planning. The paper examines the context and application of geo-information tools for planning within low-income settlements of Kenya. A case study of Kiambiu settlement will be used to demonstrate how the tools have been applied for planning and decision-making purposes.

Keywords: informal settlements, GIS, governance, modern tools

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9205 Effect of Urban Informal Settlements and Outdoor Advertisement on the Quality of Built Environment and Urban Upgrading in Nigeria

Authors: Amao Funmilayo Lanrewaju, T. Ogunlade

Abstract:

The paper examines the causes and characteristics of informal settlements and outdoor advertisement in the evaluation of quality of environment. The paper identifies the problems that have aided informal settlements to: Urbanization, poverty, growth of informal sector, non-affordability of land and housing shortage. The paper asserts that the informal settlements have serious adverse effects on the people’s health, their built environment and quality of life. The secondary data was obtained from books, journals and seminar papers. The paper argues that, although the urban upgrading possesses great potential for improving quality of built environment in informal settlements, there is a need to repackage the upgrading exercise so that majority can benefit from it. It is necessary to incorporate community participation into the urban upgrading in order to assist the very poor that cannot take care of their housing consumption needs. Therefore, government is encouraged to see informal settlements as a solution to new city planning rather than problem to the urban areas. This paper suggests the implementation of policies and planning, physical infrastructural development, social economic improvement, environment and health improvement. Government, private and communities interventions on informal settlements are required in order to prevent further decay for sustainable development.

Keywords: quality of environment, informal settlements, urban upgrading, outdoor advertisement

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9204 Proposing of an Adaptable Land Readjustment Model for Developing of the Informal Settlements in Kabul City

Authors: Habibi Said Mustafa, Hiroko Ono

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Since 2006, Afghanistan is dealing with one of the most dramatic trend of urban movement in its history, cities and towns are expanding in size and number. Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan and as well as the fast-growing city in the Asia. The influx of the returnees from neighbor countries and other provinces of Afghanistan caused high rate of artificial growth which slums increased. As an unwanted consequence of this growth, today informal settlements have covered a vast portion of the city. Land Readjustment (LR) has proved to be an important tool for developing informal settlements and reorganizing urban areas but its implementation always varies from country to country and region to region within the countries. Consequently, to successfully develop the informal settlements in Kabul, we need to define an Afghan model of LR specifically for Afghanistan which needs to incorporate all those factors related to the socio-economic condition of the country. For this purpose, a part of the old city of Kabul has selected as a study area which is located near the Central Business District (CBD). After the further analysis and incorporating all needed factors, the result shows a positive potential for the implementation of an adaptable Land Readjustment model for Kabul city which is more sustainable and socio-economically friendly. It will enhance quality of life and provide better urban services for the residents. Moreover, it will set a vision and criteria by which sustainable developments shall proceed in other similar informal settlements of Kabul.

Keywords: adaptation, informal settlements, Kabul, land readjustment, preservation

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9203 Approaches to Tsunami Mitigation and Prevention: Explaining Architectural Strategies for Reducing Urban Risk

Authors: Hedyeh Gamini, Hadi Abdus

Abstract:

Tsunami, as a natural disaster, is composed of waves that are usually caused by severe movements at the sea floor. Although tsunami and its consequences cannot be prevented in any way, by examining past tsunamis and extracting key points on how to deal with this incident and learning from it, a positive step can be taken to reduce the vulnerability of human settlements and reduce the risk of this phenomenon in architecture and urbanism. The method is reviewing and has examined the documents written and valid internet sites related to managing and reducing the vulnerability of human settlements in face of tsunami. This paper has explored the tsunamis in Indonesia (2004), Sri Lanka (2004) and Japan (2011), and of the study objectives has been understanding how they dealt with tsunami and extracting key points, and the lessons from them in terms of reduction of vulnerability of human settlements in dealing with the tsunami. Finally, strategies to prevent and reduce the vulnerability of communities at risk of tsunamis have been offered in terms of architecture and urban planning. According to what is obtained from the study of the recent tsunamis, the authorities' quality of dealing with them, how to manage the crisis and the manner of their construction, it can be concluded that to reduce the vulnerability of human settlements against tsunami, there are generally four ways that are: 1-Construction of tall buildings with opening on the first floor so that water can flow easily under and the direction of the building should be in a way that water passes easily from the side. 2- The construction of multi-purpose centers, which could be used as vertical evacuation during accidents. 3- Constructing buildings in core forms with diagonal orientation of the coastline, 4- Building physical barriers (natural and synthetic) such as water dams, mounds of earth, sea walls and creating forests

Keywords: tsunami, architecture, reducing vulnerability, human settlements, urbanism

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9202 Beyond the 'Human Rights and Development' Discourse: A Quest for a Right to Sustainable Development in International Human Rights Law

Authors: Roman Girma Teshome

Abstract:

The intersection between development and human rights has been the point of scholarly debate for a long time. Consequently, a number of principles, which extend from the right to development to the human rights-based approach to development, have been adopted to understand the dynamics between the two concepts. Despite these attempts, the exact relationship between development and human rights has not been fully discovered yet. However, the inevitable interdependence between the two notions and the idea that development efforts must be undertaken by giving due regard to human rights guarantees has gained momentum in recent years. On the other hand, the emergence of sustainable development as a widely accepted approach in development goals and policies makes this unsettled convergence even more complicated. The place of sustainable development in human rights law discourse and the role of the latter in ensuring the sustainability of development programs call for a systematic study. Hence, this article seeks to explore the relationship between development and human rights, particularly focusing on the place given to sustainable development principles in international human right law. It will further quest whether there is a right to sustainable development recognized therein. Accordingly, the article asserts that the principles of sustainable development are directly or indirectly recognized in various human rights instruments, which provides an affirmative response to the question raised hereinabove. This work, therefore, will make expeditions through international and regional human rights instruments as well as case laws and interpretative guidelines of human rights bodies to prove this hypothesis.

Keywords: sustainable development, human rights, the right to development, the human rights-based approach to development, environmental rights, economic development, social sustainability

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9201 Sustainable Behavior and Design in Chinese Traditional Culture

Authors: Jin Chuhao

Abstract:

Sustainable design is the key for the human to realize the harmonious development. However, sustainable design requires localization that combines their own regional culture’s characteristics, then forms the most common cultural identity. As a result, the concept of sustainable design integrates into social behavior and promotes the harmonious development. Chinese Confucian doctrine is one of the important thoughts of human culture, which is accepted by more and more people. This paper summarizes the sustainable concept from the Chinese traditional culture and local design, discusses how they change the life of human being and produces enlightenment and significance to China and world.

Keywords: sustainable design, Chinese traditional culture, harmonious development, Confucianism

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9200 Sustainable Affordable Housing Development in Indonesia

Authors: Gina Cynthia Raphita Hasibuan

Abstract:

The housing sector in Indonesia is in critical condition where majority of low-income citizens live in substandard dwellings, and the number housing backlog is increasing every year. The housing problem becomes more urgent when the term 'sustainability' is considered, and sustainable affordable housing is yet to gain its successful implementation. Global urbanization develops fastest in developing countries like Indonesia where informal settlements are rapidly escalating, hence, making sustainable affordable housing strategies very critical in this context. The problem in developing countries like Indonesia lies on the institutional capacity of newly-established local governments having greater power to determine a development policy but apparently still lacking institutional capability and coordination with the central government and collaborative governance are still not established yet. The concept of upgrading informal settlements are seen changed over time and inconsistent. Despite much research on theme such as sustainable housing concept within Indonesian context, there has been a dearth of research examining the role of collaborative governance, as the current approach still shows fragmented approach between the stakeholders and the lack of community participation as the end user, and thus this research attempts to fill the gap on the aforementioned problems. By using case study with multi-methods conducted in Jakarta, this research has an overall aim to critically assess the role of collaborative governance in addressing sustainable affordable housing in Indonesia and to understand informal settlements and interventions in Indonesia rather than imposing a framework from western perspectives.

Keywords: affordable housing, collaborative governance, sustainability, urban planning

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9199 Impact of Farm Settlements' Facilities on Farm Patronage in Oyo State

Authors: Simon Ayorinde Okanlawon

Abstract:

The youths’ prevalent negative attitude to farming is partly due to amenities and facilities found in the urban centers at the expense of the rural areas. Hence, there is the need to create a befitting and conducive farm environment to retain farm employees and attract the youth to farming. This can be achieved through the provision of services and amenities that will ensure a comfortable standard of living higher than that obtained by a person of equal status in other forms of employment in urban centers, thereby eliminating the psychological feeling of lowered self-esteem associated with farming. This study assessed farm settlements’ facilities and patronage in Oyo State with a view to using the information to encourage sustainable agriculture in Nigeria. The study becomes necessary because of the dearth of information on the state of facilities in the farm settlements as it affects patronage of farm settlements for sustainable agriculture in the developing countries like Nigeria. The study utilized three purposely selected farm settlements- Ogbomoso, Fasola and Ilora out of the seven existing ones n Oyo State. One hundred percent (100%) of the 262 residential buildings in the three settlements were sampled, from where a household head from each of the buildings was randomly chosen. This translates to 262 household heads served with questionnaire out of which 47.7% of the questionnaires were recovered. Information obtained included respondents’ residency categories, residents’ status, residency years, housing types, types of holding and number of acres/holding. Others include the socio-economic attributes such as age, gender, income, educational status of respondents, assessment of existing facilities in the selected sites, the level of patronage of the farm settlements including perceived pull factors that can enhance farm settlements patronage. The study revealed that the residents were not satisfied with the adequacy and quality of all the facilities available in their settlements. Residents’ satisfaction with infrastructural facilities cannot be statistically linked with location across the study area. Findings suggested that residents of Ogbomoso farm settlements were not enjoying adequate provision of water supply and road as much as those from Ilora and Fasola. Patronage of the farm settlements were largely driven by farming activities and sale of farm produce. The respondents agreed that provision of farm resort centers, standard recreational and tourism facilities, vacation employment opportunities for youths, functional internet and communication networks among others are likely to boost the level of patronage of the farm settlements. The study concluded that improvement of the facilities both in quality and quantity will encourage the youths in going back to farming. It then recommends that maintenance of existing facilities and provision of more facilities such as resort centers be ensured.

Keywords: encourage, farm settlements' facilities, Oyo state, patronage

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9198 Historical Geography of Lykaonia Region

Authors: Asuman Baldiran, Erdener Pehlivan

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In this study, the root of the name Lykaonia and the geographical area defined as Lykaonia Region are mentioned. In this context, information concerning the settlements of Paleolithic Age, Neolithic Age and Chalcolithic Age are given place. Particularly the settlements belonging to Classical Age are localized and brief information about the history of these settlements is provided. In the light of this information, roads of Antique period in the region are evaluated.

Keywords: ancient cities, central anatolia, historical geography, Lykaonia region

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9197 Sustainable Technology and the Production of Housing

Authors: S. Arias

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New housing developments and the technological changes that this implies, adapt the styles of living of its residents, as well as new family structures and forms of work due to the particular needs of a specific group of people which involves different techniques of dealing with, organize, equip and use a particular territory. Currently, own their own space is increasingly important and the cities are faced with the challenge of providing the opportunity for such demands, as well as energy, water and waste removal necessary in the process of construction and occupation of new human settlements. Until the day of today, not has failed to give full response to these demands and needs, resulting in cities that grow without control, badly used land, avenues and congested streets. Buildings and dwellings have an important impact on the environment and on the health of the people, therefore environmental quality associated with the comfort of humans to the sustainable development of natural resources. Applied to architecture, this concept involves the incorporation of new technologies in all the constructive process of a dwelling, changing customs of developers and users, what must be a greater effort in planning energy savings and thus reducing the emissions Greenhouse Gases (GHG) depending on the geographical location where it is planned to develop. Since the techniques of occupation of the territory are not the same everywhere, must take into account that these depend on the geographical, social, political, economic and climatic-environmental circumstances of place, which in modified according to the degree of development reached. In the analysis that must be undertaken to check the degree of sustainability of the place, it is necessary to make estimates of the energy used in artificial air conditioning and lighting. In the same way is required to diagnose the availability and distribution of the water resources used for hygiene and for the cooling of artificially air-conditioned spaces, as well as the waste resulting from these technological processes. Based on the results obtained through the different stages of the analysis, it is possible to perform an energy audit in the process of proposing recommendations of sustainability in architectural spaces in search of energy saving, rational use of water and natural resources optimization. The above can be carried out through the development of a sustainable building code in develop technical recommendations to the regional characteristics of each study site. These codes would seek to build bases to promote a building regulations applicable to new human settlements looking for is generated at the same time quality, protection and safety in them. This building regulation must be consistent with other regulations both national and municipal and State, such as the laws of human settlements, urban development and zoning regulations.

Keywords: building regulations, housing, sustainability, technology

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9196 Human and Environment Coevolution: The Chalcolithic Tell Settlements from Muntenia and Dobrogea, South-Eastern Romania

Authors: Constantin Haita

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The chalcolithic tell settlements from south-eastern Romania, attributed to Gumelnița culture, are characterised by a well-defined surface, marked often by delimitation structures, a succession of many layers of construction, destruction, and rebuilding, and a well-structured area of occupation: built spaces, passage areas, waste zones. Settlements of tell type are located in the river valleys –on erosion remnants, alluvial bars or small islands, at the border of the valleys– on edges or prominences of Pleistocene terraces, lower Holocene terraces, and banks of lakes. This study integrates data on the geographical position, the morphological background, and the general stratigraphy of these important settlements. The correlation of the spatial distribution with the geomorphological units of each area of evolution creates an image of the natural landscape in which they occurred. The sedimentological researches achieved in the floodplain area of Balta Ialomiței showed important changes in the alluvial activity of Danube, after the Chalcolithic period (ca. 6500 - 6000 BP), to Iron Age and Middle Ages. The micromorphological analysis, consisting in thin section interpretation, at the microscopic scale, of sediments and soils in an undisturbed state, allowed the interpretation of the identified sedimentary facies, in terms of mode of formation and anthropic activities. Our studied cases reflect some distinct situations, correlating either with the geomorphological background or with the vertical development, the presence of delimiting structures and the internal organization. The characteristics of tells from this area bring significant information about the human habitation of Lower Danube in Prehistory.

Keywords: chalcolithic, micromorphology, Romania, sedimentology, tell settlements

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9195 The Role of Human Resource Flexibility and Agility in Achieving Sustainable Competitiveness

Authors: Agnieszka Leszczynska

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Flexibility and agility constitute the most dominant features of modern human resource management systems. The former pertains to procedures, practices and competences of human resources, and the latter to the procedures and practices’ effectiveness in dealing with changing conditions in the surrounding environment. The purpose of the paper is to present the relations between the flexibility and agility of human resources and achieving sustainable competitiveness. Based upon hitherto research, we develop a conceptual model that links the constructs together. The conducted study is of theoretical and conceptual nature. Critical literature analysis and the synthesis method were applied. A premise was made that the three dimensions of HR (Human Resources) flexibility (employee skill flexibility, employee behaviour flexibility, and HR practice flexibility) and HR agility affect competitiveness, by increasing the flexibility, creativity of human resources, and improving quality performance, and exert an impact upon the quality of life of employees and social relations. In particular, the agility and flexibility of human resources contribute to the growth of adaptability and strategic orientation, which directly affects the organization's competitiveness. The research results will help to better understand the impact of flexibility and agility related to the HRM (Human Resources Management) system upon the implementation of the concept of sustainable development in the organization.

Keywords: agility, human resource, sustainable competitiveness, sustainable development

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9194 Sustainable Tourism and Heritage in Sığacık/Seferihisar

Authors: Sibel Ecemiş Kılıç, Muhammed Aydoğan

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The rapid development of culture tourism has drawn attention to conserving cultural values especially by developing countries that would like to benefit from the economic contribution this type of tourism attracts. Tourism can have both positive and negative outcomes for historical settlements and their residents. The accommodation-purposed rehabilitation and revitalization project in “Sigacik Old City Zone” are to be discussed with spatial, economic, social and organizational dimensions. It is aimed to evaluate the relationship between the development of tourism and sustainable heritage conservation.

Keywords: Sığacık, urban conservation, sustainable tourism, Seferihisar

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9193 Exploring Re-Configuration of Ordinary Spaces into Recreation and Leisure Space in Compact Unplanned Settlements: Experience from Manzese Informal Settlement-Dar Es Salaam Tanzania

Authors: Edson Ephraim Sanga

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This paper stems to explore possible places used for recreation in unplanned settlements in order to avail knowledge on how to create and shape urban spaces essential for recreation and leisure. The context of unplanned settlements is spatially characterized compactness and congestions of buildings developed by residents without professional inputs. These characteristics surpass greenery landscapes such as parks and squares essential for health, happiness and wellbeing. The lack of recreational greenery landscape arises a question on how possible can recreation take places in the settlements? This study used qualitative methods mainly observation and in-depth interview to explore the recreational situation in Manzese informal settlements as an instrumental case and found that ordinary spaces are re-configured into recreational spaces and used as ‘parks’ and ‘squares’ in the settlements. The spaces are diverse and complex as they possess different spatial characteristics based on their physical attributes and the way they are used and interpreted by respective users. This paper argues that the re-configuration processes of ordinary spaces should not be taken for granted because they portray the appropriation of spaces from quotidian dimensions in a particular context.

Keywords: ordinary spaces, recreation, unplanned settlement, urban spaces

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9192 Outdoor Thermal Environment Measurement and Simulations in Traditional Settlements in Taiwan

Authors: Tzu-Ping Lin, Shing-Ru Yang

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Climate change has a significant impact on human living environment, while the traditional settlement may suffer extreme thermal stress due to its specific building type and living behavior. This study selected Lutaoyang, which is the largest settlement in mountainous areas of Tainan County, for the investigation area. The microclimate parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and mean radiant temperature. The micro climate parameters were also simulated by the ENVI-met model. The results showed the banyan tree area providing good thermal comfort condition due to the shading. On the contrary, the courtyard (traditionally for the crops drying) surrounded by low rise building and consisted of artificial pavement contributing heat stress especially in summer noon. In the climate change simulations, the courtyard will become very hot and are not suitable for residents activities. These analytical results will shed light on the sustainability related to thermal environment in traditional settlements and develop adaptive measure towards sustainable development under the climate change challenges.

Keywords: thermal environment, traditional settlement, ENVI-met, Taiwan

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9191 Integrated Planning, Designing, Development and Management of Eco-Friendly Human Settlements for Sustainable Development of Environment, Economic, Peace and Society of All Economies

Authors: Indra Bahadur Chand

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This paper will focus on the need for development and application of global protocols and policy in planning, designing, development, and management of systems of eco-towns and eco-villages so that sustainable development will be assured from the perspective of environmental, economical, peace, and harmonized social dynamics. This perspective is essential for the development of civilized and eco-friendly human settlements in the town and rural areas of the nation that will be a milestone for developing a happy and sustainable lifestyle of rural and urban communities of the nation. The urban population of most of the town of developing economies has been tremendously increasing, whereas rural people have been tremendously migrating for the past three decades. Consequently, the urban lifestyle in most towns has stressed in terms of environmental pollution, water crisis, congested traffic, energy crisis, food crisis, and unemployment. Eco-towns and villages should be developed where lifestyle of all residents is sustainable and happy. Built up environment of settlement should reduce and minimize the problems of non ecological CO2 emissions, unbalanced utilization of natural resources, environmental degradation, natural calamities, ecological imbalance, energy crisis, water scarcity, waste management, food crisis, unemployment, deterioration of cultural heritage, social, the ratio among the public and private land ownership, ratio of land covered with vegetation and area of settlement, the ratio of people in the vehicles and foot, the ratio of people employed outside of town and village, ratio of resources recycling of waste materials, water consumption level, the ratio of people and vehicles, ratio of the length of the road network and area of town/villages, a ratio of renewable energy consumption with total energy, a ratio of religious/recreational area out of the total built-up area, the ratio of annual suicide case out of total people, a ratio of annual injured and death out of total people from a traffic accident, a ratio of production of agro foods within town out of total food consumption will be used to assist in designing and monitoring of each eco-towns and villages. An eco-town and villages should be planned and developed to offer sustainable infrastructure and utilities that maintain CO2 level in individual homes and settlements, home energy use, transport, food and consumer goods, water supply, waste management, conservation of historical heritages, healthy neighborhood, conservation of natural landscape, conserving bio-diversity and developing green infrastructures. Eco-towns and villages should be developed on the basis of master planning and architecture that affect and define the settlement and its form. Master planning and engineering should focus in delivering the sustainability criteria of eco towns and eco village. This will involve working with specific landscape and natural resources of locality.

Keywords: eco-town, ecological habitation, master plan, sustainable development

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9190 Analysis of Solid Waste Management Practices and the Implications for Human Health and the Environment: A Case Study of Kayamandi Informal Settlement

Authors: Peter Iyobosa Asemota

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This study on solid waste management practices addressed aspects of environmental and health impacts resulting from poor management of solid waste. The study was occasioned by the observed rate and volume of illegal and indiscriminate dumping of solid waste materials especially in informal settlements. The main focus of this study was to establish the impact of waste management practices on human health and the environment. The study, therefore, presents a critical analysis of the state of solid waste management in the study area and the implications for human health and the environment. The study was carried out in Kayamandi informal settlement within Stellenbosch municipality. The sustainable management of solid waste is very important in order to minimize the environmental and public health risks associated with improper solid waste management. There is no denying the fact that the problems of waste management will become critical as time goes on because of improper and inefficient waste management practices. Towns and cities exhibit the burdens of waste management which is a characteristics feature of most African cities. The study critically assess the implementation of waste management practices by the residents of the informal settlement; identify the factors affecting management issues in the operation of solid waste management system by the municipality; identify factors militating against the implementation of waste management policies and legislation. Furthermore, a waste assessment study was carried out to assess the generation; composition of the waste stream and also determine the attitudes and behavior of the residents with regard to waste management practices. Findings from the study revealed that Kayamandi is not different from other informal settlements with regards to waste management. People are of the opinion that solid waste management is the sole responsibility of municipal authorities and as such, the government should be responsible for bearing the cost of solid waste management.

Keywords: environment, waste, waste composition, waste stream, policy, waste categories, sanitary landfill, waste collection, integrated solid waste management

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9189 Monitoring the Rate of Expansion of Agricultural Fields in Mwekera Forest Reserve Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: K. Kanja, M. Mweemba, K. Malungwa

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Due to the rampant population growth coupled with retrenchments currently going on in the Copper mines in Zambia, a number of people are resorting to land clearing for agriculture, illegal settlements as well as charcoal production among other vices. This study aims at assessing the rate of expansion of agricultural fields and illegal settlements in protected areas using remote sensing and Geographic Information System. Zambia’s Mwekera National Forest Reserve was used as a case study. Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA), as well as maximum likelihood, supervised classification on four Landsat images as well as an accuracy assessment of the classifications was performed. Over the period under observation, results indicate annual percentage changes to be -0.03, -0.49 and 1.26 for agriculture, forests and settlement respectively indicating a higher conversion of forests into human settlements and agriculture.

Keywords: geographic information system, land cover change, Landsat TM and ETM+, Mwekera forest reserve, remote sensing

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9188 The Impression of Adaptive Capacity of the Rural Community in the Indian Himalayan Region: A Way Forward for Sustainable Livelihood Development

Authors: Rommila Chandra, Harshika Choudhary

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The value of integrated, participatory, and community based sustainable development strategies is eminent, but in practice, it still remains fragmentary and often leads to short-lived results. Despite the global presence of climate change, its impacts are felt differently by different communities based on their vulnerability. The developing countries have the low adaptive capacity and high dependence on environmental variables, making them highly susceptible to outmigration and poverty. We need to understand how to enable these approaches, taking into account the various governmental and non-governmental stakeholders functioning at different levels, to deliver long-term socio-economic and environmental well-being of local communities. The research assessed the financial and natural vulnerability of Himalayan networks, focusing on their potential to adapt to various changes, through accessing their perceived reactions and local knowledge. The evaluation was conducted by testing indices for vulnerability, with a major focus on indicators for adaptive capacity. Data for the analysis were collected from the villages around Govind National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary, located in the Indian Himalayan Region. The villages were stratified on the basis of connectivity via road, thus giving two kinds of human settlements connected and isolated. The study focused on understanding the complex relationship between outmigration and the socio-cultural sentiments of local people to not abandon their land, assessing their adaptive capacity for livelihood opportunities, and exploring their contribution that integrated participatory methodologies can play in delivering sustainable development. The result showed that the villages having better road connectivity, access to market, and basic amenities like health and education have a better understanding about the climatic shift, natural hazards, and a higher adaptive capacity for income generation in comparison to the isolated settlements in the hills. The participatory approach towards environmental conservation and sustainable use of natural resources were seen more towards the far-flung villages. The study helped to reduce the gap between local understanding and government policies by highlighting the ongoing adaptive practices and suggesting precautionary strategies for the community studied based on their local conditions, which differ on the basis of connectivity and state of development. Adaptive capacity in this study has been taken as the externally driven potential of different parameters, leading to a decrease in outmigration and upliftment of the human environment that could lead to sustainable livelihood development in the rural areas of Himalayas.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, Indian Himalayan region, participatory, sustainable livelihood development

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9187 Research on the Evolution of Public Space in Tourism-Oriented Traditional Rural Settlements

Authors: Yu Zhang, Mingxue Lang, Li Dong

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The hundreds of years of slow succession of living environment in rural area is a crucial carrier of China’s long history of culture and national wisdom. In recent years, the space evolution of traditional rural settlements has been promoted by the intervention of tourism development, among which the public architecture and outdoor activity areas together served as the major places for villagers, and tourists’ social activities are an important characterization for settlement spatial evolution. Traditional public space upgrade and layout study of new public space can effectively promote the tourism industry development of traditional rural settlements. This article takes Qi County, one China Traditional Culture Village as the exemplification and uses the technology of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Space Syntax, studies the evolution features of public space of tourism-oriented traditional rural settlements in four steps. First, acquire the 2003 and 2016 image data of Qi County, using the remote sensing application EDRAS8.6. Second, vectorize the basic maps of Qi County including its land use map with the application of ArcGIS 9.3 meanwhile, associating with architectural and site information concluded from field research. Third, analyze the accessibility and connectivity of the inner space of settlements using space syntax; run cross-correlation with the public space data of 2003 and 2016. Finally, summarize the evolution law of the public space of settlements; study the upgrade pattern of traditional public space and location plan for new public space. Major findings of this paper including: first, location layout of traditional public space has a larger association with the calculation results of space syntax and further confirmed the objective value of space syntax in expressing the space and social relations. Second, the intervention of tourism development generates remarkable impact on public space location of tradition rural settlements. Third, traditional public space produces the symbols of both strengthening and decline and forms a diversified upgrade pattern for the purpose of meeting the different tourism functional needs. Finally, space syntax provides an objective basis for location plan of new public space that meets the needs of tourism service. Tourism development has a significant impact on the evolution of public space of traditional rural settlements. Two types of public space, architecture, and site are both with changes seen from the perspective of quantity, location, dimension and function after the intervention of tourism development. Function upgrade of traditional public space and scientific layout of new public space are two important ways in achieving the goal of sustainable development of tourism-oriented traditional rural settlements.

Keywords: public space evolution, Qi county, space syntax, tourism oriented, traditional rural settlements

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9186 Disidentification of Historical City Centers: A Comparative Study of the Old and New Settlements of Mardin, Turkey

Authors: Fatma Kürüm Varolgüneş, Fatih Canan

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Mardin is one of the unique cities in Turkey with its rich cultural and historical heritage. Mardin’s traditional dwellings have been affected both by natural data such as climate and topography and by cultural data like lifestyle and belief. However, in the new settlements, housing is formed with modern approaches and unsuitable forms clashing with Mardin’s culture and environment. While the city is expanding, traditional textures are ignored. Thus, traditional settlements are losing their identity and are vanishing because of the rapid change and transformation. The main aim of this paper is to determine the physical and social data needed to define the characteristic features of Mardin’s old and new settlements. In this context, based on social and cultural data, old and new settlement formations of Mardin have been investigated from various aspects. During this research, the following methods have been utilized: observations, interviews, public surveys, literature review, as well as site examination via maps, photographs and questionnaire methodology. In conclusion, this paper focuses on how changes in the physical forms of cities affect the typology and the identity of cities, as in the case of Mardin.

Keywords: urban and local identity, historical city center, traditional settlements, Mardin

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9185 Sustainable Housing Framework for the Czech Republic: A Comparative Analysis of International and National Strategies

Authors: Jakub Adamec, Svatava Janouskova, Tomas Hak

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The necessity of sustainable housing is explicitly embedded in ‘The 2030 agenda for sustainable development’, in particular, goal 11 ‘sustainable cities and communities’. Every UN member state is obligated to implement strategies from the agenda, including a strategy for sustainable housing into the practice in the local context. As shown in many countries, the lack of knowledge represses the adaptation process of sustainable strategies by governments. Hence, this study explores the concept of sustainable housing within the Czech Republic. The research elaborates on this term, and its current definition concerning ‘Geneva UN Charter on Sustainable Housing’. To this day, the charter represents the most comprehensive framework for a sustainable housing concept. Researchers conducted a comparative analysis of 38 international and 195 Czech national strategic documents. As a result, the charter‘s and strategic documents‘ goals were interconnected, identifying the most represented targets (e.g. improved environmental and energy performance of dwellings, resilient urban settlements which use renewable energy, and sustainable and integrated transport systems). The research revealed, even though the concept of sustainable housing is still dominated by environmental aspects, that social aspects significantly increased its importance. Additionally, this theoretical framework will serve as a foundation for the sustainable housing index development for the Czech Republic.

Keywords: comparative analysis, Czech national strategy, Geneva un charter, sustainable housing, urban theory

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9184 The Effectiveness of Spatial Planning And Land Use Management Act, 2013 in Fetakgomo Tubatse Local Municipality: Case Study of Apel Nodal Point

Authors: Hlabishi Peter Ntloana

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This paper aims to present the effectiveness of the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, in addressing key spatial challenges in Fetakgomo Tubatse Local Municipality, mainly focusing on Apel nodal point. Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, popularly known as SPLUMA, aimed at addressing emerging and existing spatial planning and land use management challenges in South Africa. There are critical key spatial challenges that are continuously encountered in Apel Nodal Point, which include dispersed rural settlement mainly in a communal settlement. The spatial patterns and rural settlements development patterns are a challenge, and such results in uncoordinated human settlements. The objective of this research paper is to analyze the spatial planning of Apel nodal points and determine the effectiveness of the SPLUMA policy. Key Informant interviews were conducted with 20 participants, and also the municipal Spatial Development Framework was considered to explore more challenges and proposed recommendations. The results divulged that there is a huge gap in addressing spatial planning, mainly in rural areas, and correlation with the findings of the Municipal Spatial Development framework. In conclusion, spatial planning remains a critical dilemma in most rural settlements, and there must be programmes and strategies to balance the effectiveness of spatial planning in urban and rural settlements.

Keywords: land use management, rural settlement, spatial development framework, spatial planning

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9183 Green Open Space in Sustainable Housing and Islamic Values Perspectives – Case Study Kampung Kauman Malang

Authors: Nunik Junara, Sugeng Triyadi

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Sustainable Housing in Islamic perspective, can be defined as a multi-dimensional process that seeks to achieve a balance between economic and socio-cultural aspects on the side, and environmental aspect on the other. There are many quotes verses in the Quran and Hadith that leads to the belief that Islam as a Rahmatan lil Alamin, where men are encouraged to act wisely in treating nature and all living things in it. One aspect of the natural environment that closed to human is plants. In the settlement, the availability of plants or also called green open space is highly recommended. The availability of green open space in the neighborhood, both the public and private green open spaces is expected to reduce the effects of global warming that has engulfed various parts of the world. Green open space that can be viewed from the angle of eco-aestetic and eco-medical in sustainable architecture, is expected to increase the temperature and provide aesthetic impression to the surrounding environment. This paper attempts to discuss the principles of Islamic values related to the natural environment as a major resource for sustainability. This paper also aims to raise awareness of the importance of the theme of sustainability in settlements, especially in big cities. Analysis of the availability of green open space in kampung Kauman Malang is one example of the effort to apply the principles of sustainable housing.

Keywords: green open space, sustainable housing, Islamic values, Kampung Kauman Malang

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9182 Sustainable Micro Architecture: A Pattern for Urban Release Areas

Authors: Saber Fatourechian

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People within modern cities have faced macro urban values spreads rapidly through current style of living. Unexpected phenomena without any specific features of micro scale, humanity and urban social/cultural patterns. The gap between micro and macro scale is unidentified and people could not recognize where they are especially in the interaction between life and city. Urban life details were verified. Micro architecture is a pattern in which human activity derives from human needs in an unconscious position. Sustainable attitude via micro architecture causes flexibility in decision making through micro urbanism essentially impacts macro scale. In this paper the definition of micro architecture and its relation with city and human activity are argued, there after the interaction between micro and macro scale is presented as an effective way for urban sustainable development.

Keywords: micro architecture, sustainability, human activity, city

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9181 Prolonging Late Career Phase - a Sustainable Career Perspective

Authors: Hanna Salminen

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Due to the large societal changes in working life, such as retirement reforms, globalization and technological changes, careers are becoming longer, more varied and unpredictable than before. Similar to other new career concepts, such as protean and boundaryless career, a sustainable career concept emphasizes an individual’s active role and agency in managing his/her own career in changing working life. However, the sustainable career concept also underlines the importance of safeguarding and developing human capital over time and thereby fostering continuity. Especially, the theoretical discussion around sustainable careers stresses flexible career choices that meet an individual’s own personal needs, allow work-family balance and promotes continuous learning. Although sustainable careers concern employees at all ages, this study focuses on older employees (aged 50+). So far, the changing nature of careers has been mainly investigated among younger generations, and the changing and prolonging late career phase has received less attention among career scholars. In other words, there is lack of knowledge regarding what constitutes a sustainable career in the late career phase and how the individual, organizational, and societal levels of sustainable career ecosystem are interconnected. The theoretical discussion around sustainable careers is closely linked to the sustainable management of human resources in organizations. In the field of human resource management (HRM), sustainable HRM has received more attention in recent years and it has been seen as a step forward from strategic HRM approach. As a concept, sustainable HRM stresses the long-term focus on organizations’ social, economic, and ecological resources, and the benefits of HRM practices for employees, organizations, and the society at large. However, some HRM scholars argue that the ecological and financial matters have overshadowed the social aspect of sustainability. In this study, the sustainable career and sustainable HRM literature are combined. As a result of an integrative literature review, this study provides new insight, how sustainable late career phase has been understood and conceptualized in sustainable career and sustainable HRM literature.

Keywords: sustainability, career, human resource management, ageing

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