Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: GPS buoy

13 Design of Single Point Mooring Buoy System by Parametric Analysis

Authors: Chul-Hee Jo, Do-Youb Kim, Seok-Jin Cho, Yu-Ho Rho


The Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring (CALM) Single Point Mooring (SPM) buoy system is the most popular and widely used type of offshore loading terminals. SPM buoy mooring systems have been deployed worldwide for a variety of applications, water depths and vessel sizes ranging from small production carriers to Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs). Because of safe and easy berthing and un-berthing operations, the SPM buoy mooring system is also preferred for offshore terminals. The SPM buoy consists of a buoy that is permanently moored to the seabed by means of multiple mooring lines. The buoy contains a bearing system that allows a part of it to rotate around the moored geostatic part. When moored to the rotating part of the buoy, a vessel is able to freely weathervane around the buoy. This study was verified the effects of design variables in order to design an SPM buoy mooring system through parametric analysis. The design variables have independent and nonlinear characteristics. Using parametric analysis, this research was found that the fairlead departure angle, wave height and period, chain diameter and line length effect to the mooring top tension, buoy excursion and line layback.

Keywords: Single Point Mooring (SPM), Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring(CALM), design variables, parametric analysis, mooring system optimization

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12 The Development of GPS Buoy for Ocean Surface Monitoring: Initial Results

Authors: Anuar Mohd Salleh, Mohd Effendi Daud


This study presents a kinematic positioning approach which is use the GPS buoy for precise ocean surface monitoring. A GPS buoy data from two experiments have been processed using a precise, medium-range differential kinematic technique. In each case the data were collected for more than 24 hours at nearby coastal site at a high rate (1 Hz), along with measurements from neighboring tidal stations, to verify the estimated sea surface heights. Kinematic coordinates of GPS buoy were estimated using the epoch-wise pre-elimination and the backward substitution algorithm. Test results show the centimeter level accuracy in sea surface height determination can be successfully achieved using proposed technique. The centimeter level agreement between two methods also suggests the possibility of using this inexpensive and more flexible GPS buoy equipment to enhance (or even replace) the current use of tidal gauge stations.

Keywords: global positioning system, kinematic GPS, sea surface height, GPS buoy, tide gauge

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11 Study of the Relationship between the Civil Engineering Parameters and the Floating of Buoy Model Which Made from Expanded Polystyrene-Mortar

Authors: Panarat Saengpanya


There were five objectives in this study including the study of housing type with water environment, the physical and mechanical properties of the buoy material, the mechanical properties of the buoy models, the floating of the buoy models and the relationship between the civil engineering parameters and the floating of the buoy. The buoy examples made from Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) covered by 5 mm thickness of mortar with the equal thickness on each side. Specimens are 0.05 m cubes tested at a displacement rate of 0.005 m/min. The existing test method used to assess the parameters relationship is ASTM C 109 to provide comparative results. The results found that the three type of housing with water environment were Stilt Houses, Boat House, and Floating House. EPS is a lightweight material that has been used in engineering applications since at least the 1950s. Its density is about a hundredth of that of mortar, while the mortar strength was found 72 times of EPS. One of the advantage of composite is that two or more materials could be combined to take advantage of the good characteristics of each of the material. The strength of the buoy influenced by mortar while the floating influenced by EPS. Results showed the buoy example compressed under loading. The Stress-Strain curve showed the high secant modulus before reached the peak value. The failure occurred within 10% strain then the strength reduces while the strain was continuing. It was observed that the failure strength reduced by increasing the total volume of examples. For the buoy examples with same area, an increase of the failure strength is found when the high dimension is increased. The results showed the relationship between five parameters including the floating level, the bearing capacity, the volume, the high dimension and the unit weight. The study found increases in high of buoy lead to corresponding decreases in both modulus and compressive strength. The total volume and the unit weight had relationship with the bearing capacity of the buoy.

Keywords: floating house, buoy, floating structure, EPS

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10 Simulation-Based Control Module for Offshore Single Point Mooring System

Authors: Daehyun Baek, Seungmin Lee, Minju Kim Jangik Park, Hyeong-Soon Moon


SPM (Single Point Mooring) is one of the mooring buoy facilities installed on a coast near oil and gas terminal which is not able to berth FPSO or large oil tankers under the condition of high draft due to geometrical limitation. Loading and unloading of crude oil and gas through a subsea pipeline can be carried out between the mooring buoy, ships and onshore facilities. SPM is an offshore-standalone system which has to withstand the harsh marine environment with harsh conditions such as high wind, current and so on. Therefore, SPM is required to have high stability, reliability and durability. Also, SPM is comprised to be integrated systems which consist of power management, high pressure valve control, sophisticated hardware/software and a long distance communication system. In order to secure required functions of SPM system, a simulation model for the integrated system of SPM using MATLAB Simulink and State flow tool has been developed. The developed model consists of configuration of hydraulic system for opening and closing of PLEM (Pipeline End Manifold) valves and control system logic. To verify functions of the model, an integrated simulation model for overall systems of SPM was also developed by considering handshaking variables between individual systems. In addition to the dynamic model, a self-diagnostic function to determine failure of the system was configured, which enables the SPM system itself to alert users about the failure once a failure signal comes to arise. Controlling and monitoring the SPM system is able to be done by a HMI system which is capable of managing the SPM system remotely, which was carried out by building a communication environment between the SPM system and the HMI system.

Keywords: HMI system, mooring buoy, simulink simulation model, single point mooring, stateflow

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9 An Analysis of the Performances of Various Buoys as the Floats of Wave Energy Converters

Authors: İlkay Özer Erselcan, Abdi Kükner, Gökhan Ceylan


The power generated by eight point absorber type wave energy converters each having a different buoy are calculated in order to investigate the performances of buoys in this study. The calculations are carried out by modeling three different sea states observed in two different locations in the Black Sea. The floats analyzed in this study have two basic geometries and four different draft/radius (d/r) ratios. The buoys possess the shapes of a semi-ellipsoid and a semi-elliptic paraboloid. Additionally, the draft/radius ratios range from 0.25 to 1 by an increment of 0.25. The radiation forces acting on the buoys due to the oscillatory motions of these bodies are evaluated by employing a 3D panel method along with a distribution of 3D pulsating sources in frequency domain. On the other hand, the wave forces acting on the buoys which are taken as the sum of Froude-Krylov forces and diffraction forces are calculated by using linear wave theory. Furthermore, the wave energy converters are assumed to be taut-moored to the seabed so that the secondary body which houses a power take-off system oscillates with much smaller amplitudes compared to the buoy. As a result, it is assumed that there is not any significant contribution to the power generation from the motions of the housing body and the only contribution to power generation comes from the buoy. The power take-off systems of the wave energy converters are high pressure oil hydraulic systems which are identical in terms of their characteristic parameters. The results show that the power generated by wave energy converters which have semi-ellipsoid floats is higher than that of those which have semi elliptic paraboloid floats in both locations and in all sea states. It is also determined that the power generated by the wave energy converters follow an unsteady pattern such that they do not decrease or increase with changing draft/radius ratios of the floats. Although the highest power level is obtained with a semi-ellipsoid float which has a draft/radius ratio equal to 1, other floats of which the draft/radius ratio is 0.25 delivered higher power that the floats with a draft/radius ratio equal to 1 in some cases.

Keywords: Black Sea, buoys, hydraulic power take-off system, wave energy converters

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8 An Autonomous Passive Acoustic System for Detection, Tracking and Classification of Motorboats in Portofino Sea

Authors: A. Casale, J. Alessi, C. N. Bianchi, G. Bozzini, M. Brunoldi, V. Cappanera, P. Corvisiero, G. Fanciulli, D. Grosso, N. Magnoli, A. Mandich, C. Melchiorre, C. Morri, P. Povero, N. Stasi, M. Taiuti, G. Viano, M. Wurtz


This work describes a real-time algorithm for detecting, tracking and classifying single motorboats, developed using the acoustic data recorded by a hydrophone array within the framework of EU LIFE + project ARION (LIFE09NAT/IT/000190). The project aims to improve the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins through a real-time simultaneous monitoring of their population and surface ship traffic. A Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) system is installed on two autonomous permanent marine buoys, located close to the boundaries of the Marine Protected Area (MPA) of Portofino (Ligurian Sea- Italy). Detecting surface ships is also a necessity in many other sensible areas, such as wind farms, oil platforms, and harbours. A PAM system could be an effective alternative to the usual monitoring systems, as radar or active sonar, for localizing unauthorized ship presence or illegal activities, with the advantage of not revealing its presence. Each ARION buoy consists of a particular type of structure, named meda elastica (elastic beacon) composed of a main pole, about 30-meter length, emerging for 7 meters, anchored to a mooring of 30 tons at 90 m depth by an anti-twist steel wire. Each buoy is equipped with a floating element and a hydrophone tetrahedron array, whose raw data are send via a Wi-Fi bridge to a ground station where real-time analysis is performed. Bottlenose dolphin detection algorithm and ship monitoring algorithm are operating in parallel and in real time. Three modules were developed and commissioned for ship monitoring. The first is the detection algorithm, based on Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) measurements, i.e., the evaluation of angular direction of the target respect to each buoy and the triangulation for obtaining the target position. The second is the tracking algorithm, based on a Kalman filter, i.e., the estimate of the real course and speed of the target through a predictor filter. At last, the classification algorithm is based on the DEMON method, i.e., the extraction of the acoustic signature of single vessels. The following results were obtained; the detection algorithm succeeded in evaluating the bearing angle with respect to each buoy and the position of the target, with an uncertainty of 2 degrees and a maximum range of 2.5 km. The tracking algorithm succeeded in reconstructing the real vessel courses and estimating the speed with an accuracy of 20% respect to the Automatic Identification System (AIS) signals. The classification algorithm succeeded in isolating the acoustic signature of single vessels, demonstrating its temporal stability and the consistency of both buoys results. As reference, the results were compared with the Hilbert transform of single channel signals. The algorithm for tracking multiple targets is ready to be developed, thanks to the modularity of the single ship algorithm: the classification module will enumerate and identify all targets present in the study area; for each of them, the detection module and the tracking module will be applied to monitor their course.

Keywords: acoustic-noise, bottlenose-dolphin, hydrophone, motorboat

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7 Optical-Based Lane-Assist System for Rowing Boats

Authors: Stephen Tullis, M. David DiDonato, Hong Sung Park


Rowing boats (shells) are often steered by a small rudder operated by one of the backward-facing rowers; the attention required of that athlete then slightly decreases the power that that athlete can provide. Reducing the steering distraction would then increase the overall boat speed. Races are straight 2000 m courses with each boat in a 13.5 m wide lane marked by small (~15 cm) widely-spaced (~10 m) buoys, and the boat trajectory is affected by both cross-currents and winds. An optical buoy recognition and tracking system has been developed that provides the boat’s location and orientation with respect to the lane edges. This information is provided to the steering athlete as either: a simple overlay on a video display, or fed to a simplified autopilot system giving steering directions to the athlete or directly controlling the rudder. The system is then effectively a “lane-assist” device but with small, widely-spaced lane markers viewed from a very shallow angle due to constraints on camera height. The image is captured with a lightweight 1080p webcam, and most of the image analysis is done in OpenCV. The colour RGB-image is converted to a grayscale using the difference of the red and blue channels, which provides good contrast between the red/yellow buoys and the water, sky, land background and white reflections and noise. Buoy detection is done with thresholding within a tight mask applied to the image. Robust linear regression using Tukey’s biweight estimator of the previously detected buoy locations is used to develop the mask; this avoids the false detection of noise such as waves (reflections) and, in particular, buoys in other lanes. The robust regression also provides the current lane edges in the camera frame that are used to calculate the displacement of the boat from the lane centre (lane location), and its yaw angle. The interception of the detected lane edges provides a lane vanishing point, and yaw angle can be calculated simply based on the displacement of this vanishing point from the camera axis and the image plane distance. Lane location is simply based on the lateral displacement of the vanishing point from any horizontal cut through the lane edges. The boat lane position and yaw are currently fed what is essentially a stripped down marine auto-pilot system. Currently, only the lane location is used in a PID controller of a rudder actuator with integrator anti-windup to deal with saturation of the rudder angle. Low Kp and Kd values decrease unnecessarily fast return to lane centrelines and response to noise, and limiters can be used to avoid lane departure and disqualification. Yaw is not used as a control input, as cross-winds and currents can cause a straight course with considerable yaw or crab angle. Mapping of the controller with rudder angle “overall effectiveness” has not been finalized - very large rudder angles stall and have decreased turning moments, but at less extreme angles the increased rudder drag slows the boat and upsets boat balance. The full system has many features similar to automotive lane-assist systems, but with the added constraints of the lane markers, camera positioning, control response and noise increasing the challenge.

Keywords: auto-pilot, lane-assist, marine, optical, rowing

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6 Research on Reflectors for Detecting Fishing Nets with Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellites

Authors: Toshiyuki Miyazaki, Fumihiro Takahashi, Takashi Hosokawa


Fishing nets and floating buoys used in fishing can be washed away by typhoons and storms. The spilled fishing nets become marine debris and hinder the navigation of ships. In this study, we report a method of attaching a retroreflective structure to afloat in order to discover fishing nets using SAR satellites. We prototyped an omnidirectional (all-around) corner reflector as a retroreflective structure that can be mounted on a float and analyzed its reflection characteristics. As a result, it was clarified that the reflection could be sufficiently larger than the backscattering of the sea surface. In order to further improve the performance, we worked on the design and trial production of the Luneberg lens.

Keywords: retroreflective structure, spherical corner reflector, Luneberg lens, SAR satellite, maritime floating buoy

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5 Preliminary Evaluation of Passive UHF-Band RFID for Identifying Floating Objects on the Sea

Authors: Yasuhiro Sato, Kodai Noma, Kenta Sawada, Kazumasa Adachi, Yoshinori Matsuura, Saori Iwanaga


RFID system is used to identify objects such as passenger identification in public transportation, instead of linear or 2-dimensional barcodes. Key advantages of RFID system are to identify objects without physical contact, and to write arbitrary information into RFID tag. These advantages may help to improve maritime safety and efficiency of activity on the sea. However, utilization of RFID system for maritime scenes has not been considered. In this paper, we evaluate the availability of a generic RFID system operating on the sea. We measure RSSI between RFID tag floating on the sea and RFID antenna, and check whether a RFID reader can access a tag or not, while the distance between a floating buoy and the ship, and the angle are changed. Finally, we discuss the feasibility and the applicability of RFID system on the sea through the results of our preliminary experiment.

Keywords: RFID, experimental evaluation, RSSI, maritime use

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4 Effect of Outliers in Assessing Significant Wave Heights Through a Time-Dependent GEV Model

Authors: F. Calderón-Vega, A. D. García-Soto, C. Mösso


Recorded significant wave heights sometimes exhibit large uncommon values (outliers) that can be associated with extreme phenomena such as hurricanes and cold fronts. In this study, some extremely large wave heights recorded in NOAA buoys (National Data Buoy Center, are used to investigate their effect in the prediction of future wave heights associated with given return periods. Extreme waves are predicted through a time-dependent model based on the so-called generalized extreme value distribution. It is found that the outliers do affect the estimated wave heights. It is concluded that a detailed inspection of outliers is envisaged to determine whether they are real recorded values since this will impact defining design wave heights for coastal protection purposes.

Keywords: GEV model, non-stationary, seasonality, outliers

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3 Development of Under Water Autonomous Vertical Profiler: Unique Solution to Oceanographic Studies

Authors: I. K. Sharma


Over the years world over system are being developed by research labs continuously monitor under water parameters in the coastal waters of sea such as conductivity, salinity, pressure, temperature, chlorophyll and biological blooms at different levels of water column. The research institutions have developed profilers which are launched by ship connected through cable, glider type profilers following underwater trajectory, buoy any driven profilers, wire guided profilers etc. In all these years, the effect was to design autonomous profilers with no cable quality connection, simple operation and on line date transfer in terms accuracy, repeatability, reliability and consistency. Hence for the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, India sponsored research project to National Institute of Oceanography, GOA, India to design and develop autonomous vertical profilers, it has taken system and AVP has been successfully developed and tested.

Keywords: oceanography, water column, autonomous profiler, buoyancy

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2 Determination of Tide Height Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)

Authors: Faisal Alsaaq


Hydrographic surveys have traditionally relied on the availability of tide information for the reduction of sounding observations to a common datum. In most cases, tide information is obtained from tide gauge observations and/or tide predictions over space and time using local, regional or global tide models. While the latter often provides a rather crude approximation, the former relies on tide gauge stations that are spatially restricted, and often have sparse and limited distribution. A more recent method that is increasingly being used is Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning which can be utilised to monitor height variations of a vessel or buoy, thus providing information on sea level variations during the time of a hydrographic survey. However, GNSS heights obtained under the dynamic environment of a survey vessel are affected by “non-tidal” processes such as wave activity and the attitude of the vessel (roll, pitch, heave and dynamic draft). This research seeks to examine techniques that separate the tide signal from other non-tidal signals that may be contained in GNSS heights. This requires an investigation of the processes involved and their temporal, spectral and stochastic properties in order to apply suitable recovery techniques of tide information. In addition, different post-mission and near real-time GNSS positioning techniques will be investigated with focus on estimation of height at ocean. Furthermore, the study will investigate the possibility to transfer the chart datums at the location of tide gauges.

Keywords: hydrography, GNSS, datum, tide gauge

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1 Behavior Adoption on Marine Habitat Conservation in Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Yayat Afianto, Darmawan, Agung Putra Utama, Hari Kushardanto


Fish Forever, Rare’s innovative coastal fisheries program, combined community-based conservation management approach with spatial management to restore and protect Indonesia’s small-scale fisheries by establishing Fishing Managed Access Area. A ‘TURF-Reserve’ is a fishery management approach that positions fishers at the center of fisheries management, empowering them to take care of and make decisions about the future of their fishery. After two years of the program, social marketing campaigns succeeded in changing their behavior by adopting the new conservation behavior. The Pride-TURF-R campaigns developed an overarching hypothesis of impact that captured the knowledge, attitude and behavior changes needed to reduce threats and achieve conservation results. Rare help Batu Belah fishers to develop their group, developed with their roles, sustainable fisheries plan, and the budget plan. On 12th February 2017, the Head of Loka Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Nasional (LKKPN) which is a Technical Implementation Unit for National Marine Conservation Areas directly responsible to the Directorate General for Marine Spatial Management in the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries had signed a Partnership Agreement with the Head of Batu Belah Village to manage a TURF+Reserve area as wide as 909 hectares. The fishers group have been collecting the catch and submitting the report monthly, initiated the installation of the buoy markers for the No Take Zone, and formed the Pokmaswas (community-based surveillance group). Prior to this behavior adoption, they don’t have any fisheries data, no group of fishers, and they have still fishing inside the No Take Zone. This is really a new behavior adoption for them. This paper will show the process and success story of the social marketing campaign to conserve marine habitat in Anambas through Pride-TURF-R program.

Keywords: behavior adoption, community participation, no take zone, pride-TURF-R

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