Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 497

Search results for: Anuar Mohd Salleh

497 Effects of Viscous Dissipation on Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow towards a Horizontal Circular Cylinder

Authors: Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Mohd Zuki Salleh, Anuar Ishak, Nor Aida Zuraimi Md Noar

Abstract:

In this study, the numerical investigation of viscous dissipation on convective boundary layer flow towards a horizontal circular cylinder with constant wall temperature is considered. The transformed partial differential equations are solved numerically by using an implicit finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical solutions are obtained for the reduced Nusselt number and the skin friction coefficient as well as the velocity and temperature profiles. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for various values of the Prandtl number and Eckert number are analyzed and discussed. The results in this paper is original and important for the researchers working in the area of boundary layer flow and this can be used as reference and also as complement comparison purpose in future.

Keywords: free convection, horizontal circular cylinder, viscous dissipation, convective boundary layer flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
496 The Development of GPS Buoy for Ocean Surface Monitoring: Initial Results

Authors: Anuar Mohd Salleh, Mohd Effendi Daud

Abstract:

This study presents a kinematic positioning approach which is use the GPS buoy for precise ocean surface monitoring. A GPS buoy data from two experiments have been processed using a precise, medium-range differential kinematic technique. In each case the data were collected for more than 24 hours at nearby coastal site at a high rate (1 Hz), along with measurements from neighboring tidal stations, to verify the estimated sea surface heights. Kinematic coordinates of GPS buoy were estimated using the epoch-wise pre-elimination and the backward substitution algorithm. Test results show the centimeter level accuracy in sea surface height determination can be successfully achieved using proposed technique. The centimeter level agreement between two methods also suggests the possibility of using this inexpensive and more flexible GPS buoy equipment to enhance (or even replace) the current use of tidal gauge stations.

Keywords: global positioning system, kinematic GPS, sea surface height, GPS buoy, tide gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
495 Cytochrome B Marker Reveals Three Distinct Genetic Lineages of the Oriental Latrine Fly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia

Authors: Rajagopal Kavitha, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Chee Dhang Chen, Mohd Yusof Farida Zuraina, Mohd Salleh Ahmad Firdaus, Navaratnam Shanti, Abdul Haiyee Zaibunnisa

Abstract:

This study investigated the hidden genetic lineages in the oriental latrine fly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) across four states (i.e., Johore, Pahang, Perak and Selangor) and a federal territory (i.e., Kuala Lumpur) in Malaysia using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) genetic marker. The Cyt b phylogenetic tree and haplotype network revealed three distinct genetic lineages of Ch. megacephala. Lineage A, the basal clade was restricted to flies that originated from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, while Lineages B and C, comprised of flies from all studied populations. An overlap of the three genetically divergent groups of Ch. megacephala was observed. However, the flies from both Kuala Lumpur and Selangor populations consisted of three different lineages, indicating that they are genetically diverse compared to those from Pahang, Perak and Johore.

Keywords: forensic entomology, calliphoridae, mitochondrial DNA, cryptic lineage

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
494 The Thermal Properties of Nano Magnesium Hydroxide Blended with LDPE/EVA/Irganox1010 for Insulator Application

Authors: Ahmad Aroziki Abdul Aziz, Sakinah Mohd Alauddin, Ruzitah Mohd Salleh, Mohammed Iqbal Shueb

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the effect of nano Magnesium Hydroxide (MH) loading on the thermal properties of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)/ Poly (ethylene-co vinyl acetate)(EVA) nano composite. Thermal studies were conducted, as it understanding is vital for preliminary development of new polymeric systems. Thermal analysis of nano composite was conducted using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Major finding of TGA indicated two main stages of degradation process found at (350 ± 25 oC) and (480 ± 25 oC) respectively. Nano metal filler expressed better fire resistance as it stand over high degree of temperature. Furthermore, DSC analysis provided a stable glass temperature around 51 (±1 oC) and captured double melting point at 84 (±2 oC) and 108 (±2 oC). This binary melting point reflects the modification of nano filler to the polymer matrix forming melting crystals of folded and extended chain. The percent crystallinity of the samples grew vividly with increasing filler content. Overall, increasing the filler loading improved the degradation temperature and weight loss evidently and a better process and phase stability was captured in DSC.

Keywords: thermal properties, nano MH, nano particles, cable and wire, LDPE/EVA

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
493 Study on the Key Stakeholders' Perception and Establishment of Sustainability Goals in the Green Building Projects: The Case of Malaysia

Authors: Nor Kalsum M. Isa, Mohd Yazid M. Yunos, Anuar Alias, Mazdi Marzuki, Kamarul Ismail, Mohd H. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Green building is an emerging concept with the ultimate target to achieve sustainable development by integrating sustainability goals and principles into project development. Basically, a green building is a building that is designed, constructed and operated to boost environmental, economic, health and productivity performance over conventional buildings. The buildings have been proven to be successful in contributing towards sustainability and project success. The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of sustainability application in building projects, looking towards project success from the perspective of Malaysian key project stakeholders. The study also aimed to explore the establishment of sustainability goals in the green building projects in Malaysia. The Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Concept of Sustainability was used as the foundation theoretical framework. Surveys, interviews and multiple case study methods were employed. A sample of 188 Malaysian building project stakeholders was selected for questionnaire surveys, and 15 stakeholders from three award-winning green building projects in Malaysia were involved in the interviews. The study found that the majority of the respondents were less aware that the sustainability integration in the building project can significantly affect cost reduction, schedule effectiveness and stakeholders’ satisfaction with the performance of buildings as at the same level as the quality performance. Of the four sustainability goals, the environmental aspect was given more priority than others in the development of the green building projects.

Keywords: green building, sustainability, project stakeholders, Malaysia

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492 National Identity in Connecting the Community through Mural Art for Petronas Dagangan Berhad

Authors: Nadiah Mohamad, Wan Samiati Andriana Wan Mohd Daud, M. Suhaimi Tohid, Mohd Fazli Othman, Mohamad Rizal Salleh

Abstract:

This is a collaborative project of the mural art between The Department of Fine Art from Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) and Petronas Dagangan Berhad (PDB), the most leading retailer and marketer of downstream oil and gas products in Malaysia. Five different states in the Peninsular of Malaysia that has been identified in showcasing the National Identity of Malaysia at each Petronas gas station, this also includes the Air Keroh in Melaka, Pasir Pekan in Kelantan, Pontian in Johor, Simpang Pulai in Perak, and also Wakaf Bharu in Terengganu. This project is to analyze the element of national identity that has been demonstrated at the Petronas's Mural. The ultimate aim of the mural is to let the community and local people to be aware about what Malaysians are consists and proud of and how everyone is able to connect with the idea through visual art. The method that is being explained in this research is by using visual data through research and also self-experience in collecting the visual data in identifying what images is considered as the national identity and idea development and visual analysis is being transferred based upon the visual data collection. In this stage, elements and principles of design will be the key in highlighting what is necessary for a work of art. In conclusion, visual image of the National Identity of Malaysia is able to connect to the audience from local and also to the people from outside the country to learn and understand the beauty and diversity of Malaysia as a unique country with art through the wall of five Petronas gas station.

Keywords: community, fine art, mural art, national identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
491 The Roles of ECOWAS Parliament on Regional Integration of the West African Sub-Region

Authors: Sani Shehu, Mohd Afandi Salleh

Abstract:

Parliament is a law making body which provided at national, state, province and territorial level playing a parliamentary role of representing people, law making, peace, and conflict resolution, ratifying and incorporating international convention into municipal law. Parliaments are created globally to give solid legitimacy to good governance under democratic system of government, and the representatives must be elected by the people, so the ECOWAS parliament is entitled to have this legitimacy, where members must be elected by adult people among the citizens of ECOWAS member states. This paper will discuss on the roles that ECOWAS parliament plays for the achievement of regional integration and economic goals of development and cooperation in the sub-region.

Keywords: ECOWAS parliament, composition, competence, power

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
490 Effect of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Durian Skin Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composite

Authors: Hazleen Anuar, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir

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Durian skin is a newly explores natural fibre potentially reinforced polyolefin for diverse applications. In this work, investigation on the effect of coupling agent, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with durian skin fibre (DSF) was conducted. The presence of 30 wt% DSF significantly reduced the tensile strength of PP-DSF composite. Interestingly, even though the same trend goes to PP-DSF with the presence of MAPP, the reduction is only about 4% relative to unreinforced PP and 18% higher than PP-DSF without MAPP (untreated composite or UTC). The used of MAPP in treated composite (TC) also increased the tensile modulus, flexural properties and degradation temperature. The enhanced mechanical properties are consistent with good interfacial interaction as evidenced under scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: durian skin fiber, coupling agent, mechanical properties, thermogravimetry analysis

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489 Prediction of Changes in Optical Quality by Tissue Redness after Pterygium Surgery

Authors: Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Azrin Esmady Ariffin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd Tamrin, Norfazrina Abdul Gaffur, Tengku Mohd Tengku Sembok

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to predict optical quality changes after pterygium surgery using tissue redness grading. Methods: Sixty-eight primary pterygium participants were selected from patients who visited an ophthalmology clinic. We developed a semi-automated computer program to measure the pterygium fibrovascular redness from digital pterygium images. The outcome of this software is a continuous scale grading of 1 (minimum redness) to 3 (maximum redness). The region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the software. Reliability was determined by repeat grading of all 68 images and its association with contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and visual acuity (VA) was examined. Results: The mean and standard deviation of redness of the pterygium fibrovascular images was 1.88 ± 0.55. Intra- and inter-grader reliability estimates were high with intraclass correlation ranging from 0.97 to 0.98. The new grading was positively associated with CSF (p<0.01) and VA (p<0.01). The redness grading was able to predict 25% and 23% of the variance in the CSF and the VA respectively. Conclusions: The new grading of pterygium fibrovascular redness can be reliably measured from digital images and show a good correlation with CSF and VA. The redness grading can be used in addition to the existing pterygium grading.

Keywords: contrast sensitivity, pterygium, redness, visual acuity

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
488 Analysis of Vocal Fold Vibrations from High-Speed Digital Images Based on Dynamic Time Warping

Authors: A. I. A. Rahman, Sh-Hussain Salleh, K. Ahmad, K. Anuar

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Analysis of vocal fold vibration is essential for understanding the mechanism of voice production and for improving clinical assessment of voice disorders. This paper presents a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) based approach to analyze and objectively classify vocal fold vibration patterns. The proposed technique was designed and implemented on a Glottal Area Waveform (GAW) extracted from high-speed laryngeal images by delineating the glottal edges for each image frame. Feature extraction from the GAW was performed using Linear Predictive Coding (LPC). Several types of voice reference templates from simulations of clear, breathy, fry, pressed and hyperfunctional voice productions were used. The patterns of the reference templates were first verified using the analytical signal generated through Hilbert transformation of the GAW. Samples from normal speakers’ voice recordings were then used to evaluate and test the effectiveness of this approach. The classification of the voice patterns using the technique of LPC and DTW gave the accuracy of 81%.

Keywords: dynamic time warping, glottal area waveform, linear predictive coding, high-speed laryngeal images, Hilbert transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
487 Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Behavior and Performance of Youth Entrepreneurs in Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Najib Mansor, Nur Syamilah Md. Noor, Abdul Rahim Anuar, Shazida Jan Mohd Khan, Ahmad Zubir Ibrahim, Badariah Hj Din, Abu Sufian Abu Bakar, Kalsom Kayat, Wan Nurmahfuzah Jannah Wan Mansor

Abstract:

This study aimed and focused on the behavior of youth entrepreneurs’ especially entrepreneurial self-efficacy and the performance in micro SMEs in Malaysia. Entrepreneurship development calls for support from various quarters, and mostly the need exists to initiate a youth entrepreneurship culture and drive amongst the youth in the society. Although backed up by the government and non-government organizations, micro-entrepreneurs are still facing challenges which greatly delay their progress, growth and consequently their input towards economic advancement. Micro-entrepreneurs are confronted with unique difficulties such as uncertainty, innovation, and evolution. Reviews on the development of entrepreneurial characteristics such as need for achievement, internal locus of control, risk-taking and innovation and have been recognized as highly associated with entrepreneurial behavior. The data in this study was obtained from the Department of Statistics, Malaysia. A random sampling of 830 respondents was distributed to 14 states that involve of micro-entrepreneurs. The study adopted a quantitative approach whereby a set of questionnaire was used to gather data. Multiple regression analysis was chosen as a method of analysis testing. The result of this study is expected to provide insight into the factor affecting entrepreneurial behavior and performance of youth entrepreneurs in micro SMEs. The finding showed that the Malaysian youth entrepreneurs do not have the entrepreneurial self-efficacy within themselves in order to accomplish greater success in their business venture. The establishment of entrepreneurial schools to allow our youth to be exposed to entrepreneurship from an early age and the development of special training focuses on the creation of business network so that the continuous entrepreneurial culture is crafted.

Keywords: youth entrepreneurs, micro entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
486 Comparison of Double Unit Tunnel Form Building before and after Repair and Retrofit under in-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. A. Anuar, N. H. Hamid, M. H. Hashim, S. M. D. Salleh

Abstract:

This paper present the experimental work on the seismic performance of double unit tunnel form building (TFB) subjected to in-plane lateral cyclic loading. A one third scale of 3-storey double unit of TFB is tested at ±0.01%, ±0.1%, ±0.25%, ±0.5%, ±0.75% and ±1.0% drifts until the structure achieves its strength degradation. After that, the TFB is repaired and retrofitted using additional shear wall, steel angle and CFRP sheet. A similar testing approach is applied to the specimen after repair and retrofit. The crack patterns, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping (EVD) were analyzed and compared before and after repair and retrofit. The result indicates that the lateral strength increases by 22 in pushing direction and 27% in pulling direction. Moreover, the stiffness and ductility obtained before and after retrofit increase tremendously by 87.87% and 39.66%, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy absorption measured by equivalent viscous damping obtained after retrofit increase by 12.34% in pulling direction. It can be concluded that the proposed retrofit method is capable to increase the lateral strength capacity, stiffness and energy absorption of double unit TFB.

Keywords: tunnel form building, in-plane lateral cyclic loading, crack pattern, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility, equivalent viscous damping, repair and retrofit

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
485 Functional Slow Release of Encapsulated Ibuprofen in Cross-linked Gellan Gum Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Nor Jannah Mohd Sebri, Khairul Anuar Mat Amin

Abstract:

Dication cross-linked gellan gum hydrogel loaded with Ibuprofen with excellent mechanical properties had been synthesized as potential candidate for non-toxic biocompatible polymer material in tissue engineering. The gellan gum hydrogel with 5% Ibuprofen had produced a slow release profile with total drug release time of 25 hours as a resulting low swelling value recorded at 22+0.5%. Its compressive strength, 200.13+21 kPa was highest of all other hydrogel ratio of 0.5% and 1.0% Ibuprofen incorporation. Young’s Modulus of the hydrogel with 5% Ibuprofen was recorded at 1.8+0.01 MPa, indicating good gel strength in which it is capable of withstanding a fair amount of subjected force during topical wound dressing application. Excellent mechanical properties, together with slow release profile, make the ibuprofen-loaded hydrogel a prospect candidate as biocompatible extracellular matrices in wound management.

Keywords: gellan gum, ibuprofen, slow drug release, hydrogel

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
484 Governance Structure of Islamic Philanthropic Institution: Analysis of Corporate WAQF in Malaysia

Authors: Nathasa Mazna Ramli, Nurul Husna Mohd Salleh, Nurul Aini Muhamed

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This study focuses on the governance of an Islamic philanthropic institution in Malaysia. Specifically, the internal governance structure of corporate Islamic endowment, or waqf, is being analysed. The purposes of waqf are to provide continuous charity that could generate perpetual income flow for the needy. This study is based on the principle of MCCG 2012, Shariah Governance Framework and charity governance. This study utilises publicly available data to examine the internal governance structure of a corporate waqf. This study finds that the Islamic philanthropic Institution practices, to some extent, have a sound governance structure to discharge their transparency and accountability. Furthermore, findings also showed that though governance structure is in place, most of the structures are not disclosed in the annual reports of the company. Findings from the study could extend the knowledge in these areas and stimulate further research on the governance of Islamic philanthropic institutions, particularly for corporate waqf.

Keywords: accountability, governance, Islamic philanthropic, corporate waqf

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
483 Evaluation of Transfer Capability Considering Uncertainties of System Operating Condition and System Cascading Collapse

Authors: Nur Ashida Salim, Muhammad Murtadha Othman, Ismail Musirin, Mohd Salleh Serwan

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Over the past few decades, the power system industry in many developing and developed countries has gone through a restructuring process of the industry where they are moving towards a deregulated power industry. This situation will lead to competition among the generation and distribution companies to achieve a certain objective which is to provide quality and efficient production of electric energy, which will reduce the price of electricity. Therefore it is important to obtain an accurate value of the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) and Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM) in order to ensure the effective power transfer between areas during the occurrence of uncertainties in the system. In this paper, the TRM and ATC is determined by taking into consideration the uncertainties of the system operating condition and system cascading collapse by applying the bootstrap technique. A case study of the IEEE RTS-79 is employed to verify the robustness of the technique proposed in the determination of TRM and ATC.

Keywords: available transfer capability, bootstrap technique, cascading collapse, transmission reliability margin

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
482 Quantification of Pollution Loads for the Rehabilitation of Pusu River

Authors: Abdullah Al-Mamun, Md. Nuruzzaman, Md. Noor Salleh, Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Ahmad Jalal Khan Chowdhury, Mohd. Zaki M. Amin, Norlida Mohd. Dom

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Identification of pollution sources and determination of pollution loads from all areas are very important for sustainable rehabilitation of any contaminated river. Pusu is a small river which, flows through the main campus of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) at Gombak. Poor aesthetics of the river, which is flowing through the entrance of the campus, gives negative impression to the local and international visitors. As such, this study is being conducted to find ways to rehabilitate the river in a sustainable manner. The point and non-point pollution sources of the river basin are identified. Upper part of the 12.6 km2 river basin is covered with secondary forest. However, it is the lower-middle reaches of the river basin which is being cleared for residential development and source of high sediment load. Flow and concentrations of the common pollutants, important for a healthy river, such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), Turbidity, pH, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (AN), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) are determined. Annual pollution loading to the river was calculated based on the primary and secondary data. Concentrations of SS were high during the rainy day due to contribution from the non-point sources. There are 7 ponds along the river system within the campus, which are severely affected by high sediment load from the land clearing activities. On the other hand, concentrations of other pollutants were high during the non-rainy days. The main sources of point pollution are the hostels, cafeterias, sewage treatment plants located in the campus. Therefore, both pollution sources need to be controlled in order to rehabilitate the river in a sustainable manner.

Keywords: river pollution, rehabilitation, point pollution source, non-point pollution sources, pollution loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
481 The Significant Effect of Wudu’ and Zikr in the Controlling of Emotional Pressure Using Biofeedback Emwave Technique

Authors: Mohd Anuar Awang Idris, Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab, Nora Yusma Mohamed Yusoff

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Wudu’ (Ablution) and Zikr are amongst some of the spiritual tools which may help an individual control his mind, emotion and attitude. These tools are deemed to be able to deliver a positive impact on an individual’s psychophysiology. The main objective of this research is to determine the effects of Wudu’ (Ablution) and Zikr therapy using the biofeedback emWave application and technology. For this research, 13 students were selected as samples from the students’ representative body at the University Tenaga National, Malaysia. The DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) questionnaire was used to help with the assessment and measurement of each student’s ability in controlling his or her emotions before and after the therapies. The biofeedback emWave technology was utilized to monitor the student’s psychophysiology level. In addition, the data obtained from the Heart rate variability (HRV) test have also been used to affirm that Wudu’ and Zikr had had significant impacts on the student’s success in controlling his or her emotional pressure.

Keywords: biofeedback EmWave, emotion, psychophysiology, wudu’, zikr

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
480 The Impact of System Cascading Collapse and Transmission Line Outages to the Transfer Capability Assessment

Authors: Nur Ashida Salim, Muhammad Murtadha Othman, Ismail Musirin, Mohd Salleh Serwan

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Uncertainty of system operating conditions is one of the causative reasons which may render to the instability of a transmission system. This will encumber the performance of transmission system to efficiently transmit the electrical power between areas. For that reason, accurate assessment of Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM) is essential in order to ensure effective power transfer between areas during the occurrence of system uncertainties. The power transfer is also called as the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) in which it is the information required by the utilities and marketers to instigate selling and buying the electric energy. This paper proposes a computationally effective approach to estimate TRM and ATC by considering the uncertainties of system cascading collapse and transmission line outages which is identified as the main reasons in power system instability. In accordance to the results that have been obtained, the proposed method is essential for the transmission providers which could help the power marketers and planning sectors in the operation and reserving transmission services based on the ATC calculated.

Keywords: system cascading collapse, transmission line outages, transmission reliability margin, available transfer capability

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
479 Strength Performance and Microstructure Characteristics of Natural Bonded Fiber Composites from Malaysian Bamboo

Authors: Shahril Anuar Bahari, Mohd Azrie Mohd Kepli, Mohd Ariff Jamaludin, Kamarulzaman Nordin, Mohamad Jani Saad

Abstract:

Formaldehyde release from wood-based panel composites can be very toxicity and may increase the risk of human health as well as environmental problems. A new bio-composites product without synthetic adhesive or resin is possible to be developed in order to reduce these problems. Apart from formaldehyde release, adhesive is also considered to be expensive, especially in the manufacturing of composite products. Natural bonded composites can be termed as a panel product composed with any type of cellulosic materials without the addition of synthetic resins. It is composed with chemical content activation in the cellulosic materials. Pulp and paper making method (chemical pulping) was used as a general guide in the composites manufacturing. This method will also generally reduce the manufacturing cost and the risk of formaldehyde emission and has potential to be used as an alternative technology in fiber composites industries. In this study, the natural bonded bamboo fiber composite was produced from virgin Malaysian bamboo fiber (Bambusa vulgaris). The bamboo culms were chipped and digested into fiber using this pulping method. The black liquor collected from the pulping process was used as a natural binding agent in the composition. Then the fibers were mixed and blended with black liquor without any resin addition. The amount of black liquor used per composite board was 20%, with approximately 37% solid content. The composites were fabricated using a hot press machine at two different board densities, 850 and 950 kg/m³, with two sets of hot pressing time, 25 and 35 minutes. Samples of the composites from different densities and hot pressing times were tested in flexural strength and internal bonding (IB) for strength performance according to British Standard. Modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) was determined in flexural test, while tensile force perpendicular to the surface was recorded in IB test. Results show that the strength performance of the composites with 850 kg/m³ density were significantly higher than 950 kg/m³ density, especially for samples from 25 minutes hot pressing time. Strength performance of composites from 25 minutes hot pressing time were generally greater than 35 minutes. Results show that the maximum mean values of strength performance were recorded from composites with 850 kg/m³ density and 25 minutes pressing time. The maximum mean values for MOE, MOR and IB were 3251.84, 16.88 and 0.27 MPa, respectively. Only MOE result has conformed to high density fiberboard (HDF) standard (2700 MPa) in British Standard for Fiberboard Specification, BS EN 622-5: 2006. Microstructure characteristics of composites can also be related to the strength performance of the composites, in which, the observed fiber damage in composites from 950 kg/m³ density and overheat of black liquor led to the low strength properties, especially in IB test.

Keywords: bamboo fiber, natural bonded, black liquor, mechanical tests, microstructure observations

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478 Kelantan Malay Cultural Landscape: The Concept of Kota Bharu Islamic City

Authors: Mohammad Rusdi Mohd Nasir, Ismail Hafiz Salleh

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Kota Bharu, as an Islamic City, represents a symbolic icon in the urban development of the Islamic state of Kelantan, Malaysia. This research seeks to provide a basis for new approaches to landscape planning that shows greater respect for the traditional vernacular landscape. In addition, this research also intends to distinguish the prospects for the future Kelantan Malay cultural landscape, building upon the multiple historical influences in the evolution of the cultural landscape using multiple methods including literature review, observation, document analysis and content analysis. The study of the Kelantan Malay cultural landscape is particularly important in view of its distinctive contribution to Malay heritage by identifying the elements, characteristics, history and their influences. As a result, this research recognizes the importance of incorporating the existing heritage alongside contemporary design as well as further research on the Kelantan Malay cultural landscape. Optimistically, there will be better landscape practices in the future to understand the past, the present and the future prospects of the vernacular tradition, in order to ensure that our architecture, landscape and urbanism practices express its values.

Keywords: Malay culture, Malay heritage, cultural landscape, Islamic concept

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477 Development and Performance of Aerobic Granular Sludge at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Mustafa M. Bob, Siti Izaidah Azmi, Mohd Hakim Ab Halim, Nur Syahida Abdul Jamal, Aznah Nor-Anuar, Zaini Ujang

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In this research, the formation and development of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for domestic wastewater treatment application in hot climate conditions was studied using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The performance of the developed AGS in the removal of organic matter and nutrients from wastewater was also investigated. The operation of the reactor was based on the sequencing batch system with a complete cycle time of 3 hours that included feeding, aeration, settling, discharging and idling. The reactor was seeded with sludge collected from the municipal wastewater treatment plant in Madinah city, Saudi Arabia and operated at a temperature of 40ºC using synthetic wastewater as influent. Results showed that granular sludge was developed after an operation period of 30 days. The developed granular sludge had a good settling ability with the average size of the granules ranging from 1.03 to 2.42 mm. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP) were 87.31%, 91.93% and 61.25% respectively. These results show that AGS can be developed at elevated temperatures and it is a promising technique to treat domestic wastewater in hot and low humidity climate conditions such as those encountered in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: aerobic granular sludge, hot climate, sequencing batch reactor, domestic wastewater treatment

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476 Measurement and Monitoring of Graduate Attributes via iCGPA Implementation and ACADEMIA Programming: UNIMAS Case Study

Authors: Shanti Faridah Salleh, Azzahrah Anuar, Hamimah Ujir, Rohana Sapawi, Wan Hashim Wan Ibrahim, Noraziah Abdul Wahab, Majina Sulaiman, Raudhah Ahmadi, Al-Khalid Othman, Johari Abdullah

Abstract:

Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average or iCGPA is an evaluation and reporting system that represents a comprehensive development of students’ achievement in their academic programs. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, UNIMAS has started its implementation of iCGPA in 2016. iCGPA is driven by the Outcome-Based Education (OBE) system that has been long integrated into the higher education in Malaysia. iCGPA is not only a tool to enhance the OBE concept through constructive alignment but it is also an integrated mechanism to assist various stakeholders in making decisions or planning for program improvement. The outcome of this integrated system is the reporting of students’ academic performance in terms of cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills), and affective (attitude) of which the students acquire throughout the duration of their study. The iCGPA reporting illustrates the attainment of student’s attribute in the eight domains of learning outcomes listed in the Malaysian Qualifications Framework (MQF). This paper discusses on the implementation of iCGPA in UNIMAS on the policy and strategy to direct the whole university to implement the iCGPA. The steps and challenges in integrating the exsting Outcome-Based Education and utilising iCGPA as a tool to quantify the students’ achievement are also highlighted in this paper. Finally, the ACADEMIA system, which is a dedicated centralised program ensure the implementation of iCGPA is a success has been developed. This paper discusses the structure and the analysis of ACADEMIA program and concludes the analysis made on the improvement made on the implementation of constructive alignment in all 40 programs involves in iCGPA implementation.

Keywords: constructive alignment, holistic graduates, mapping of assessment, programme outcome

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475 A New Modification of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Coefficients with Global Convergence Properties

Authors: Ahmad Alhawarat, Mustafa Mamat, Mohd Rivaie, Ismail Mohd

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Conjugate gradient method has been enormously used to solve large scale unconstrained optimization problems due to the number of iteration, memory, CPU time, and convergence property, in this paper we find a new class of nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with global convergence properties proved by exact line search. The numerical results for our new βK give a good result when it compared with well-known formulas.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, conjugate gradient coefficient, global convergence

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474 Black Shales Outcrops in Malaysia: Occurrence and Geological Setting

Authors: Hassan Baioumy, Yuniarti Ulfa, Mohd Nawawi, Mohammad Noor Akmal Anuar

Abstract:

Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic black shales that can be a potential source of energy and precious metals are widely distributed in Malaysia Peninsula, Sarawak and Sabah. Two Paleozoic black shales outcrops were reported in the Langkawi Island belonging to the Cambrian fluvial Machinchang Formation and the Silurian glaciomarine Singa Formation. More the seventeen occurrences of Paleozoic black shales outcrops have been found in the Peninsular Malaysia that range in age from Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian in the Terengganu, Perlis, Pahang, and Perak States. Mesozoic black shales outcrops occur in several places in both the Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. In the Peninsular Malaysia, Triassic black shales occur in the Nami area, Northern Kedah and in the Pahang area. In Sarawak, Triassic black shales have been reported in the Bau area. Cenozoic black shales outcrops were reported in both Sarawak at Miri area and Sabah at the Ranau and Tenom areas. Preliminary mineralogical and geochemical investigations on some of these black shales outcrops showed distinct compositional variations among these black shales outcrops probably due to variations in their source area composition and/or depositional and diagenetic settings of these shales. Some of these shalese also subjected to post-depositional hydrothermal mineralization that enriched these shales with Au-bearing minerals such as pyrite, calchopyrite, and arsenopyrite. Many of the studied black shales outcrops look rich in organic matter, which increase the possibility of using these black shales as an unconventional energy resource.

Keywords: black shales, energy, mineralization, Malaysia

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473 Towards Integrating Statistical Color Features for Human Skin Detection

Authors: Mohd Zamri Osman, Mohd Aizaini Maarof, Mohd Foad Rohani

Abstract:

Human skin detection recognized as the primary step in most of the applications such as face detection, illicit image filtering, hand recognition and video surveillance. The performance of any skin detection applications greatly relies on the two components: feature extraction and classification method. Skin color is the most vital information used for skin detection purpose. However, color feature alone sometimes could not handle images with having same color distribution with skin color. A color feature of pixel-based does not eliminate the skin-like color due to the intensity of skin and skin-like color fall under the same distribution. Hence, the statistical color analysis will be exploited such mean and standard deviation as an additional feature to increase the reliability of skin detector. In this paper, we studied the effectiveness of statistical color feature for human skin detection. Furthermore, the paper analyzed the integrated color and texture using eight classifiers with three color spaces of RGB, YCbCr, and HSV. The experimental results show that the integrating statistical feature using Random Forest classifier achieved a significant performance with an F1-score 0.969.

Keywords: color space, neural network, random forest, skin detection, statistical feature

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472 Cryptocurrency Forensics: Analysis on Bitcoin E-Wallet from Computer Source Evidence

Authors: Muhammad Nooraiman bin Noorashid, Mohd Sharizuan bin Mohd Omar, Mohd Zabri Adil bin Talib, Aswami Fadillah bin Mohd Ariffin

Abstract:

Nowadays cryptocurrency has become a global phenomenon known to most people. People using this alternative digital money to do a transaction in many ways (e.g. Used for online shopping, wealth management, and fundraising). However, this digital asset also widely used in criminal activities since its use decentralized control as opposed to centralized electronic money and central banking systems and this makes a user, who used this currency invisible. The high-value exchange of these digital currencies also has been a target to criminal activities. The cryptocurrency crimes have become a challenge for the law enforcement to analyze and to proof the evidence as criminal devices. In this paper, our focus is more on bitcoin cryptocurrency and the possible artifacts that can be obtained from the different type of digital wallet, which is software and browser-based application. The process memory and physical hard disk are examined with the aims of identifying and recovering potential digital evidence. The stage of data acquisition divided by three states which are the initial creation of the wallet, transaction that consists transfer and receiving a coin and the last state is after the wallet is being deleted. Findings from this study suggest that both data from software and browser type of wallet process memory is a valuable source of evidence, and many of the artifacts found in process memory are also available from the application and wallet files on the client computer storage.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, bitcoin, digital wallet, digital forensics

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471 Changes in Religious Belief after Flood Disasters

Authors: Sapora Sipon, Mohd Fo’ad Sakdan, Che Su Mustaffa, Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Mohamad Sukeri Khalid, Mohd Taib Ariffin, Husni Mohd Radzi, Salhah Abdullah

Abstract:

Flood disasters occur throughout the world including Malaysia. The major flood disaster that hit Malaysia in the 2014-2015 episodes proved the psychosocial and mental health consequences such as vivid images of destruction, upheaval, death and loss of lives. Flood, flood survivors reported that flood has changed one looks at their religious belief. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the changes in religious belief after the 2014-2015 Malaysia flood disaster. The total population of 1300 respondents who experienced the 2014-2015 Malaysia flood were surveyed a month after the disaster. The questionnaires were used to measure religiosity and stress. The results provide compelling evidence that religion played an important role in the lives of Malaysia flood disasters’ survivor where more than half of the respondents (>75%) experiencing the strengthening of their religious belief. It was also reported the victims’ strengthening of their religious belief proved to be a powerful factor in reducing stress in the aftermath of the flood.

Keywords: religious belief, flood disaster, humanity, society

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470 Physical Fitness Evaluation of MARA Junior Science Collage Rugby Player

Authors: Mohamad Nizam Asmuni, Ahmad Naszeri Salleh, Yunus Adam, Azhar Yaacob, Mohd Hafiz Rosli, Muhamad Nazrul Hakim Abdullah

Abstract:

Athletes at the school should have good physical fitness to participate in tournament. Currently, there are no standards for the level of physical fitness for MARA Junior Science Collage (MJSC). Therefore, this research is to determine the level of physical fitness of rugby player at MJSC. A total of 62 samples (age 16.4 ± 0.75) among rugby players at MJSC were randomly selected to participate in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI) and other physical testing are measured and recorded. The results showed that the average of body mass index (BMI) for rugby players is 23.4 ± 4:51. Body mass index (BMI) of rugby players can be categorized as pre-obese based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. BMI for rugby players was categorized as healthy based on body fat ranges for standard adults at NY Obesity Research Center. Bleep test results show that the average Bleep test is level 7 and shuttle 5; average VO2max was 37.94 L/min. Physical fitness and performance of rugby players at MJSC is lower compared to the rugby junior athletes in University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Therefore, physical fitness of rugby players must be improved to ensure the rugby players at MJSC could be performs better in the tournament.

Keywords: physical fitness, MARA junior science collage (MJSC), body mass index (BMI), bleep test

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469 Seepage Analysis through Earth Dam Embankment: Case Study of Batu Dam

Authors: Larifah Mohd Sidik, Anuar Kasa

Abstract:

In recent years, the demands for raw water are increasing along with the growth of the economy and population. Hence, the need for the construction and operation of dams is one of the solutions for the management of water resources problems. The stability of the embankment should be taken into consideration to evaluate the safety of retaining water. The safety of the dam is mostly based on numerous measurable components, for instance, seepage flowrate, pore water pressure and deformation of the embankment. Seepage and slope stability is the primary and most important reason to ascertain the overall safety behavior of the dams. This research study was conducted to evaluate static condition seepage and slope stability performances of Batu dam which is located in Kuala Lumpur capital city. The numerical solution Geostudio-2012 software was employed to analyse the seepage using finite element method, SEEP/W and slope stability using limit equilibrium method, SLOPE/W for three different cases of reservoir level operations; normal and flooded condition. Results of seepage analysis using SEEP/W were utilized as parental input for the analysis of SLOPE/W. Sensitivity analysis on hydraulic conductivity of material was done and calibrated to minimize the relative error of simulation SEEP/W, where the comparison observed field data and predicted value were also carried out. In seepage analysis, such as leakage flow rate, pore water distribution and location of a phreatic line are determined using the SEEP/W. The result of seepage analysis shows the clay core effectively lowered the phreatic surface and no piping failure is shown in the result. Hence, the total seepage flux was acceptable and within the permissible limit.

Keywords: earth dam, dam safety, seepage, slope stability, pore water pressure

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468 Physical Fitness Evaluation of Physical Education Teachers in Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM)

Authors: Mohamad Nizam Asmuni, Ahmad Naszeri Salleh, Yunus Adam, Azhar Yaacob, Mohd Hafiz Rosli, Muhamad Nazrul Hakim Abdullah

Abstract:

Physical Education teacher at the school should have good physical fitness to educate and guide students in the school. Currently, there are no standards for the level of physical fitness for teachers who teaches physical education at the school. Therefore, this research is to determine the level of physical fitness of teacher of Physical Education at Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM). A total of 28 samples (18 men and 10 women, age 33 ± 4.91), teachers of physical education at MRSM, were randomly selected to participate in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI) and other physical testing are measured and recorded. The results showed that the average of body mass index (BMI) for teachers of Physical Education is 25.9 ± 4:57. Body mass index (BMI) of teachers can be categorized as pre-obese based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Body fat percentage for male (age; 34.3 ± 5.13) and female (age; 30.9 ± 3.81) teachers is 24.7% ± 6.54 and 30.6% ± 6.28, respectively. Male teachers were categorized as overfat, however, female teachers were categorized as healthy based on body fat ranges for standard adults at NY Obesity Research Center. Bleep test results show that the average Bleep test is level 4 and shuttle 2; average VO2max was 27.5 ± 5.94 L/min. Physical fitness and performance of physical education teachers at MRSM is much lower compared to the rugby junior athlete in University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Therefore, physical fitness of teachers must be improved to ensure the physical education classes at MRSM could be done better.

Keywords: physical fitness, BMI, bleep test, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 286