Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1313

Search results for: trapezoidal back emf

1313 Analysis of Brushless DC Motor with Trapezoidal Back EMF Using Matlab

Authors: Taha Ahmed Husain


The dynamic characteristics such as speed and torque as well as voltages and currents of pwm brushless DC motor inverter are analyzed with a MATLAB model. The contribution of external load torque and friction torque is monitored. The switching function technique is adopted for the current control of the embedded three phase inverter that drives the brushless DC motor.In switching functions the power conversions circuits can be modeled according to their functions rather than circuit topologies. Therefore, it can achieve simplification of the overall power conversion functions. The trapezoidal type (back emf) is used in the model as ithas lower switching loss compared with sinusoidal type (back emf). Results show reliable time analysis for speed, torque, phase and line voltages and currents and the effect of current commutation is clearly observed.

Keywords: BLDC motor, brushless dc motors, pwm inverter, DC motor control, trapezoidal back emf, ripple torque in brushless DC motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
1312 Predicting Trapezoidal Weir Discharge Coefficient Using Evolutionary Algorithm

Authors: K. Roushanger, A. Soleymanzadeh


Weirs are structures often used in irrigation techniques, sewer networks and flood protection. However, the hydraulic behavior of this type of weir is complex and difficult to predict accurately. An accurate flow prediction over a weir mainly depends on the proper estimation of discharge coefficient. In this study, the Genetic Expression Programming (GEP) approach was used for predicting trapezoidal and rectangular sharp-crested side weirs discharge coefficient. Three different performance indexes are used as comparing criteria for the evaluation of the model’s performances. The obtained results approved capability of GEP in prediction of trapezoidal and rectangular side weirs discharge coefficient. The results also revealed the influence of downstream Froude number for trapezoidal weir and upstream Froude number for rectangular weir in prediction of the discharge coefficient for both of side weirs.

Keywords: discharge coefficient, genetic expression programming, trapezoidal weir

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1311 Bearing Capacity of Sheet Hanger Connection to the Trapezoidal Metal Sheet

Authors: Kateřina Jurdová


Hanging to the trapezoidal sheet by decking hanger is a very widespread solution used in civil engineering to lead the distribution of energy, sanitary, air distribution system etc. under the roof or floor structure. The trapezoidal decking hanger is usually a part of the whole installation system for specific distribution medium. The leading companies offer installation systems for each specific distribution e.g. pipe rings, sprinkler systems, installation channels etc. Every specific part is connected to the base connector which is decking hanger. The own connection has three main components: decking hanger, threaded bar with nuts and web of trapezoidal sheet. The aim of this contribution is determinate the failure mechanism of each component in connection. Load bearing capacity of most components in connection could be calculated by formulas in European codes. This contribution is focused on problematic of bearing resistance of threaded bar in web of trapezoidal sheet. This issue is studied by experimental research and numerical modelling. This contribution presented the initial results of experiment which is compared with numerical model of specimen.

Keywords: decking hanger, concentrated load, connection, load bearing capacity, trapezoidal metal sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
1310 The Pressure Distribution on the Rectangular and Trapezoidal Storage Tanks' Perimeters Due to Liquid Sloshing Impact

Authors: Hassan Saghi, Gholam Reza Askarzadeh Garmroud, Seyyed Ali Reza Emamian


Sloshing phenomenon is a complicated free surface flow problem that increases the dynamic pressure on the sidewalls and the bottom of the storage tanks. When the storage tanks are partially filled, it is essential to be able to evaluate the fluid dynamic loads on the tank’s perimeter. In this paper, a numerical code was developed to determine the pressure distribution on the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact. Assuming the fluid to be inviscid, the Laplace equation and the nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled BEM-FEM. The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data. Finally, this code is used for partially filled rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks and the pressure distribution on the tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact is estimated. The results show that the maximum pressure on the perimeter of the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks was decreased along the sidewalls from the top to the bottom. Furthermore, the period of the pressure distribution is different for different points on the tank’s perimeter and it is bigger in the trapezoidal tanks compared to the rectangular ones.

Keywords: pressure distribution, liquid sloshing impact, sway motion, trapezoidal storage tank, coupled BEM-FEM

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1309 A Trapezoidal-Like Integrator for the Numerical Solution of One-Dimensional Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Johnson Oladele Fatokun, I. P. Akpan


In this paper, the one-dimensional time dependent Schrödinger equation is discretized by the method of lines using a second order finite difference approximation to replace the second order spatial derivative. The evolving system of stiff ordinary differential equation (ODE) in time is solved numerically by an L-stable trapezoidal-like integrator. Results show accuracy of relative maximum error of order 10-4 in the interval of consideration. The performance of the method as compared to an existing scheme is considered favorable.

Keywords: Schrodinger’s equation, partial differential equations, method of lines (MOL), stiff ODE, trapezoidal-like integrator

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
1308 General Formula for Water Surface Profile over Side Weir in the Combined, Trapezoidal and Exponential, Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman


A side weir is a hydraulic structure set into the side of a channel. This structure is used for water level control in channels, to divert flow from a main channel into a side channel when the water level in the main channel exceeds a specific limit and as storm overflows from urban sewerage system. Computation of water surface over the side weirs is essential to determine the flow rate of the side weir. Analytical solutions for water surface profile along rectangular side weir are available only for the special cases of rectangular and trapezoidal channels considering constant specific energy. In this paper, a rectangular side weir located in a combined (trapezoidal with exponential) channel was considered. Expanding binominal series of integer and fraction powers and the using of reduction formula of cosine function integrals, a general analytical formula was obtained for water surface profile along a side weir in a combined (trapezoidal with exponential) channel. Since triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal and parabolic cross-sections are special cases of the combined cross section, the derived formula, is applicable to triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal cross-sections as analytical solution and semi-analytical solution to parabolic cross-section with maximum relative error smaller than 0.76%. The proposed solution should be a useful engineering tool for the evaluation and design of side weirs in open channel.

Keywords: analytical solution, combined channel, exponential channel, side weirs, trapezoidal channel, water surface profile

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1307 A New Aggregation Operator for Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers Based On the Geometric Means of the Left and Right Line Slopes

Authors: Manju Pandey, Nilay Khare, S. C. Shrivastava


This paper is the final in a series, which has defined two new classes of aggregation operators for triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers based on the geometrical characteristics of their fuzzy membership functions. In the present paper, a new aggregation operator for trapezoidal fuzzy numbers has been defined. The new operator is based on the geometric mean of the membership lines to the left and right of the maximum possibility interval. The operator is defined and the analytical relationships have been derived. Computation of the aggregate is demonstrated with a numerical example. Corresponding arithmetic and geometric aggregates as well as results from the recent work of the authors on TrFN aggregates have also been computed.

Keywords: LR fuzzy number, interval fuzzy number, triangular fuzzy number, trapezoidal fuzzy number, apex angle, left apex angle, right apex angle, aggregation operator, arithmetic and geometric mean

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1306 Numerical Optimization of Trapezoidal Microchannel Heat Sinks

Authors: Yue-Tzu Yang, Shu-Ching Liao


This study presents the numerical simulation of three-dimensional incompressible steady and laminar fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink using water as a cooling fluid in a silicon substrate. Navier-Stokes equations with conjugate energy equation are discretized by finite-volume method. We perform numerical computations for a range of 50 ≦ Re ≦ 600, 0.05W ≦ P ≦ 0.8W, 20W/cm2 ≦ ≦ 40W/cm2. The present study demonstrates the numerical optimization of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink design using the response surface methodology (RSM) and the genetic algorithm method (GA). The results show that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase in the Reynolds number or pumping power, and the thermal resistance decreases as the pumping power increases. The thermal resistance of a trapezoidal microchannel is minimized for a constant heat flux and constant pumping power.

Keywords: microchannel heat sinks, conjugate heat transfer, optimization, genetic algorithm method

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
1305 Estimation of Coefficient of Discharge of Side Trapezoidal Labyrinth Weir Using Group Method of Data Handling Technique

Authors: M. A. Ansari, A. Hussain, A. Uddin


A side weir is a flow diversion structure provided in the side wall of a channel to divert water from the main channel to a branch channel. The trapezoidal labyrinth weir is a special type of weir in which crest length of the weir is increased to pass higher discharge. Experimental and numerical studies related to the coefficient of discharge of trapezoidal labyrinth weir in an open channel have been presented in the present study. Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) with the transfer function of quadratic polynomial has been used to predict the coefficient of discharge for the side trapezoidal labyrinth weir. A new model is developed for coefficient of discharge of labyrinth weir by regression method. Generalized models for predicting the coefficient of discharge for labyrinth weir using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) network have also been developed. The prediction based on GMDH model is more satisfactory than those given by traditional regression equations.

Keywords: discharge coefficient, group method of data handling, open channel, side labyrinth weir

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
1304 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad


Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1303 Numerical Investigation of Flow Behaviour Across a Trapezoidal Bluff Body at Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Zaaraoui Abdelkader, Kerfah Rabeh, Noura Belkheir, Matene Elhacene


The trapezoidal bluff body is a typical configuration of vortex shedding bodies. The aim of this work is to study flow behaviour over a trapezoidal cylinder at low Reynolds number. The geometry was constructed from a prototype device for measuring the volumetric flow-rate by counting vortices. Simulations were run for this geometry under steady and unsteady flow conditions using finite volume discretization. Laminar flow was investigated in this model with rigid walls and homogeneous incompressible Newtonian fluid. Calculations were performed for Reynolds number range 5 ≤ Re ≤ 180 and several flow parameters were documented. The present computations are in good agreement with the experimental observations and the numerical calculations by several investigators.

Keywords: bluff body, confined flow, numerical calculations, steady and unsteady flow, vortex shedding flow meter

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1302 Three-Dimensional Unsteady Natural Convection and Entropy Generation in an Inclined Cubical Trapezoidal Cavity Subjected to Uniformly Heated Bottom Wall

Authors: Farshid Fathinia


Numerical computation of unsteady laminar three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal air-filled cavity is performed for the first time in this work. The vertical right and left sidewalls of the cavity are maintained at constant cold temperatures. The lower wall is subjected to a constant hot temperature, while the upper one is considered insulated. Computations are performed for Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105, while the trapezoidal cavity inclination angle is varied as 0° ≤ ϕ ≤ 180°. Prandtl number is considered constant at Pr = 0.71. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to obtain thermodynamic losses inside the cavity due to both heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities. The variation of local and average Nusselt numbers are presented and discussed.While, streamlines, isotherms and entropy contours are presented in both two and three-dimensional pattern. The results show that when the Rayleigh number increases, the flow patterns are changed especially in three-dimensional results and the flow circulation increases. Also, the inclination angle effect on the total entropy generation becomes insignificant when the Rayleigh number is low.Moreover, when the Rayleigh number increases the average Nusselt number increases.

Keywords: transient natural convection, trapezoidal cavity, three-dimensional flow, entropy generation, second law

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1301 Three-Level Converters Back-To-Back DC Bus Control for Torque Ripple Reduction of Induction Motor

Authors: T. Abdelkrim, K. Benamrane, B. Bezza, Aeh Benkhelifa, A. Borni


This paper proposes a regulation method of back-to-back connected three-level converters in order to reduce the torque ripple in induction motor. First part is dedicated to the presentation of the feedback control of three-level PWM rectifier. In the second part, three-level NPC voltage source inverter balancing DC bus algorithm is presented. A theoretical analysis with a complete simulation of the system is presented to prove the excellent performance of the proposed technique.

Keywords: back-to-back connection, feedback control, neutral-point balance, three-level converter, torque ripple

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1300 Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Natural Convective Nanofluid Flow within a Trapezoidal Enclosure Using Meshfree Method

Authors: S. Nandal, R. Bhargava


The paper contains a numerical study of the unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic natural convection flow of nanofluids within a symmetrical wavy walled trapezoidal enclosure. The length and height of enclosure are both considered equal to L. Two-phase nanofluid model is employed. The governing equations of nanofluid flow along with boundary conditions are non-dimensionalized and are solved using one of Meshfree technique (EFGM method). Meshfree numerical technique does not require a predefined mesh for discretization purpose. The bottom wavy wall of the enclosure is defined using a cosine function. Element free Galerkin method (EFGM) does not require the domain. The effects of various parameters namely time t, amplitude of bottom wavy wall a, Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt is examined on rate of heat and mass transfer to get a visualization of cooling and heating effects. Such problems have important applications in heat exchangers or solar collectors, as wavy walled enclosures enhance heat transfer in comparison to flat walled enclosures.

Keywords: heat transfer, meshfree methods, nanofluid, trapezoidal enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
1299 Numerical Simulation of Sloshing Control Using Input Shaping

Authors: Dongjoo Kim


Effective control of sloshing in a liquid container is an important issue to be resolved in many applications. In this study, numerical simulations are performed to design the velocity profile of rectangular container and investigate the effectiveness of input shaping for sloshing control. Trapezoidal profiles of container velocity are chosen to be reference commands and they are convolved with a series of impulses to generate shaped ones that induce minimal residual oscillations. The performances of several input shapers are compared from the viewpoint of transient peak and residual oscillations of sloshing. Results show that sloshing can be effectively controlled by input shaping (Supported by the NRF programs, NRF-2015R1D1A1A01059675, of Korean government).

Keywords: input shaping, rectangular container, sloshing, trapezoidal profile

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1298 An Approximation Algorithm for the Non Orthogonal Cutting Problem

Authors: R. Ouafi, F. Ouafi


We study the problem of cutting a rectangular material entity into smaller sub-entities of trapezoidal forms with minimum waste of the material. This problem will be denoted TCP (Trapezoidal Cutting Problem). The TCP has many applications in manufacturing processes of various industries: pipe line design (petro chemistry), the design of airfoil (aeronautical) or cuts of the components of textile products. We introduce an orthogonal build to provide the optimal horizontal and vertical homogeneous strips. In this paper we develop a general heuristic search based upon orthogonal build. By solving two one-dimensional knapsack problems, we combine the horizontal and vertical homogeneous strips to give a non orthogonal cutting pattern.

Keywords: combinatorial optimization, cutting problem, heuristic

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1297 Thrust Enhancement on a Two Dimensional Elliptic Airfoil in a Forward Flight

Authors: S. M. Dash, K. B. Lua, T. T. Lim


This paper presents results of numerical and experimental studies on a two-dimensional (2D) flapping elliptic airfoil in a forward flight condition at Reynolds number of 5000. The study is motivated from an earlier investigation which shows that the deterioration in thrust performance of a sinusoidal heaving and pitching 2D (NACA0012) airfoil at high flapping frequency can be recovered by changing the effective angle of attack profile to square wave, sawtooth, or cosine wave shape. To better understand why such modifications lead to superior thrust performance, we take a closer look at the transient aerodynamic force behavior of an airfoil when the effective angle of attack profile changes gradually from a generic smooth trapezoidal profile to a sinusoid shape by modifying the base length of the trapezoid. The choice of using a smooth trapezoidal profile is to avoid the infinite acceleration condition encountered in the square wave profile. Our results show that the enhancement in the time-averaged thrust performance at high flapping frequency can be attributed to the delay and reduction in the drag producing valley region in the transient thrust force coefficient when the effective angle of attack profile changes from sinusoidal to trapezoidal.

Keywords: two-dimensional flapping airfoil, thrust performance, effective angle of attack, CFD, experiments

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1296 Settlement Analysis of Back-To-Back Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls

Authors: Akhila Palat, B. Umashankar


Back-to-back Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) walls are cost-effective soil-retaining structures that can tolerate large settlements compared to conventional gravity retaining walls. They are also an economical way to meet everyday earth retention needs for highway and bridge grade separations, railroads, commercial and residential developments. But, existing design guidelines (FHWA/BS/ IS codes) do not provide a mechanistic approach for the design of back-to-back reinforced retaining walls. The settlement analysis of such structures is limited in the literature. A better understanding of the deformations of this wall system requires an analytical tool that incorporates the properties of backfill material, foundation soil, and geosynthetic reinforcement, and account for the soil–structure interactions in a realistic manner. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of reinforced back-to-back MSE walls on wall settlements and facing deformations. Back-to-back reinforced retaining walls were modeled and compared using commercially available finite difference package FLAC 2D. Parametric studies were carried out for various angles of shearing resistance of backfill material and foundation soil, and the axial stiffness of the reinforcement. A 6m-high wall was modeled, and the facing panels were taken as full-length panels with nominal thickness. Reinforcement was modeled as cable elements (two-dimensional structural elements). Interfaces were considered between soil and wall, and soil and reinforcement.

Keywords: back-to-back walls, numerical modeling, reinforced wall, settlement

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1295 Investigation of Flow Characteristics of Trapezoidal Side Weir in Rectangular Channel for Subcritical Flow

Authors: Malkhan Thakur, P. Deepak Kumar, P. K. S. Dikshit


In recent years, the hydraulic behavior of side weirs has been the subject of many investigations. Most of the studies have been in connection with specific problems and have involved models. This is perhaps understandable, since a generalized treatment is made difficult by the large number of possible variables to be used to define the problem. A variety of empirical head discharge relationships have been suggested for side weirs. These empirical approaches failed to adequately consider the actual situation, and produced equations applicable only in circumstances virtually identical to those of the experiment. The present investigation is targeted to study to a greater depth the effect of different trapezium angles of a trapezoidal side weir and study of water surface profile in spatially varied flow with decreasing discharge maintaining the main channel flow subcritical. On the basis of experiment, the relationship between upstream Froude number and coefficient of discharge has been established. All the characteristics of spatially varied flow with decreasing discharge have been studied and subsequently formulated. The scope of the present investigation has been basically limited to a one-dimensional model of flow for the purpose of analysis. A formulation has been derived using the theoretical concept of constant specific energy. Coefficient of discharge has been calculated and experimental results were presented.

Keywords: weirs, subcritical flow, rectangular channel, trapezoidal side weir

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1294 Resistivity Tomography Optimization Based on Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection Algorithm

Authors: Yiwei Huang, Chunyu Zhao, Jingjing Ding


Electrical Resistivity Tomography has been widely used in the medicine and the geology, such as the imaging of the lung impedance and the analysis of the soil impedance, etc. Linear Back Projection is the core algorithm of Electrical Resistivity Tomography, but the traditional Linear Back Projection can not make full use of the information of the electric field. In this paper, an imaging method of Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection for Electrical Resistivity Tomography is proposed, which generates the electric field distribution that is not linearly related to the traditional Linear Back Projection, captures the new information and improves the imaging accuracy without increasing the number of electrodes by changing the connection mode of the electrodes. The simulation results show that the accuracy of the image obtained by the inverse operation obtained by the Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection can be improved by about 20%.

Keywords: electrical resistivity tomography, finite element simulation, image optimization, parallel electrode linear back projection

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1293 Immediate Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerves Stimulation on Flexibility and Health Status in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain (A Pilot Study)

Authors: Narupon Kunbootsri, Patpiya Sirasaporn


Low back pain is the most common of chief complaints in chronic pain. Low back pain directly affect to activities daily living and also has high socioeconomic costs. The prevalence of low back pain is high in both genders in all populations. The symptoms of low back pain including, pain at low back area, muscle spasm, tenderness points and stiff back. Trancutanous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is one of modalities mainly use for control pain. There was indicated that TENS is wildly use in low back pain, but no scientific data about the flexibility of muscle after TENS in low back pain. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate immediate effect of TENS on flexibility and health status in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eight chronic nonspecific low back pain patients 1 male and 7 female employed in this study. Participants were diagnosed by a doctor based on history and physical examination. Each participant received treatment at physiotherapy unit. Participants completed Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), numeric rating scale (NRS) and trunk flexibility before treatment. Each participant received low frequency TENS set at asymmetrical, 10 Hz, 20 minutes per point. Immediately after treatment, participants completed RNS, RMDQ and trunk flexibility again. All participants were treated by only one physiotherapist. There was a statistically significant increased in flexibility immediately after low frequency TENS [mean difference -6.37 with 95%CI were (-8.35)-(-4.39)]. There was a statistically significant decreased in numeric rating scale [mean difference 2.13 with 95%CI were 1.08-3.16]. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire showed improvement of health status average 44.8% immediately after treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that immediately effect after low frequency TENS can decrease pain and improve flexibility of back muscle in chronic nonspecific low back pain patients.

Keywords: low back pain, flexibility, TENS, chronic

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1292 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee


Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, joint contact force, kinetic, muscle force

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1291 Modeling of Crack Propagation Path in Concrete with Coarse Trapezoidal Aggregates by Boundary Element Method

Authors: Chong Wang, Alexandre Urbano Hoffmann


Interaction between a crack and a trapezoidal aggregate in a single edge notched concrete beam is simulated using boundary element method with an automatic crack extension program. The stress intensity factors of the growing crack are obtained from the J-integral. Three crack extension paths: deflecting around the particulate, growing along the interface and penetrating into the particulate are achieved in terms of the mismatch state of mechanical characteristics of matrix and the particulate. The toughening is also given by the ratio of stress intensity factors. The results reveal that as stress shielding occurs, toughening is obtained when the crack is approaching to a stiff and strong aggregate weakly bonded to a relatively soft matrix. The present work intends to help for the design of aggregate reinforced concretes.

Keywords: aggregate concrete, boundary element method, two-phase composite, crack extension path, crack/particulate interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
1290 Comparing Effects of Supervised Exercise Therapy versus Home-Based Exercise Therapy on Low Back Pain Severity, Muscle Strength and Anthropometric Parameters in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Haleh Dadgostar, Faramarz Akbari, Hosien Vahid Tari, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Mohammad Razi


Introduction: There are a number of exercises-protocols have been applied to improve low back pain. We compared the effect of supervised exercise therapy and home-based exercise therapy among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Methods: 70 patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomly (using a random number generator, excel) divided into two groups to compare the effects of two types of exercise therapy. After a common educational session to learn how to live with low back pain as well as to use core training protocols to strengthen the muscles, the subjects were randomly assigned to follow supervised exercise therapy (n = 31) or home-based exercise therapy (n = 34) for 20 weeks. Results: Although both types of exercise programs resulted in reduced pain, this factor decreased more significantly in supervised exercise program. All scores of fitness improved significantly in supervised exercise group. But only knee extensor strength score was increased in the home base exercise group. Conclusion: Comparing between two types of exercise, supervised group exercise showed more effective than the other one. Reduction in low back pain severity and improvement in muscle flexibility and strength can be more achieved by using a 20-week supervised exercise program compared to the home-based exercise program in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.

Keywords: low back pain, anthropometric parameters, supervised exercise therapy, home-based exercise therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1289 Physical and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Occupational Lower Back/Neck Pain among Industrial Workers

Authors: Ghorbanali Mohammadi


Background: The objectives of this study were the association between physical and psychological risk factors for occupational lower back and neck pain among industrial workers. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 400 male workers of an industrial company over the previous 7days and 12 months. Data were collected using the Nordic and third versions of COPSOO questionnaires and the QEC method for assessment of postures during the work. Results: The prevalence of low back (LB) and neck pain (NP) in the last 12 months is 58% and 52%, respectively. The relationship between risk factors and low back/neck pain in the last 12 months were cognitive demands (OR 995% CI 1.65) and (OR 995% CI 1.75); influence at work (OR 995% CI 2.21) and (OR 995% CI 1.85); quality of leadership (OR 995% CI 2.42) and (OR 995% CI 2.09) was strongly correlated with complaints of low back and neck pains. Conclusion: Data of this study showed a higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and NP in the subjects. The results revealed that workers with work experience of more than 12 yrs. and who work more than eight hrs. a day with smoking habits had more probability of developing both LBP and NP.

Keywords: low back pain, neck pain, physical risk factors, psychological risk factors, QEC, COPSOQ III

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1288 Improvement of Cross Range Resolution in Through Wall Radar Imaging Using Bilateral Backprojection

Authors: Rashmi Yadawad, Disha Narayanan, Ravi Gautam


Through Wall Radar Imaging is gaining increasing importance now a days in the field of Defense and one of the most important criteria that forms the basis for the image quality obtained is the Cross-Range resolution of the image. In this research paper, the Bilateral Back projection algorithm has been implemented for Through Wall Radar Imaging. The sole purpose is to enhance the resolution in the cross range direction of the obtained Back projection image. Synthetic Data is generated for two targets which are placed at various locations in a room of dimensions 8 m by 6m. Two algorithms namely, simple back projection and Bilateral Back projection have been implemented, images are obtained and the obtained images are compared. Numerical simulations have been coded in MATLAB and experimental results of the two algorithms have been shown. Based on the comparison between the two images, it can be clearly seen that the ringing effect and chess board effect have been heavily reduced in the bilaterally back projected image and hence promising results are obtained giving a relatively sharper image with relatively well defined edges.

Keywords: through wall radar imaging, bilateral back projection, cross range resolution, synthetic data

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1287 Interactive Solutions for the Multi-Objective Capacitated Transportation Problem with Mixed Constraints under Fuzziness

Authors: Aquil Ahmed, Srikant Gupta, Irfan Ali


In this paper, we study a multi-objective capacitated transportation problem (MOCTP) with mixed constraints. This paper is comprised of the modelling and optimisation of an MOCTP in a fuzzy environment in which some goals are fractional and some are linear. In real life application of the fuzzy goal programming (FGP) problem with multiple objectives, it is difficult for the decision maker(s) to determine the goal value of each objective precisely as the goal values are imprecise or uncertain. Also, we developed the concept of linearization of fractional goal for solving the MOCTP. In this paper, imprecision of the parameter is handled by the concept of fuzzy set theory by considering these parameters as a trapezoidal fuzzy number. α-cut approach is used to get the crisp value of the parameters. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the method for solving MOCTP.

Keywords: capacitated transportation problem, multi objective linear programming, multi-objective fractional programming, fuzzy goal programming, fuzzy sets, trapezoidal fuzzy number

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1286 Disability and Quality of Life in Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zarina Zahari, Maria Justine, Kamaria Kamaruddin


Low back pain (LBP) is a major musculoskeletal problem in global population. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pain, disability and quality of life in patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). One hundred LBP participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study (mean age = 42.23±11.34 years old). Pain was measured using Numerical Rating Scale (11-point). Disability was assessed using the revised Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (ODQ) and quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using the SF-36 v2. Majority of participants (58%) presented with moderate pain and 49% experienced severe disability. Thus, the pain and disability were found significant with negative correlation (r= -0.712, p<0.05). The pain and QoL also showed significant and positive correlation with both Physical Health Component Summary (PHCS) (r= .840, p<0.05) and Mental Health Component Summary (MHCS) (r= 0.446, p<0.05). Regression analysis indicated that pain emerged as an indicator of both disability and QoL (PHCS and MHCS) accounting for 51%, 71% and 21% of the variances respectively. This indicates that pain is an important factor in predicting disability and QoL in LBP sufferers.

Keywords: disability, low back pain, pain, quality of life

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1285 Socio-Demographic and Work Related Variables as Predictor of Persistence of Back Pain and Disability among Civil Servants Receiving Physiotherapy in Tertiary Health Institutions in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullah Abdulsalam, Adamu Balami, Olajide Olubanji Olowe, Maryam Abdu Abdulkadir


The development and persistence of low back pain may be influenced by several factors which include lifestyle factors, previous pain symptoms, psychological factors, workplace factors as well as socio-demographic variables. The focus of this study was to determine the socio-demographic and work related variables as a predictor of persistence of back pain and disability among civil servants receiving physiotherapy in tertiary health institutions in Kano, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty nine newly referred low back pain patients for physiotherapy participated in the study. This study was a cross sectional study involving patients that were newly diagnosed of back pain, referred and received physiotherapy. The convenience sampling technique was used to select the patients based on the inclusion criteria. The data obtained was analysed using simple percentage and multiple regression for stated hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings reveal that all the variables are not significant predictor of persistence of back pain and disability. The study recommended that determinants of low back pain recovery by clinician should include other clinical factors not only reduction in pain intensity.

Keywords: socio-demographic, work related variables, Kano state, back pain and disability

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1284 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting on Spring-Back in V-Bending Process for High Strength Low Alloy Steel HSLA 420 Using FEA (HyperForm) and Taguchi Technique

Authors: Navajyoti Panda, R. S. Pawar


In this study, process parameters like punch angle, die opening, grain direction, and pre-bend condition of the strip for deep draw of high strength low alloy steel HSLA 420 are investigated. The finite element method (FEM) in association with the Taguchi and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques are carried out to investigate the degree of importance of process parameters in V-bending process for HSLA 420&ST12 grade material. From results, it is observed that punch angle had a major influence on the spring-back. Die opening also showed very significant role on spring back. On the other hand, it is revealed that grain direction had the least impact on spring back; however, if strip from flat sheet is taken, then it is less prone to spring back as compared to the strip from sheet metal coil. HyperForm software is used for FEM simulation and experiments are designed using Taguchi method. Percentage contribution of the parameters is obtained through the ANOVA techniques.

Keywords: bending, spring-back, v-bending, FEM, Taguchi, HSLA 420 and St12 materials, HyperForm, profile projector

Procedia PDF Downloads 108