Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2160

Search results for: velocity profiles

2160 Velocity Distribution in Density Currents Flowing over Rough Beds

Authors: Reza Nasrollahpour, Mohamad Hidayat Bin Jamal, Zulhilmi Bin Ismail

Abstract:

Density currents are generated when the fluid of one density is released into another fluid with a different density. These currents occur in a variety of natural and man-made environments, and this emphasises the importance of studying them. In most practical cases, the density currents flow over the surfaces which are not plane; however, there have been limited investigations in this regard. This study uses laboratory experiments to analyse the influence of bottom roughness on the velocity distribution within these dense underflows. The currents are analysed over a plane surface and three different configurations of beam-roughened beds. The velocity profiles are collected using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry technique, and the distribution of velocity within these currents is formulated for the tested beds. The results indicate that the empirical power and Gaussian relations can describe the velocity distribution in the inner and outer regions of the profiles, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the bottom roughness is the primary controlling parameter in the inner region.

Keywords: density currents, velocity profiles, Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, bed roughness

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2159 Experimental Investigation of S822 and S823 Wind Turbine Airfoils Wake

Authors: Amir B. Khoshnevis, Morteza Mirhosseini

Abstract:

The paper deals with a sub-part of an extensive research program on the wake survey method in various Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. This research experimentally investigates the wake flow characteristics behind S823 and S822 airfoils in which designed for small wind turbines. Velocity measurements determined by using hot-wire anemometer. Data acquired in the wake of the airfoil at locations(c is the chord length): 0.01c - 3c. Reynolds number increased due to increase of free stream velocity. Results showed that mean velocity profiles depend on the angle of attack and location of data collections. Data acquired at the low Reynolds numbers (smaller than 10^5). Effects of Reynolds numbers on the mean velocity profiles are more significant in near locations the trailing edge and these effects decrease by taking distance from trailing edge toward downstream. Mean velocity profiles region increased by increasing the angle of attack, except for 7°, and also the maximum velocity deficit (velocity defect) increased. The difference of mean velocity in and out of the wake decreased by taking distance from trailing edge, and mean velocity profile become wider and more uniform.

Keywords: angle of attack, Reynolds number, velocity deficit, separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
2158 A Comparison of Computational and Experimental Data to Investigate the Influence of the Tangential Velocity of Inner Rotating Wall on Axial Velocity Profile of Flow through Vertical Annular Pipe with Rotating Inner Surface

Authors: Abdusalam Sharf

Abstract:

In the oil and gas industries, one of the most important issues in drilling wells is understanding the behavior of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates. The main emphasis is placed on a comparison of experimental and computational investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The computational investigations were carried out by employing CFD software, and Gambit and Fluent. Three turbulence models were used: standard, RNG with enhanced wall treatment, and SST model. The profiles of the axial velocity had investigated at different rotation speeds of the inner pipe with three different volumetric flow rates. The comparison results showed that the calculations satisfactorily predict the qualitative features of the axial and swirl velocity profiles and the RNG model performs the best results.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), SST k−ω shear-stress transport (k−ω mode variant), RNG k–ε renormalisation group (k−ε mode variant), y+ dimensionless distance from wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
2157 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: E. Keramaris

Abstract:

In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number

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2156 Visco-Acoustic Full Wave Inversion in the Frequency Domain with Mixed Grids

Authors: Sheryl Avendaño, Miguel Ospina, Hebert Montegranario

Abstract:

Full Wave Inversion (FWI) is a variant of seismic tomography for obtaining velocity profiles by an optimization process that combine forward modelling (or solution of wave equation) with the misfit between synthetic and observed data. In this research we are modelling wave propagation in a visco-acoustic medium in the frequency domain. We apply finite differences for the numerical solution of the wave equation with a mix between usual and rotated grids, where density depends on velocity and there exists a damping function associated to a linear dissipative medium. The velocity profiles are obtained from an initial one and the data have been modeled for a frequency range 0-120 Hz. By an iterative procedure we obtain an estimated velocity profile in which are detailed the remarkable features of the velocity profile from which synthetic data were generated showing promising results for our method.

Keywords: seismic inversion, full wave inversion, visco acoustic wave equation, finite diffrence methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
2155 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-To-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1 m tall methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The measurement of axial levels was conducted in the full developed region. The effect of axial level on flow development was not obvious under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons between upward, downward and average particle velocity were conducted. The average particle velocity was close to upward velocity and higher than downward velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile

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2154 An Experimental (Wind Tunnel) and Numerical (CFD) Study on the Flow over Hills

Authors: Tanit Daniel Jodar Vecina, Adriane Prisco Petry

Abstract:

The shape of the wind velocity profile changes according to local features of terrain shape and roughness, which are parameters responsible for defining the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) profile. Air flow characteristics over and around landforms, such as hills, are of considerable importance for applications related to Wind Farm and Turbine Engineering. The air flow is accelerated on top of hills, which can represent a decisive factor for Wind Turbine placement choices. The present work focuses on the study of ABL behavior as a function of slope and surface roughness of hill-shaped landforms, using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to build wind velocity and turbulent intensity profiles. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are closed using the SST k-ω turbulence model; numerical results are compared to experimental data measured in wind tunnel over scale models of the hills under consideration. Eight hill models with slopes varying from 25° to 68° were tested for two types of terrain categories in 2D and 3D, and two analytical codes are used to represent the inlet velocity profiles. Numerical results for the velocity profiles show differences under 4% when compared to their respective experimental data. Turbulent intensity profiles show maximum differences around 7% when compared to experimental data; this can be explained by not being possible to insert inlet turbulent intensity profiles in the simulations. Alternatively, constant values based on the averages of the turbulent intensity at the wind tunnel inlet were used.

Keywords: Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD), Numerical Modeling, Wind Tunnel

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2153 Free Convection from a Perforated Spinning Cone with Heat Generation, Temperature-Dependent Viscosity and Partial Slip

Authors: Gilbert Makanda

Abstract:

The problem of free convection from a perforated spinning cone with viscous dissipation, temperature-dependent viscosity, and partial slip was studied. The boundary layer velocity and temperature profiles were numerically computed for different values of the spin, viscosity variation, inertia drag force, Eckert, suction/blowing parameters. The partial differential equations were transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations which were solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. This paper considered the effect of partial slip and spin parameters on the swirling velocity profiles which are rarely reported in the literature. The results obtained by this method was compared to those in the literature and found to be in agreement. Increasing the viscosity variation parameter, spin, partial slip, Eckert number, Darcian drag force parameters reduce swirling velocity profiles.

Keywords: free convection, suction/injection, partial slip, viscous dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2152 Effect of Baffles on the Cooling of Electronic Components

Authors: O. Bendermel, C. Seladji, M. Khaouani

Abstract:

In this work, we made a numerical study of the thermal and dynamic behaviour of air in a horizontal channel with electronic components. The influence to use baffles on the profiles of velocity and temperature is discussed. The finite volume method and the algorithm Simple are used for solving the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The results found show that baffles improve heat transfer between the cooling air and electronic components. The velocity will increase from 3 times per rapport of the initial velocity.

Keywords: electronic components, baffles, cooling, fluids engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2151 Measurement of Steady Streaming from an Oscillating Bubble Using Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Yongseok Kwon, Woowon Jeong, Eunjin Cho, Sangkug Chung, Kyehan Rhee

Abstract:

Steady streaming flow fields induced by a 500 um bubble oscillating at 12 kHz were measured using microscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). The accuracy of velocity measurement using a micro PIV system was checked by comparing the measured velocity fields with the theoretical velocity profiles in fully developed laminar flow. The steady streaming flow velocities were measured in the saggital plane of the bubble attached on the wall. Measured velocity fields showed upward jet flow with two symmetric counter-rotating vortices, and the maximum streaming velocity was about 12 mm/s, which was within the velocity ranges measured by other researchers. The measured streamlines were compared with the analytic solution, and they also showed a reasonable agreement.

Keywords: oscillating bubble, particle image velocimetry, microstreaming, vortices,

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2150 Unsteady and Steady State in Natural Convection

Authors: Syukri Himran, Erwin Eka Putra, Nanang Roni

Abstract:

This study explains the natural convection of viscous fluid flowing on semi-infinite vertical plate. A set of the governing equations describing the continuity, momentum and energy, have been reduced to dimensionless forms by introducing the references variables. To solve the problems, the equations are formulated by explicit finite-difference in time dependent form and computations are performed by Fortran program. The results describe velocity, temperature profiles both in transient and steady state conditions. An approximate value of heat transfer coefficient and the effects of Pr on convection flow are also presented.

Keywords: natural convection, vertical plate, velocity and temperature profiles, steady and unsteady

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2149 Velocity Profiles of Vowel Perception by Javanese and Sundanese English Language Learners

Authors: Arum Perwitasari

Abstract:

Learning L2 sounds is influenced by the first language (L1) sound system. This current study seeks to examine how the listeners with a different L1 vowel system perceive L2 sounds. The fact that English has a bigger number of vowel inventory than Javanese and Sundanese L1 might cause problems for Javanese and Sundanese English language learners perceiving English sounds. To reveal the L2 sound perception over time, we measured the mouse trajectories related to the hand movements made by Javanese and Sundanese language learners, two of Indonesian local languages. Do the Javanese and Sundanese listeners show higher velocity than the English listeners when they perceive English vowels which are similar and new to their L1 system? The study aims to map the patterns of real-time processing through compatible hand movements to reveal any uncertainties when making selections. The results showed that the Javanese listeners exhibited significantly slower velocity values than the English listeners for similar vowels /I, ɛ, ʊ/ in the 826-1200ms post stimulus. Unlike the Javanese, the Sundanese listeners showed slow velocity values except for similar vowel /ʊ/. For the perception of new vowels /i:, æ, ɜ:, ʌ, ɑː, u:, ɔ:/, the Javanese listeners showed slower velocity in making the lexical decision. In contrast, the Sundanese listeners showed slow velocity only for vowels /ɜ:, ɔ:, æ, I/ indicating that these vowels are hard to perceive. Our results fit well with the second language model representing how the L1 vowel system influences the L2 sound perception.

Keywords: velocity profiles, EFL learners, speech perception, experimental linguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
2148 A Comparative Study of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) for Airflow Measurement

Authors: Sijie Fu, Pascal-Henry Biwolé, Christian Mathis

Abstract:

Among modern airflow measurement methods, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV), as visualized and non-instructive measurement techniques, are playing more important role. This paper conducts a comparative experimental study for airflow measurement employing both techniques with the same condition. Velocity vector fields, velocity contour fields, voticity profiles and turbulence profiles are selected as the comparison indexes. The results show that the performance of both PIV and PTV techniques for airflow measurement is satisfied, but some differences between the both techniques are existed, it suggests that selecting the measurement technique should be based on a comprehensive consideration.

Keywords: airflow measurement, comparison, PIV, PTV

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2147 Towards Accurate Velocity Profile Models in Turbulent Open-Channel Flows: Improved Eddy Viscosity Formulation

Authors: W. Meron Mebrahtu, R. Absi

Abstract:

Velocity distribution in turbulent open-channel flows is organized in a complex manner. This is due to the large spatial and temporal variability of fluid motion resulting from the free-surface turbulent flow condition. This phenomenon is complicated further due to the complex geometry of channels and the presence of solids transported. Thus, several efforts were made to understand the phenomenon and obtain accurate mathematical models that are suitable for engineering applications. However, predictions are inaccurate because oversimplified assumptions are involved in modeling this complex phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study velocity distribution profiles and obtain simple, more accurate, and predictive mathematical models. Particular focus will be made on the acceptable simplification of the general transport equations and an accurate representation of eddy viscosity. Wide rectangular open-channel seems suitable to begin the study; other assumptions are smooth-wall, and sediment-free flow under steady and uniform flow conditions. These assumptions will allow examining the effect of the bottom wall and the free surface only, which is a necessary step before dealing with more complex flow scenarios. For this flow condition, two ordinary differential equations are obtained for velocity profiles; from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation and equilibrium consideration between turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production and dissipation. Then different analytic models for eddy viscosity, TKE, and mixing length were assessed. Computation results for velocity profiles were compared to experimental data for different flow conditions and the well-known linear, log, and log-wake laws. Results show that the model based on the RANS equation provides more accurate velocity profiles. In the viscous sublayer and buffer layer, the method based on Prandtl’s eddy viscosity model and Van Driest mixing length give a more precise result. For the log layer and outer region, a mixing length equation derived from Von Karman’s similarity hypothesis provides the best agreement with measured data except near the free surface where an additional correction based on a damping function for eddy viscosity is used. This method allows more accurate velocity profiles with the same value of the damping coefficient that is valid under different flow conditions. This work continues with investigating narrow channels, complex geometries, and the effect of solids transported in sewers.

Keywords: accuracy, eddy viscosity, sewers, velocity profile

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2146 Implication of Soil and Seismic Ground Motion Variability on Dynamic Pile Group Impedance for Bridges

Authors: Muhammad Tariq Chaudhary

Abstract:

Bridges constitute a vital link in a transportation system and their functionality after an earthquake is critical in reducing disruption to social and economic activities of the society. Bridges supported on pile foundations are commonly used in many earthquake-prone regions. In order to properly design or investigate the performance of such structures, it is imperative that the effect of soil-foundation-structure interaction be properly taken into account. This study focused on the influence of soil and seismic ground motion variability on the dynamic impedance of pile-group foundations typically used for medium-span (about 30 m) urban viaduct bridges. Soil profiles corresponding to various AASHTO soil classes were selected from actual data of such bridges and / or from the literature. The selected soil profiles were subjected to 1-D wave propagation analysis to determine effective values of soil shear modulus and damping ratio for a suite of properly selected actual seismic ground motions varying in PGA from 0.01g to 0.64g, and having variable velocity and frequency content. The effective values of the soil parameters were then employed to determine the dynamic impedance of pile groups in horizontal, vertical and rocking modes in various soil profiles. Pile diameter was kept constant for bridges in various soil profiles while pile length and number of piles were changed based on AASHTO design requirements for various soil profiles and earthquake ground motions. Conclusions were drawn regarding variability in effective soil shear modulus, soil damping, shear wave velocity and pile group impedance for various soil profiles and ground motions and its implications for design and evaluation of pile-supported bridges. It was found that even though the effective soil parameters underwent drastic variation with increasing PGA, the pile group impedance was not affected much in properly designed pile foundations due to the corresponding increase in pile length or increase in a number of piles or both when subjected to increasing PGA or founded in weaker soil profiles.

Keywords: bridge, pile foundation, dynamic foundation impedance, soil profile, shear wave velocity, seismic ground motion, seismic wave propagation

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2145 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

Authors: Xiaolai Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affect the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fixed fluidized bed, LDV, Velocity

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2144 Oscillatory Electroosmotic Flow of Power-Law Fluids in a Microchannel

Authors: Rubén Bãnos, José Arcos, Oscar Bautista, Federico Méndez

Abstract:

The Oscillatory electroosmotic flow (OEOF) in power law fluids through a microchannel is studied numerically. A time-dependent external electric field (AC) is suddenly imposed at the ends of the microchannel which induces the fluid motion. The continuity and momentum equations in the x and y direction for the flow field were simplified in the limit of the lubrication approximation theory (LAT), and then solved using a numerical scheme. The solution of the electric potential is based on the Debye-H¨uckel approximation which suggest that the surface potential is small,say, smaller than 0.025V and for a symmetric (z : z) electrolyte. Our results suggest that the velocity profiles across the channel-width are controlled by the following dimensionless parameters: the angular Reynolds number, Reω, the electrokinetic parameter, ¯κ, defined as the ratio of the characteristic length scale to the Debye length, the parameter λ which represents the ratio of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity to the characteristic length scale and the flow behavior index, n. Also, the results reveal that the velocity profiles become more and more non-uniform across the channel-width as the Reω and ¯κ are increased, so oscillatory OEOF can be really useful in micro-fluidic devices such as micro-mixers.

Keywords: low zeta potentials, non-newtonian, oscillatory electroosmotic flow, power-law model

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2143 Microjetting from a Grooved Metal Surface under Decaying Shocks

Authors: Jian-Li Shao

Abstract:

Using Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations, we simulated the microjet from the metal surface under decaying shock loading. The microjetting processes under release melting conditions are presented in detail, and some properties on the microjet mass and velocity are revealed. The phased increase of microjet mass with shock pressure is found. For all cases, the ratio of the maximal jetting velocity to the surface velocity approximately keeps a constant for liquid state. In addition, the temperature of the microjet can be always above the melting point. When introducing slow decaying profiles, the microjet mass begins to increase with the decay rate, which is dominated by the deformation of the bubble during pull-back. When the decay rate becomes fast enough, the microspall occurs as expected, meanwhile, the microjet appears to reduce because of the shock energy reduction.

Keywords: microjetting, shock, metal, molecular dynamics

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2142 Multichannel Analysis of the Surface Waves of Earth Materials in Some Parts of Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: R. B. Adegbola, K. F. Oyedele, L. Adeoti

Abstract:

We present a method that utilizes Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves, which was used to measure shear wave velocities with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some Local Government Area, Lagos, Nigeria. Multi channel Analysis of Surface waves (MASW) data were acquired using 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into two-dimensional (2-D) structure reflective of depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0–15m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrates the accuracy and consistency of MASW derived-shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/very low velocity are reflective of organic clay/peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failed, subsidence/weakening of structures within the study areas.

Keywords: seismograph, road failure, rigidity modulus, N-value, subsidence

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2141 Application of Seismic Refraction Method in Geotechnical Study

Authors: Abdalla Mohamed M. Musbahi

Abstract:

The study area lies in Al-Falah area on Airport-Tripoli in Zone (16) Where planned establishment of complex multi-floors for residential and commercial, this part was divided into seven subzone. In each sup zone, were collected Orthogonal profiles by using Seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this project is to investigate the applicability of Seismic refraction method is a commonly used traditional geophysical technique to determine depth-to-bedrock, competence of bedrock, depth to the water table, or depth to other seismic velocity boundaries The purpose of the work is to make engineers and decision makers recognize the importance of planning and execution of a pre-investigation program including geophysics and in particular seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this thesis is achieved by evaluation of seismic refraction method in different scales, determine the depth and velocity of the base layer (bed-rock). Calculate the elastic property in each layer in the region by using the Seismic refraction method. The orthogonal profiles was carried out in every subzones of (zone 16). The layout of the seismic refraction set up is schematically, the geophones are placed on the linear imaginary line whit a 5 m spacing, the three shot points (in beginning of layout–mid and end of layout) was used, in order to generate the P and S waves. The 1st and last shot point is placed about 5 meters from the geophones and the middle shot point is put in between 12th to 13th geophone, from time-distance curve the P and S waves was calculated and the thickness was estimated up to three-layers. As we know any change in values of physical properties of medium (shear modulus, bulk modulus, density) leads to change waves velocity which passing through medium where any change in properties of rocks cause change in velocity of waves. because the change in properties of rocks cause change in parameters of medium density (ρ), bulk modulus (κ), shear modulus (μ). Therefore, the velocity of waves which travel in rocks have close relationship with these parameters. Therefore we can estimate theses parameters by knowing primary and secondary velocity (p-wave, s-wave).

Keywords: application of seismic, geotechnical study, physical properties, seismic refraction

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2140 Numerical Solutions of Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Generalized Slip Velocity

Authors: Roslinda Nazar, Ezad Hafidz Hafidzuddin, Norihan M. Arifin, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of steady laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip velocity is considered. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in MATLAB. Dual solutions are found for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. The effects of the suction parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate, and Prandtl number on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.

Keywords: boundary layer, exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet, generalized slip, heat transfer, numerical solutions

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2139 MHD Chemically Reacting Viscous Fluid Flow towards a Vertical Surface with Slip and Convective Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ibrahim Yakubu Seini, Oluwole Daniel Makinde

Abstract:

MHD chemically reacting viscous fluid flow towards a vertical surface with slip and convective boundary conditions has been conducted. The temperature and the chemical species concentration of the surface and the velocity of the external flow are assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the vertical surface. The governing differential equations are modeled and transformed into systems of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically by a shooting method. The effects of various parameters on the heat and mass transfer characteristics are discussed. Graphical results are presented for the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles whilst the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat and mass transfers near the surface are presented in tables and discussed. The results revealed that increasing the strength of the magnetic field increases the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat and mass transfers toward the surface. The velocity profiles are increased towards the surface due to the presence of the Lorenz force, which attracts the fluid particles near the surface. The rate of chemical reaction is seen to decrease the concentration boundary layer near the surface due to the destructive chemical reaction occurring near the surface.

Keywords: boundary layer, surface slip, MHD flow, chemical reaction, heat transfer, mass transfer

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2138 Natural Convection between Two Parallel Wavy Plates

Authors: Si Abdallah Mayouf

Abstract:

In this work, the effects of the wavy surface on free convection heat transfer boundary layer flow between two parallel wavy plates have been studied numerically. The two plates are considered at a constant temperature. The equations and the boundary conditions are discretized by the finite difference scheme and solved numerically using the Gauss-Seidel algorithm. The important parameters in this problem are the amplitude of the wavy surfaces and the distance between the two wavy plates. Results are presented as velocity profiles, temperature profiles and local Nusselt number according to the important parameters.

Keywords: free convection, wavy surface, parallel plates, fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
2137 Effect of Velocity-Slip in Nanoscale Electroosmotic Flows: Molecular and Continuum Transport Perspectives

Authors: Alper T. Celebi, Ali Beskok

Abstract:

Electroosmotic (EO) slip flows in nanochannels are investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the results are compared with analytical solution of Poisson-Boltzmann and Stokes (PB-S) equations with slip contribution. The ultimate objective of this study is to show that well-known continuum flow model can accurately predict the EO velocity profiles in nanochannels using the slip lengths and apparent viscosities obtained from force-driven flow simulations performed at various liquid-wall interaction strengths. EO flow of aqueous NaCl solution in silicon nanochannels are simulated under realistic electrochemical conditions within the validity region of Poisson-Boltzmann theory. A physical surface charge density is determined for nanochannels based on dissociations of silanol functional groups on channel surfaces at known salt concentration, temperature and local pH. First, we present results of density profiles and ion distributions by equilibrium MD simulations, ensuring that the desired thermodynamic state and ionic conditions are satisfied. Next, force-driven nanochannel flow simulations are performed to predict the apparent viscosity of ionic solution between charged surfaces and slip lengths. Parabolic velocity profiles obtained from force-driven flow simulations are fitted to a second-order polynomial equation, where viscosity and slip lengths are quantified by comparing the coefficients of the fitted equation with continuum flow model. Presence of charged surface increases the viscosity of ionic solution while the velocity-slip at wall decreases. Afterwards, EO flow simulations are carried out under uniform electric field for different liquid-wall interaction strengths. Velocity profiles present finite slips near walls, followed with a conventional viscous flow profile in the electrical double layer that reaches a bulk flow region in the center of the channel. The EO flow enhances with increased slip at the walls, which depends on wall-liquid interaction strength and the surface charge. MD velocity profiles are compared with the predictions from analytical solutions of the slip modified PB-S equation, where the slip length and apparent viscosity values are obtained from force-driven flow simulations in charged silicon nano-channels. Our MD results show good agreements with the analytical solutions at various slip conditions, verifying the validity of PB-S equation in nanochannels as small as 3.5 nm. In addition, the continuum model normalizes slip length with the Debye length instead of the channel height, which implies that enhancement in EO flows is independent of the channel height. Further MD simulations performed at different channel heights also shows that the flow enhancement due to slip is independent of the channel height. This is important because slip enhanced EO flow is observable even in micro-channels experiments by using a hydrophobic channel with large slip and high conductivity solutions with small Debye length. The present study provides an advanced understanding of EO flows in nanochannels. Correct characterization of nanoscale EO slip flow is crucial to discover the extent of well-known continuum models, which is required for various applications spanning from ion separation to drug delivery and bio-fluidic analysis.

Keywords: electroosmotic flow, molecular dynamics, slip length, velocity-slip

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2136 Use of Dendrochronology in Estimation of Creep Velocity and Its Dependence on the Bulk Density of Soils

Authors: Mohammad Amjad Sabir, Ishtiaq Khan, Shahid Ali, Umar Shabbir, Aneel Ahmad

Abstract:

Creep, being the main silt contributor to the rivers, is a slow, downhill flow of soils. The creep velocity is measured in millimeters to a couple of centimeters per year and is determined with the help of tilt caused by creep in the vertical objects and needs at least ten years to get a reliable creep velocity. This project was devised to calculate creep velocity using dendrochronology and looking for the difference of creep velocity registered by different trees on the same slope. It was concluded that dendrochronology provides a very reliable procedure of creep velocity estimation if ‘J’ shaped trees are studied for their horizontal movement and age. The age of these trees was measured using tree coring, and the horizontal movement was measured with a conventional tape. Using this procedure it does not require decades and additionally the data reveals the creep velocity for up to 150 years and even more instead of just a decade. It was also concluded that the creep velocity does not only depend on bulk density of soil hence no pronounced effect of bulk density was detected.

Keywords: creep velocity, Galiyat, Pakistan, dendrochronology, Nagri Bala

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2135 Social Data Aggregator and Locator of Knowledge (STALK)

Authors: Rashmi Raghunandan, Sanjana Shankar, Rakshitha K. Bhat

Abstract:

Social media contributes a vast amount of data and information about individuals to the internet. This project will greatly reduce the need for unnecessary manual analysis of large and diverse social media profiles by filtering out and combining the useful information from various social media profiles, eliminating irrelevant data. It differs from the existing social media aggregators in that it does not provide a consolidated view of various profiles. Instead, it provides consolidated INFORMATION derived from the subject’s posts and other activities. It also allows analysis over multiple profiles and analytics based on several profiles. We strive to provide a query system to provide a natural language answer to questions when a user does not wish to go through the entire profile. The information provided can be filtered according to the different use cases it is used for.

Keywords: social network, analysis, Facebook, Linkedin, git, big data

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2134 Numerical Simulation of Sloshing Control Using Input Shaping

Authors: Dongjoo Kim

Abstract:

Effective control of sloshing in a liquid container is an important issue to be resolved in many applications. In this study, numerical simulations are performed to design the velocity profile of rectangular container and investigate the effectiveness of input shaping for sloshing control. Trapezoidal profiles of container velocity are chosen to be reference commands and they are convolved with a series of impulses to generate shaped ones that induce minimal residual oscillations. The performances of several input shapers are compared from the viewpoint of transient peak and residual oscillations of sloshing. Results show that sloshing can be effectively controlled by input shaping (Supported by the NRF programs, NRF-2015R1D1A1A01059675, of Korean government).

Keywords: input shaping, rectangular container, sloshing, trapezoidal profile

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2133 Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in a Conduit with Multiple Channels under a Magnetic Field Applied Perpendicular to the Plane of Flow

Authors: Yang Luo, Chang Nyung Kim

Abstract:

This study numerically analyzes a steady-state, three-dimensional liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in a conduit with multiple channels under a uniform magnetic field. The geometry of the conduit is of a four-parallel-channels system including one inflow channel and three outflow channels. The liquid-metal flows in the inflow channel, then turns 1800 in the transition segment, finally flows into three different outflow channels simultaneously. This kind of channel system can induce counter flow and co-flow, which is rarely investigated before. The axial velocity in the side layer near the first partitioning wall, which is located between the inflow channel and the first outflow channel, is the highest. ‘M-shaped’ velocity profiles are obtained in the side layers of the inflow and outflow channels. The interdependency of the current, fluid velocity, pressure, electric potential is examined in order to describe the electromagnetic characteristics of the liquid-metal flows.

Keywords: liquid-metal, multiple channels, magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic

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2132 Control of a Plane Jet Spread by Tabs at the Nozzle Exit

Authors: Makito Sakai, Takahiro Kiwata, Takumi Awa, Hiroshi Teramoto, Takaaki Kono, Kuniaki Toyoda

Abstract:

Using experimental and numerical results, this paper describes the effects of tabs on the flow characteristics of a plane jet at comparatively low Reynolds numbers while focusing on the velocity field and the vortical structure. The flow visualization and velocity measurements were respectively carried out using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). In addition, three-dimensional (3D) plane jet numerical simulations were performed using ANSYS Fluent, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software application. We found that the spreads of jets perturbed by large delta tabs and round tabs were larger than those produced by the other tabs tested. Additionally, it was determined that a plane jet with square tabs had the smallest jet spread downstream, and the jet’s centerline velocity was larger than those of jets perturbed by the other tabs tested. It was also observed that the spanwise vortical structure of a plane jet with tabs disappeared completely. Good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical simulation velocity profiles in the area near the nozzle exit when the laminar flow model was used. However, we also found that large eddy simulation (LES) is better at predicting the developing flow field of a plane jet than the laminar and the standard k-ε turbulent models.

Keywords: plane jet, flow control, tab, flow measurement, numerical simulation

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2131 Evaluation of Internal Friction Angle in Overconsolidated Granular Soil Deposits Using P- and S-Wave Seismic Velocities

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu

Abstract:

Determination of the internal friction angle (φ) in natural soil deposits is an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The main objective of this study was to examine the evaluation of this parameter in overconsolidated granular soil deposits by using the P-wave velocity and the anisotropic components of S-wave velocity (i.e., both the vertical component (SV) and the horizontal component (SH) of S-wave). To this end, seventeen pairs of P-wave and S-wave seismic refraction profiles were carried out at three different granular sites in Iran using non-invasive seismic wave methods. The acquired shot gathers were processed, from which the P-wave, SV-wave and SH-wave velocities were derived. The reference values of φ and overconsolidation ratio (OCR) in the soil deposits were measured through laboratory tests. By assuming cross-anisotropy of the soils, the P-wave and S-wave velocities were utilized to develop an equation for calculating the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at-rest (K₀) based on the theory of elasticity for a cross-anisotropic medium. In addition, to develop an equation for OCR estimation in granular geomaterials in terms of SH/SV velocity ratios, a general regression analysis was performed on the resulting information from this research incorporated with the respective data published in the literature. The calculated K₀ values coupled with the estimated OCR values were finally employed in the Mayne and Kulhawy formula to evaluate φ in granular soil deposits. The results showed that reliable values of φ could be estimated based on the seismic wave velocities. The findings of this study may be used as the appropriate approaches for economic and non-invasive determination of in-situ φ in granular soil deposits using the surface seismic surveys.

Keywords: angle of internal friction, overconsolidation ratio, granular soils, P-wave velocity, SV-wave velocity, SH-wave velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 65