Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6739

Search results for: regional environmental governance (REG)

6739 Examining the Possibility of Establishing Regional Environmental Governance in the Middle East

Authors: Somayeh Bahrami, Seyed Jalal Dehghani Firoozabadi

Abstract:

Environmental governance is an interdisciplinary concept in political ecology and environmental policy focusing on the necessity of embedding the environmental issues in all levels of decision-making and act of states. Similar to sustainable development the concept of environmental governance believes that economic and political life of societies and countries need to be considered as a subset of the environment. This concept has been accepted by North Countries, those that have done the most irreparable environmental damage since the Industrial Revolution. Although North Countries are more responsible for damage to the environment, considering the global fluidity logic of environmental challenges, such an impression doesn’t cause developing countries to disavow responsibility for regional and international cooperation to protect the environment. Establishing an environmental governance at all levels of local, national, regional and global is one of the most significant ways to improve sustainable development. Given to the various political and economic difficulties developing countries including the Middle East face, building environmental governance in these countries is difficult but feasible, as these difficulties have not impeded their mutual partnership for confronting joint environmental issues. However, the environmental issues wouldn’t be solved only by mutual partnership but by establishing environmental governance, establishing regional environmental institutions (an introduction to building Regional Environmental Governance) and delegation of some environmental authorities to the mentioned institutions. The research is aimed at examining necessities, opportunities, and barriers to establishing Regional Environmental Governance in the Middle East. Therefore, this research seeks to answer the question of whether establishing Regional Environmental Governance is possible in the Middle East and if so then why. This study used descriptive-analytical methods and the inferential methodology has been used to reach the goals. Data has been collected by using library and internet sources as well as news sources on the basis of objective-historical data.

Keywords: environmental democracy (ED), environmental governance (EG), middle east (ME), regional environmental governance (REG)

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6738 Good Environmental Governance Realization among the Three King Mongkut's Institutes of Technology in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Pastraporn Thipayasothorn, Vipawan Tadapratheep, Jintana Nokyoo

Abstract:

A physical realization of good environmental governance about an environmental principle, educational psychology and architecture in the three King Mongkut's Institutes of Technology, is generated for researching physical environmental factors which related to the good environmental governance, communication between the good environmental governance and a physical environmental, and a physical environmental design policy. Moreover, we collected data by a survey, observation and questionnaire that participants are students of the three King Mongkut's Institutes of Technology, and analyzed a relationship between a building utilization and the good environmental governance awareness. We found that, from the data analysis, a balance and creativity participation which played as the project users and communities of the good governance environmental promotion in the institutes helps the good governance and environmental development in the future.

Keywords: built environment, good governance, environmental governance, physical environmental

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6737 Development of Electronic Governance as an Element of Reforming State Governance According to the Adjarian Example

Authors: Irakli Manvelidze, Genadi Iashvili, Giga Phartenadze, Giorgi Katamadze

Abstract:

Establishment of electronic governance in the region is facing serious problems. Organizational, technical, social and methodological problems have been identified after the research. These problems currently create serious barriers and prevent the development of effective e-governance. Lack of human resources, difference in program targets of the centre and the region, lack of citizens’ awareness about the project of electronic governance are other issues that should be mentioned. In spite of positive changes the overall situation concerning development of modern information-communication technologies in Adjara is not satisfactory. The information systems in the region can be described as transforming in a democratic way which needs serious reforms. Current situation shows that unsystematic, uncoordinated actions were made which overall represents more chaotic rather than coordinated systematic process. Therefore, a strategic document ‘Adjarian Electronic Government’ should be created which will ensure systematic development of electronic governance in the region. The implementation of the strategy of ‘Adjarian Electronic Government’ should be based on not only conceptual and instrumental but also legal basics. A legal normative basis should be created which will include formation of electronic government’s instrumental basis as well as creation of united regional system of electronic document management. Meanwhile types of documents which would be used in inter institutional relations should be defined under a legal norm. Creation of regional united system of e-filing will regulate regional public institutions, relations between local self-government and public organizations as well as it will ensure coordinated work of all regional public institutions.

Keywords: e-government, information society, public administration, reforming state governance, public institutions

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6736 Urban Governance in Major Development Projects: Challenges, Issues and Constraints - Case of Constantine

Authors: Chouabbia Khedidja, Lazri Youcef, Mouhoubi Nedjima

Abstract:

In optics and in ambition to break into the ranks of international metropolis cities, Constantine, a regional metropolis of eastern Algeria, is facing multiple challenges shared between the response to the urban crisis plaguing the city and the creation of territorial attractiveness in the metropolisation process. This ambition cannot be achieve in conditions of poor governance and lack of cooperation especially between the actors involved in major development projects, these last qualified by change and hope carriers to make the city more attractive and pleasant. Thus, governance or good governance has become not only a necessity but also a challenge for the city of Constantine. Through this example of Constantine. We will analyze the challenges facing a metropolis amongst other urban governance and the constraints that affect the smooth running of major development projects when governance is missing or inoperative.

Keywords: urban governance, metropolis, big development project, actors, constantine

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6735 Role of International Organizations towards Good Governance: Recent Trends

Authors: E. Prema Shyam

Abstract:

The role of international organizations has contributed in various ways for the good governance in the world at large. Since the beginning of the 1990s international organizations, particularly those active in the areas of human rights, trade and economic etc., have embraced a 'good governance'. It is also pertinent to mention that the application of the concept of good governance to international organizations themselves and not exclusively to national or regional polities is a more recent phenomenon. Especially since the second half of the 1990s, a number of international organizations have carried out major governance reforms, assuming that their calls for governments to heed higher standards of good governance will be all the more credible provided that they develop a good governance standard for themselves. In addition to this number of organizations such as the United Nations (UN), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Union (EU), International Committee of the Red Cross and World Trade Organization (WTO). OECD has been specifically mobilized to fight corruption. The World Bank was the first international organization to address the issue of good governance when it attributed the African development crisis to a crisis of governance in a 1989 report. International organizations are often denounced for their lack of transparency and democracy. However, in the last few years, a number of them have pushed through impressive reforms aimed at enhancing good governance standards within their own organizations, especially in the light of their long-standing secrecy. This is a remnant of the traditional conception of international organizations, which renders them merely answerable to their Members. International organizations have already gone quite some way in the areas of good management and opening up to the public. However, as far as participatory governance is concerned, lot to be done for the larger interest of society. In this paper, an attempt has been made to focus the issues on international organisations with regard to good governance.

Keywords: good governance, World Trade Organisation, international organisation, governance reforms

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6734 Measuring Innovative and Entrepreneurial Networks Performance

Authors: Luís Farinha, João J. Ferreira

Abstract:

Nowadays innovation represents a challenge crucial to remaining globally competitive. This study seeks to develop a conceptual model aimed at measuring the dynamic interactions of the triple/quadruple helix, balancing innovation and entrepreneurship initiatives as pillars of regional competitiveness – the Regional Helix Scoreboard (RHS). To this aim, different strands of literature are identified according to their focus on specific regional competitiveness governance mechanisms. We put forward an overview of the state-of-the-art of research and is duly assessed in order to develop and propose a framework of analysis that enables an integrated approach in the context of collaborative dynamics. We conclude by presenting the RHS for the study of regional competitiveness dynamics, which integrates and associates different backgrounds and identifies a number of key performance indicators for research challenges.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, KPIs, innovation, performance measurement, regional competitiveness, regional helix scoreboard

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6733 Enhancing Maritime Governance in Africa: Challenges of Maritime Policy Development in the East African Community

Authors: Christantus Begealawuh Nchongayi

Abstract:

As clearly stated in goal 14 of sustainable development goals, global oceans greatly contribute to making the earth habitable for mankind. This explains why ocean governance is an important global concern today. The emerging maritime security problems and the impact of climate change on African oceans, evidenced by tropical cyclones as seen recently in the Southern region of Africa, is also an indication that maritime governance and policymaking are important elements of peace and security in Africa. Within the last decade, there have been commendable efforts towards maritime governance and policymaking in Africa, although implementation of existing maritime policies is still lacking. This paper provides a snapshot of the overall state of the maritime policymaking process in Africa. It specifically explores the challenges facing policymakers in developing national and regional maritime security strategy in the East African Community. For methodology, the paper relied on primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from informal discussions with policymakers and key policy-making bodies in Africa, and from a survey of public opinions. The study found that the Africa Integrated Maritime Strategy (2050 AIMS) is a recent template for regional and national maritime security policymaking in Africa and that although maritime security has in the past not been prioritized in the security agenda of the East African Community, developing and aligning a regional maritime security strategy to the 2050 AIMS will result to positive regional integration outcomes in East Africa.

Keywords: 2050 Africa integrated maritime strategy, east African community, maritime policy-making, maritime security

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6732 Social Network Analysis in Water Governance

Authors: Faribaebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani, Mohsen Mohsenisaravi

Abstract:

Ecosystem management is complex because of natural and human issues. To cope with this complexity water governance is recommended since it involves all stakeholders including people, governmental and non-governmental organization who related to environmental systems. Water governance emphasizes on water co-management through consideration of all the stakeholders in the form of social and organizational network. In this research, to illustrate indicators of water governance in Dorood watershed, in Shemiranat region of Iran, social network analysis had been applied. The results revealed that social cohesion among pastoralists in Dorood is medium because of trust links, while link sustainability is weak to medium. According to the results, some pastoralists have high social power and therefore are key actors in the utilization network, regarding to centrality index and trust links. The results also demonstrated that Agricultural Development Office and (Shemshak-Darbandsar Islamic) Council are key actors in rangeland co-management, based on centrality index in rangeland institutional network at regional scale in Shemiranat district.

Keywords: social network analysis, water governance, organizational network, water co-management

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6731 Saudi Arabia's Perspective over Worldwide Governance Indicators

Authors: Sultan S. Alsajjan

Abstract:

Understanding the public governance in Middle East's countries is one of the challenging matters for any researcher. The Middle East, for the last century, has been in fluctuated situations. Understating the public governance in Saudi Arabia is an extra challenge because Saudi Arabia has its unique culture and political system. The World Bank had launched 1996 Worldwide Governance Indicators. These indicators assist any country to rank its position in public governance how it is performing in this field. Saudi Arabia had ranked in some worldwide governance indicators at the bottom of indicators' list. For instance, according to the Worldwide Governance indicator (2018), Saudi Arabia had ranked in 192 out of 204 countries in 'Voice and Accountability Indicator'. In this paper, the reader will find in-depth analysis and evaluation of Saudi Arabia's positions in Worldwide Governance Indicators. Saudi Arabia had never considered the concept of public governance and worldwide governance indicators because of its economic situation, political characteristics, and social nature.

Keywords: pubic governance, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, and worldwide governance indicators

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6730 Place and Role of Corporate Governance in Japan

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

In a broad sense, corporate governance covers the organization of the control and management. The term is also used in a narrower sense, to refer to the relationship between shareholders, and the company’s board. There are a lot of discussions devoted to the understanding of the corporate governance role and its principles. In this paper, we are going to describe the definition of corporate governance as a control system and its principles, and find the role of corporate governance and its pillars. Finally, we are going to drop the theoretical study on the case of Japan.

Keywords: corporate governance, place, role, Japan

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6729 Environmental CSR in Industrial Cities: A Collaborative Governance Approach

Authors: Muhlisin Muhlisin, Moh. Sofyan Budiarto

Abstract:

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives based on charity and philanthropy have not alleviated many sustainable environmental issues, particularly in industrial towns. The collaborative governance strategy is seen to be an option for resolving difficulties of coordination and communication between businesses, the government, and the community so that the goals of urban environmental management can be met via collaborative efforts. The purpose of this research is to identify the different forms of environmental CSR implementation by corporate entities and to create a CSR collaborative governance model in environmental management. This qualitative investigation was carried out in 2020 in Cilegon City, one of Indonesia's industrial cities. To investigate their support, a total of 20 informants from three stakeholder groups, namely the government, corporate entities, and the community, were questioned. According to the study's findings, CSR implementation in the environmental sector covers the following activities: cleaner production, eco-office, energy and natural resource conservation, waste management, renewable energy, climate change adaptation, and environmental education. Business companies have an essential role in establishing the starting condition, while the government provides facilitative leadership and the CSR forum launches institutional design. These three elements are critical to the effectiveness of collaborative governance in environmental management in industrial cities.

Keywords: collaborative governance, CSR forum, environmental CSR, industrial city

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6728 Using Businesses for Governance and Creating Sustainable Cities

Authors: Parisa Toloue Hayat Azar

Abstract:

Businesses have been playing an important role in the economic growth and social welfare of cities; however, they generally have negative reputations regarding their impact on environmental issues regarding sustainability. However, some believe that by incorporating strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities, businesses will be able to solve problems in society, including environmental ones. Besides economic, social and environmental aspects, governance is another essential pillar for creating sustainable communities and cities. Governance plays a key role in the success of sustainable projects or creating long lasting legacies; an example of this can be creating circular supply chain with collaboration between different businesses, which in the end results in positive economic, social and environmental outcomes for everyone. Governance is a very important parameter in creating the legacy of low carbon and environmentally friendly city due to the fact that, besides building energy efficient buildings and infrastructure, citizens who are also part of the success of this system should know about how to behave and collaborate with others to make the system work. By deploying the philosophy of cultural historical activity theory, this paper explains how influential businesses have been and can be still used as a mediating tool for governance purposes, and succeed in creating shared value and lasting legacy within society.

Keywords: business, governance, CSR, sustainability

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6727 Getting What You Paid For: Using Mutual Fund Governance to Predict the Activeness of Mutual Funds

Authors: Matthew Morey, Aron Gottesman

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between mutual fund governance and the activeness of equity mutual funds. Using a fund’s corporate culture as a proxy for its governance and controlling for other variables, we find that funds with the better governance are significantly more active than other funds. Further, we find the probability of finding a highly active fund increases significantly as the governance of the fund improves. We also find some evidence that the probability of finding a closet index fund increases as the governance of the fund declines. These results demonstrate that mutual fund governance should be considered carefully when making mutual fund investment decisions.

Keywords: active, share, mutual funds, economics

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6726 Problems concerning Legal Regulation of Electronic Governance in Georgia

Authors: Giga Phartenadze

Abstract:

In the legal framework of regulation of electronic governance, those norms are considered which include measures for improvement of functions of public institutions and a complex of actions for raising their standard such as websites of public institutions, online services, some forms of internet interactions and higher level of internet services. An important legal basis for electronic governance in Georgia is Georgian Law about Electronic Communications which defines legal and economic basis for utilizing electronic communication systems in Georgia. As for single electronic basis for e-governance regulation, it can be said that it does not exist at all. The official websites of public institutions do not have standards for proactive spreading of information. At the same time, there is no common legal norm which would make all public institutions have an official website for public relations, accountability, publicity, and raising information quality. Electronic governance in Georgia needs comprehensive legal regulation. Public administration in electronic form is on the initial stage of development. Currently existing legal basis has a low quality for public institutions and officials as well as citizens and business. Services of e-involvement and e-consultation have also low quality. So far there is no established legal framework for e-governance. Therefore, a single legislative system of e-governance should be created which will help develop effective, comprehensive and multi component electronic systems in the country (central, regional, local levels). Such comprehensive legal framework will provide relevant technological, institutional, and informational conditions.

Keywords: law, e-government, public administration, Georgia

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6725 Causal Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Information Transparency: A Simultaneous Equations Approach

Authors: Maali Kachouri, Anis Jarboui

Abstract:

We focus on the causal relationship between governance and information transparency as well as interrelation among the various governance mechanisms. This paper employs a simultaneous equations approach to show this relationship in the Tunisian context. Based on an 8-year dataset, our sample covers 28 listed companies over 2006-2013. Our findings suggest that internal and external governance mechanisms are interdependent. Moreover, in order to analyze the causal effect between information transparency and governance mechanisms, we found evidence that information transparency tends to increase good corporate governance practices.

Keywords: simultaneous equations approach, transparency, causal relationship, corporate governance

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6724 Governance Structure of Islamic Philanthropic Institution: Analysis of Corporate WAQF in Malaysia

Authors: Nathasa Mazna Ramli, Nurul Husna Mohd Salleh, Nurul Aini Muhamed

Abstract:

This study focuses on the governance of an Islamic philanthropic institution in Malaysia. Specifically, the internal governance structure of corporate Islamic endowment, or waqf, is being analysed. The purposes of waqf are to provide continuous charity that could generate perpetual income flow for the needy. This study is based on the principle of MCCG 2012, Shariah Governance Framework and charity governance. This study utilises publicly available data to examine the internal governance structure of a corporate waqf. This study finds that the Islamic philanthropic Institution practices, to some extent, have a sound governance structure to discharge their transparency and accountability. Furthermore, findings also showed that though governance structure is in place, most of the structures are not disclosed in the annual reports of the company. Findings from the study could extend the knowledge in these areas and stimulate further research on the governance of Islamic philanthropic institutions, particularly for corporate waqf.

Keywords: accountability, governance, Islamic philanthropic, corporate waqf

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6723 Governance Disclosure Quality and Cooperative Performance in Malaysia

Authors: Intan Waheedah Othman, Maslinawati Mohamad, Azizah Abdullah

Abstract:

Few discussions were made on cooperative governance reforms despite the fact that cooperative movements operate and compete in an identical business environment as the private as well as the public corporations. Due to the scarcity of research examining the issue of governance among cooperatives, this paper is motivated to examine the extent of governance compliance and disclosure among cooperatives, hence the relationship between cooperative governance and its firm performance. Results from the study provide empirical evidence that disclosure on ownership structure and exercise of control rights was found to have significant negative relationship with cooperative firm performance.

Keywords: cooperative, governance, firm performance, Malaysia

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6722 Governing Urban Water Infrasystems: A Case Study of Los Angeles in the Context of Global Frameworks

Authors: Joachim Monkelbaan, Marcia Hale

Abstract:

Now that global frameworks for sustainability governance (e.g. the Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Climate Agreement and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction) are in place, the question is how these aspirations that represent major transitions can be put into practice. Water ‘infrasystems’ can play an especially significant role in strengthening regional sustainability. Infrasystems include both hard and soft infrastructure, such as pipes and technology for delivering water, as well as the institutions and governance models that direct its delivery. As such, an integrated infrasystems view is crucial for Integrative Water Management (IWM). Due to frequently contested ownership of and responsibility for water resources, these infrasystems can also play an important role in facilitating conflict and catalysing community empowerment, especially through participatory approaches to governance. In this paper, we analyze the water infrasystem of the Los Angeles region through the lens of global frameworks for sustainability governance. By complementing a solid overview of governance theories with empirical data from interviews with water actors in the LA metropolitan region (including NGOs, water managers, scientists and elected officials), this paper elucidates ways for this infrasystem to be better aligned with global sustainability frameworks. In addition, it opens up the opportunity to scrutinize the appropriateness of global frameworks when it comes to fostering sustainability action at the local level.

Keywords: governance, transitions, global frameworks, infrasystems

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6721 Improving Public Service Delivery by E-Governance

Authors: Aneri Mehta, Neeti Chaudhary

Abstract:

Governments of the countries around the world have started utilizing the potential of technology to deliver online information and services to their citizens. Using ICT in the form of e-governance could yield great benefits in the reform and modernization of the public sector. The experience of e-governance in a number of developed and developing countries has shown that ICT can be a tool for greater service delivery with the goal of improving service quality. E-governance can also promote ‘good governance’, greater civic engagement can increase opportunities for direct representation and voice, and support for increased democracy. This paper discusses and presents the survey findings that seek to test the role of e-governance in improving service delivery by altering the principal-agent relationship. It further seeks to elucidate the quality aspects of public service. Strong leadership is required to implement e-governance to capture and internalize the benefits of quality services and satisfied citizens.

Keywords: public service, service delivery, e-governance, good governance

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6720 Corporate Governance Attributes and Financial Performance in Malaysian Listed Companies

Authors: Idris Adamu Alhaji, Wan Fauziahbt Wan Yusoff

Abstract:

This study was conducted to identify the relationship between Corporate Governance attributes and Firm Performance, various studies, had been carried out mostly in developed countries, in order to identify the relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Since, the value creation of corporate governance can be measured through the firm performance, corporate governance act as a mechanism to align management's goals with the stakeholders especially to increase firm performance. Despite extensive study of corporate governance there is still an inconsistence relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Five corporate governance element were used as independent variables which include: Independent director, board size, audit committee, leadership structure and board meeting. Meanwhile, the dependent variables are two firm performance measurements; return on equity (ROE) and earning per share (EPS). This study uses quantitative approaches whereby data were gathered from secondary source data were collected from Annual Reports of the companies, online journals etc. This study revealed that, there is a significant relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Therefore, the results show that good corporate governance practice influence firm performance. Finally, it's hoped that this study provides current corporate governance scenario in Malaysia that can be used to enhance the development of corporate governance of the country.

Keywords: corporate governance, return on equity, earning per share, financial performance

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6719 MegaProjects and the Governing Processes That Lead to Success and Failure: A Literature Review

Authors: Fangwei Zhu, Wei Tian, Linzhuo Wang, Miao Yu

Abstract:

Megaproject has long been a critical issue in project governance, for its low success rate and large impact on society. Although the extant literature on megaproject governance is vast, to our best knowledge, the lacking of a thorough literature review makes it hard for us to gain a holistic view on current scenario of megaproject governance. The study conducts a systematic literature review process to analyze the existing literatures on megaproject governance. The finding indicates that mega project governance needs to be handled at network level and forming a network level governance provides a holistic framework for governing megaproject towards sustainable development of the projects. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future studies and limitations, were discussed.

Keywords: megaproject, governance, literature review, network

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6718 Corporate Governance in Africa: A Review of Literature

Authors: Kisanga Arsene

Abstract:

The abundant literature on corporate governance identifies four main objectives: the configuration of power within firms, control, conflict prevention and the equitable distribution of value created. The persistent dysfunctions in companies in developing countries in general and in African countries, in particular, show that these objectives are generally not achieved, which supports the idea of analyzing corporate governance practices in Africa. Indeed, the objective of this paper is to review the literature on corporate governance in Africa, to outline the specific practices and challenges of corporate governance in Africa and to identify reliable indicators and variables to capture corporate governance in Africa. In light of the existing literature, we argue that corporate governance in Africa can only be studied in the light of African realities and by taking into account the institutional environment. These studies show the existence of a divide between governance practices and the legislative and regulatory texts in force in the African context.

Keywords: institutional environment, transparency, accountability, Africa

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6717 Good Governance and Human Development: Case of Rwanda

Authors: Hatun Korkmaz

Abstract:

Todays, the developing countries of the world widely face challenges of economic growth, political, social and human development. One of the ways to achieve economic, political and human development is good governance. Without an improvement in good governance, the objectives of human development cannot be achieved. The good governance has become a key issue over preceding two decades and it is the very important component of good economic growth and human development. This paper argues that good governance impacts positively human development with the case of Rwanda. Rwanda is a good example of this subject. In this paper, firstly we explained that what is good governance and human development and how we measure them. Then we researched the relationship between good governance and human development in case of Rwanda with the indexes of many international institutions which are researching in this topics. Rwanda has recorded the 'best progress' since the year 2000, making it the ‘most successful' about governance. Rwanda is seen as one of the top ten countries in the region in terms of relative peace, political stability and economic progress. Part of the reason for Rwanda's success is accountability, which comprises access to information, elimination of corruption and bureaucracy and transparency in public service, which variables cumulatively earned it 72.1 percent. According to this research If countries want batter growth and human development then good reforms of good governance is needed.

Keywords: human development, Rwanda, good governance, governance, development

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6716 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance in the UAE

Authors: Bakr Ali Al-Gamrh, Ku Nor Izah B. Ku Ismail

Abstract:

We investigate the relationship between corporate governance, leverage, risk, and firm performance. We use a firm level panel that spans the period 2008 to 2012 of all listed firms on Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange and Dubai Financial Market. After constructing an index of corporate governance strength, we find a negative effect of corporate governance on firm performance. We, however, discover that corporate governance strength indirectly improves the negative influence of leverage on firm performance in normal times. On the contrary, the results completely reversed when there is a black swan event. Corporate governance strength plays a significantly negative role in moderating the relationship between leverage and firm performance during the financial crisis. We also reveal that corporate governance strength increases firms’ risk and deteriorates performance during crisis. Results provide evidence that corporate governance indirectly plays a completely different role in different time periods.

Keywords: corporate governance, firm performance, risk, leverage, the UAE

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6715 The Decision-Making Process of the Central Banks of Brazil and India in Regional Integration: A Comparative Analysis of MERCOSUR and SAARC (2003-2014)

Authors: Andre Sanches Siqueira Campos

Abstract:

Central banks can play a significant role in promoting regional economic and monetary integration by strengthening the payment and settlement systems. However, close coordination and cooperation require facilitating the implementation of reforms at domestic and cross-border levels in order to benchmark with international standards and commitments to the liberal order. This situation reflects the normative power of the regulatory globalization dimension of strong states, which may drive or constrain regional integration. In the MERCOSUR and SAARC regions, central banks have set financial initiatives that could facilitate South America and South Asia regions to move towards convergence integration and facilitate trade and investments connectivities. This is qualitative method research based on a combination of the Process-Tracing method with Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). This research approaches multiple forms of data based on central banks, regional organisations, national governments, and financial institutions supported by existing literature. The aim of this research is to analyze the decision-making process of the Central Bank of Brazil (BCB) and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) towards regional financial cooperation by identifying connectivity instruments that foster, gridlock, or redefine cooperation. The BCB and The RBI manage the monetary policy of the largest economies of those regions, which makes regional cooperation a relevant framework to understand how they provide an effective institutional arrangement for regional organisations to achieve some of their key policies and economic objectives. The preliminary conclusion is that both BCB and RBI demonstrate a reluctance to deepen regional cooperation because of the existing economic, political, and institutional asymmetries. Deepening regional cooperation is constrained by the interests of central banks in protecting their economies from risks of instability due to different degrees of development between countries in their regions and international financial crises that have impacted the international system in the 21st century. Reluctant regional integration also provides autonomy for national development and political ground for the contestation of Global Financial Governance by Brazil and India.

Keywords: Brazil, central banks, decision-making process, global financial governance, India, MERCOSUR, connectivity, payment system, regional cooperation, SAARC

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6714 Challenges in Environmental Governance: A Case Study of Risk Perceptions of Environmental Agencies Involved in Flood Management in the Hawkesbury-Nepean Region, Australia

Authors: S. Masud, J. Merson, D. F. Robinson

Abstract:

The management of environmental resources requires engagement of a range of stakeholders including public/private agencies and different community groups to implement sustainable conservation practices. The challenge which is often ignored is the analysis of agencies involved and their power relations. One of the barriers identified is the difference in risk perceptions among the agencies involved that leads to disjointed efforts of assessing and managing risks. Wood et al 2012, explains that it is important to have an integrated approach to risk management where decision makers address stakeholder perspectives. This is critical for an effective risk management policy. This abstract is part of a PhD research that looks into barriers to flood management under a changing climate and intends to identify bottlenecks that create maladaptation. Experiences are drawn from international practices in the UK and examined in the context of Australia through exploring the flood governance in a highly flood-prone region in Australia: the Hawkesbury Ne-pean catchment as a case study. In this research study several aspects of governance and management are explored: (i) the complexities created by the way different agencies are involved in assessing flood risks (ii) different perceptions on acceptable flood risk level; (iii) perceptions on community engagement in defining acceptable flood risk level; (iv) Views on a holistic flood risk management approach; and, (v) challenges of centralised information system. The study concludes that the complexity of managing a large catchment is exacerbated by the difference in the way professionals perceive the problem. This has led to: (a) different standards for acceptable risks; (b) inconsistent attempt to set-up a regional scale flood management plan beyond the jurisdictional boundaries: (c) absence of a regional scale agency with license to share and update information (d) Lack of forums for dialogue with insurance companies to ensure an integrated approach to flood management. The research takes the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment as case example and draws from literary evidence from around the world. In addition, conclusions were extrapolated from eighteen semi-structured interviews from agencies involved in flood risk management in the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment of NSW, Australia. The outcome of this research is to provide a better understanding of complexity in assessing risks against a rapidly changing climate and contribute towards developing effective risk communication strategies thus enabling better management of floods and achieving increased level of support from insurance companies, real-estate agencies, state and regional risk managers and the affected communities.

Keywords: adaptive governance, flood management, flood risk communication, stakeholder risk perceptions

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6713 Managerial Risk-Taking: Evidences from the Tourism Industry

Authors: Min-Ming Wen

Abstract:

Applying the U.S. lodging and tourism industry as a research sample, we examine the relation between the corporate governance structure and managerial risk-taking behavior. In light of the global financial crisis, the importance of effective governance structures is essential in protecting claimholder interests. We propose a governance structure consisting of shareholder governance measured by anti-takeover provisions to examine whether the governance structure has a significant impact on managerial risk-taking behaviors in terms of the investment policy. We will use capital expenditure and R&D investment to measure managerial risk-taking and the firm’s investment policy. In addition, we will examine whether the effects of governance on investment policy differ significantly between speculative and investment-grade firms.

Keywords: corporate governance, risk-taking, firm value, lodging industry

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6712 Approaching Collaborative Governance Legitimacy through Discursive Legitimation Analysis

Authors: Carlo Schick

Abstract:

Legitimacy can be regarded the very fabric of political orders. Up to this point, IR scholarship was particularly interested in the legitimacy of nation-states, international regimes and of non-governmental actors. The legitimacy of collaborative governance comprising public, private and civic actors, however, has not received much attention from an IR perspective. This is partly due to the fact that the concept of legitimacy is difficult to operationalise and measure in settings where there is no clear boundary between political authorities and those who are subject to collaborative governance. In this case, legitimacy cannot be empirically approached in its own terms, but can only be analysed in terms of dialectic legitimation processes. The author develops a three-fold analytical framework based on a dialogical understanding of legitimation. Legitimation first has to relate to public legitimacy demands and contestations of collaborative governance and second to legitimacy claims issued by collaborative governance networks themselves. Lastly, collaborative governance is dependent on constant self-legitimisation. The paper closes with suggesting a discourse analytic approach to further empirical research on the legitimacy of collaborative governance.

Keywords: legitimacy, collaborative governance, discourse analysis, dialectic legitimation

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6711 Environmental Governance and Opportunities for Disaster Risk Reduction in Nigeria

Authors: Willie Eselebor

Abstract:

Environmental governance is not new, but may consist of a series of actions taken to establish sanity and ensure sustainable environment. While there is a growing accord linking disaster risk reduction with the management of environment and natural resources, little is known about failure to act which constitute vulnerability and how improved governance reduces risk globally. The paper reviews emerging trends in the field of application of governance tools and approaches for reducing disaster risk. The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) enjoin all stakeholders to stimulate the sustainable use and management of ecosystems, which promote the implementation of integrated environmental and natural resource planning that incorporate disaster risk reduction, including structural and non-structural measures, such as integrated management of fragile ecosystems. The methodology adopted is a case study of disaster-prone sites, prompting guided analysis on which hazards are traceable to environmental degradation, why a degraded environment reduces community resilience; how healthy ecosystems provide natural defense, and which opportunities exist to address gaps in reduction of disasters in Nigeria. The paper further analyses the interaction between disaster risk and environmental change. It is established that environmental governance remains a challenge; which implies that there is the need for a shift in traditional approaches to disaster risk management; exploring new initiatives and allowing environmental managers to be docketed as disaster risk managers in context, potentially opening up a window of dialogue on disaster risk management.

Keywords: disaster, ecosystem, environment, risk

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6710 The Effect of Corporate Governance on Earnings Management: When Firms Report Increasing Earnings

Authors: Su-Ping Liu, Yue Tian, Yifan Shen

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of corporate governance on earnings management when firms have reported a long stream of earnings increases (hereafter referred to as earnings beaters). We expect that good quality of corporate governance decreases the probability of income-increasing earnings management. We employ transparent tools to capture firms’ opportunistic management behavior, specifically, the repurchase of stock. In addition, we use corporate governance proxies to measure the degree of corporate governance, including board size, board independence, CEO duality, and the frequency of meeting. The results hold after the controlling of variables that suggested in prior literature. We expect that the simple technique, that is, firms’ degree of corporate governance, to be used as an inexpensive first step in detecting earnings management.

Keywords: corporate governance, earnings management, earnings patterns, stock repurchase

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