Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10978

Search results for: rate of production

10708 Effect of Herbal Mineral Blend on Growth Performance of Broilers

Authors: M. Rizwan, S. Ahmad, U. Farooq, U. Mahmood, S. U. Rehman, P. Akhtar


This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of herbal and mineral mixture on growth performance of boilers. One hundred and eighty birds were randomly distributed into 6 experimental units of 3 replicates (10 birds/replicate) as: negative control (basal diet), positive control (Lincomycin at the rate of 5g/bag), commercially available herbal-mineral product FitFat™ at the rate of 150g/bag and 200g/bag, and herbal-mineral mixture at the rate of 150g/bag and herbal-mineral mixture at the rate of 300g/bag. The data regarding weekly feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded, and fecal samples were collected at the end of starter and finisher phase for nutrient digestibility trial. The results of body weight gain showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in 3rd week of age (506.90g), also, feed intake showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 1st (297.22g), 3rd (936.7g) and 4th (967.8g) week and feed conversion ratio indicated significant (P < 0.05) variations in 1st (1.14) and 3rd (1.74) week of age. The starter phase indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences among all treatments groups in body weight gain (902.2g), feed intake (1843.9g) and feed conversion ratio (1.78). In case of nutrient digestibility trial, results showed significant (P < 0.05) values of dry matter, crude protein, and crude fat in starter phase as 77.74%, 69.37%, and 61.18% respectively and 77.65%, 68.79% and 61.03% respectively, in finisher phase. Based on overall results, it was concluded that the dietary inclusion of combination of herbs and mineral can increase the production performance of broilers.

Keywords: herbal blend, minerals, crop filling, nutrient digestibility, broiler

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10707 Progression Rate, Prevalence, Incidence of Black Band Disease on Stony (Scleractinia) in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

Authors: Baso Hamdani, Arniati Massinai, Jamaluddin Jompa


Coral diseases are one of the factors affect reef degradation. This research had analysed the progression rate, incidence, and prevalence of Black Band Disease (BBD) on stony coral (Pachyseris sp.) in relation to the environmental parameters (pH, nitrate, phospate, Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM), and turbidity). The incidence of coral disease was measured weekly for 6 weeks using Belt Transect Method. The progression rate of BBD was measured manually. Furthermore, the prevalence and incidence of BBD were calculated each colonies infected. The relationship between environmental parameters and the progression rate, prevalence and incidence of BBD was analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed the average of progression rate is 0,07 ± 0,02 cm/ hari. The prevalence of BBD increased from 0,92% - 19,73% in 7 weeks observation with the average incidence of new infected colonies coral 0,2 - 0,65 colony/day The environment factors which important were pH, Nitrate, Phospate, DOM, and Turbidity.

Keywords: progression rate, incidence, prevalence, Black Band Disease, Barranglompo

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10706 A Study on the Effect of Cod to Sulphate Ratio on Performance of Lab Scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

Authors: Neeraj Sahu, Ahmad Saadiq


Anaerobic sulphate reduction has the potential for being effective and economically viable over conventional treatment methods for the treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater. However, a major challenge in anaerobic sulphate reduction is the diversion of a fraction of organic carbon towards methane production and some minor problem such as odour problems, corrosion, and increase of effluent chemical oxygen demand. A high-rate anaerobic technology has encouraged researchers to extend its application to the treatment of complex wastewaters with relatively low cost and energy consumption compared to physicochemical methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of COD/SO₄²⁻ ratio on the performance of lab scale UASB reactor. A lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated for 170 days. In which first 60 days, for successful start-up with acclimation under methanogenesis and sulphidogenesis at COD/SO₄²⁻ of 18 and were operated at COD/SO₄²⁻ ratios of 12, 8, 4 and 1 to evaluate the effects of the presence of sulfate on the reactor performance. The reactor achieved maximum COD removal efficiency and biogas evolution at the end of acclimation (control). This phase lasted 53 days with 89.5% efficiency. The biogas was 0.6 L/d at (OLR) of 1.0 kg COD/m³d when it was treating synthetic wastewater with effective volume of reactor as 2.8 L. When COD/SO₄²⁻ ratio changed from 12 to 1, slight decrease in COD removal efficiencies (76.8–87.4%) was observed, biogas production decreased from 0.58 to 0.32 L/d, while the sulfate removal efficiency increased from 42.5% to 72.7%.

Keywords: anaerobic, chemical oxygen demand, organic loading rate, sulphate, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

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10705 Effect of Pristine Graphene on Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos: Cardiovascular Defects, Apoptosis, and Globin Expression Analysis

Authors: Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Lee Sang Joon


Recently, graphene-related nanomaterials are receiving fast-increasing attention with augmented applications in various fields. Especially, graphene-related materials have been widely applied to the biomedical field in the past years. In the present study, we evaluated the adverse effects of pristine graphene (pG) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in various aspects, such as mortality rate, heart rate, hatching rate, cardiotoxicity, cardiovascular defect, cardiac looping, apoptosis, and globin expression. For various trace concentrations of pG (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 μg/L), early life-stage parameters were observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hpf. As a result, pG induces significant developmental defects including yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, embryonic mortality, delayed hatching, heartbeat, several morphological defects, pericardial toxicity, and bradycardia. Moreover, the exposure to pG was found to be a potential risk factor to the cardiovascular system of zebrafish embryos. However, further study on their properties which vary according to production methods and surface functionalization is essentially required. In addition, the possible risks of pG flakes to aquatic animals, and public health should be evaluated before releasing them to the surrounding environment.

Keywords: apoptosis, cardiovascular toxicity, globin expression, pristine graphene, zebrafish embryos

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10704 Effect of Depressurization Rate in Batch Foaming of Porous Microcellular Polycarbonate on Microstructure Development

Authors: Indrajeet Singh, Abhishek Gandhi, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak


In this article, a focused study has been performed to comprehend the influence of change in depressurization rate on microcellular polycarbonate foamed morphological attributes. The depressurization rate considered in this study were 0.5, 0.05, 0.01 and 0.005 MPa/sec and the physical blowing agent utilized was carbon dioxide owing to its high solubility in polycarbonate at room temperature. The study was performed on two distinct saturation pressures, i.e., 3 MPa and 6 MPa to understand if saturation pressure has any effects on it. It is reported that with increase in depressurization rate, a higher amount of thermodynamic instability was induced which resulted in generation of larger number of smaller sized cells. This article puts forward an understanding of how depressurization rate control could be well exploited during the batch foaming process to develop high quality microcellular foamed products with exceedingly well controlled cell size.

Keywords: depressurization, porous polymer, foaming, microcellular

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10703 The Relationship between Organization Culture and Organization Learning in Three Different Types of Companies

Authors: Mahmoud Timar, Javad Joukar Borazjani


A dynamic organization helps the management to overcome both internal and external uncertainties and complexities of the organization with more confidence and efficiency. Regarding this issue, in this paper, the influence of organizational culture factors over organizational learning components, which both of them are considered as important characteristics of a dynamic organization, has been studied in three subsidiary companies (production, consultation and service) of National Iranian Oil Company, and moreover we also tried to identify the most dominant culture in these three subsidiaries. Analysis of 840 received questionnaires by SPSS shows that there is a significant relationship between the components of organizational culture and organizational learning; however the rate of relationship between these two factors was different among the examined companies. By the use of Regression, it has been clarified that in the servicing company the highest relationship is between mission and learning environment, while in production division, there is a significant relationship between adaptability and learning needs satisfaction and however in consulting company the highest relationship is between involvement and applying learning in workplace.

Keywords: denison model, culture, leaning, organizational culture, organizational learning

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10702 Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Techniques in Textile Industry

Authors: Filiz Ersoz, Taner Ersoz, Erkin Guler


This paper addresses the issues and technique for textile industry using data mining techniques. Data mining has been applied to the stitching of garments products that were obtained from a textile company. Data mining techniques were applied to the data obtained from the CHAID algorithm, CART algorithm, Regression Analysis and, Artificial Neural Networks. Classification technique based analyses were used while data mining and decision model about the production per person and variables affecting about production were found by this method. In the study, the results show that as the daily working time increases, the production per person also decreases. In addition, the relationship between total daily working and production per person shows a negative result and the production per person show the highest and negative relationship.

Keywords: data mining, textile production, decision trees, classification

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10701 Closed-Form Sharma-Mittal Entropy Rate for Gaussian Processes

Authors: Septimia Sarbu


The entropy rate of a stochastic process is a fundamental concept in information theory. It provides a limit to the amount of information that can be transmitted reliably over a communication channel, as stated by Shannon's coding theorems. Recently, researchers have focused on developing new measures of information that generalize Shannon's classical theory. The aim is to design more efficient information encoding and transmission schemes. This paper continues the study of generalized entropy rates, by deriving a closed-form solution to the Sharma-Mittal entropy rate for Gaussian processes. Using the squeeze theorem, we solve the limit in the definition of the entropy rate, for different values of alpha and beta, which are the parameters of the Sharma-Mittal entropy. In the end, we compare it with Shannon and Rényi's entropy rates for Gaussian processes.

Keywords: generalized entropies, Sharma-Mittal entropy rate, Gaussian processes, eigenvalues of the covariance matrix, squeeze theorem

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10700 Evaluation of Top-down and Bottom-up Leadership Development Programs in a Finnish Company

Authors: Kati Skarp, Keijo Varis, Juha Kettunen


The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate the top-down and bottom-up leadership development programs focused on human capital that improve the performance of a company. This study reports on the external top-down leadership development program supported by a consulting company and the internal participatory action research of the bottom-up program. The sickness rate and the lost time incident failure rate decreased and the ideas produced for cost savings improved, leading to increased earnings during the top-down program. The estimated cost savings potential of the bottom-up program was 3.8 million euro based on the cost savings of meeting habits, maintenance practices and the way of working in production. The results of this study are useful for those who plan and evaluate leadership development and human capital productivity consultation programs to improve the performance of a company.

Keywords: leadership, development, human resources, company, indicators, evaluation

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10699 Prospection of Technology Production in Physiotherapy in Brazil

Authors: C. M. Priesnitz, G. Zanandrea, J. P. Fabris, S. L. Russo, M. E. Camargo


This study aimed to the prospection the physiotherapy area technological production registered with the National Intellectual Property Institute (INPI) in Brazil, for understand the evolution of the technological production in the country over time and visualize the distribution this production request in Brazil. There was an evolution in the technology landscape, where the average annual deposits had an increase of 102%, from 3.14 before the year 2004 to 6,33 after this date. It was found differences in the distribution of the number the deposits requested to each Brazilian region, being that of the 132 request, 68,9% were from the southeast region. The international patent classification evaluated the request deposits, and the more found numbers were A61H and A63B. So even with an improved panorama of technology production, this should still have incentives since it is an important tool for the development of the country.

Keywords: distribution, evolution, patent, physiotherapy, technological prospecting

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10698 Clinical Outcome after in Vitro Fertilization in Women Aged 40 Years and Above: Reasonable Cut-Off Age for Successful Pregnancy

Authors: Eun Jeong Yu, Inn Soo Kang, Tae Ki Yoon, Mi Kyoung Koong


Advanced female age is associated with higher cycle cancelation rates, lower clinical pregnancy rate, increased miscarriage and aneuploidy rates in IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) cycles. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a Cha Fertility Center, Seoul Station. All fresh non-donor IVF cycles performed in women aged 40 years and above from January 2016 to December 2016 were reviewed. Donor/recipient treatment, PGD/PGS (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis/ Preimplantation Genetic Screening) were excluded from analysis. Of the 1,166 cycles from 753 women who completed ovulation induction, 1,047 were appropriate for the evaluation according to inclusion and exclusion criterion. IVF cycles were categorized according to age and grouped into the following 1-year age groups: 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 and > 46. The mean age of patients was 42.4 ± 1.8 years. The median AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) level was 1.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL. The mean number of retrieved oocytes was 4.9 ± 4.3. The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in women > 40 years significantly decreased with each year of advancing age (p < 0.001). The clinical pregnancy rate decreased from 21% at the age of 40 years to 0% at ages above 45 years. Live birth rate decreased from 12.3% to 0%, respectively. There were no clinical pregnancy outcomes among 95 patients aged above 45 years of age. The overall miscarriage rate was 40.7% (range, 36.7%-70%). The transfer of at least one good quality embryo was associated with about 4-9% increased chance of a clinical pregnancy rate. Therefore, IVF in old age women less than 46 had a reasonable chance for successful pregnancy outcomes especially when good quality embryo is transferred.

Keywords: advanced maternal age, in vitro fertilization, pregnancy rate, live birth rate

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10697 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed


In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

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10696 Effect of Traffic Composition on Delay and Saturation Flow at Signal Controlled Intersections

Authors: Arpita Saha, Apoorv Jain, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh


Level of service at a signal controlled intersection is directly measured from the delay. Similarly, saturation flow rate is a fundamental parameter to measure the intersection capacity. The present study calculates vehicle arrival rate, departure rate, and queue length for every five seconds interval in each cycle. Based on the queue lengths, the total delay of the cycle has been calculated using Simpson’s 1/3rd rule. Saturation flow has been estimated in terms of veh/hr of green/lane for every five seconds interval of the green period until at least three vehicles are left to cross the stop line. Vehicle composition shows an immense effect on total delay and saturation flow rate. The increase in two-wheeler proportion increases the saturation flow rate and reduces the total delay per vehicle significantly. Additionally, an increase in the heavy vehicle proportion reduces the saturation flow rate and increases the total delay for each vehicle.

Keywords: delay, saturation flow, signalised intersection, vehicle composition

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10695 Thermal Efficiency Analysis and Optimal of Feed Water Heater for Mae Moh Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khomkrit Mongkhuntod, Chatchawal Chaichana, Atipoang Nuntaphan


Feed Water Heater is the important equipment for thermal power plant. The heating temperature from feed heating process is an impact to power plant efficiency or heat rate. Normally, the degradation of feed water heater that operated for a long time is effect to decrease plant efficiency or increase plant heat rate. For Mae Moh power plant, each unit operated more than 20 years. The degradation of the main equipment is effect of planting efficiency or heat rate. From the efficiency and heat rate analysis, Mae Moh power plant operated in high heat rate more than the commissioning period. Some of the equipment were replaced for improving plant efficiency and plant heat rates such as HP turbine and LP turbine that the result is increased plant efficiency by 5% and decrease plant heat rate by 1%. For the target of power generation plan that Mae Moh power plant must be operated more than 10 years. These work is focus on thermal efficiency analysis of feed water heater to compare with the commissioning data for find the way to improve the feed water heater efficiency that may effect to increase plant efficiency or decrease plant heat rate by use heat balance model simulation and economic value add (EVA) method to study the investment for replacing the new feed water heater and analyze how this project can stay above the break-even point to make the project decision.

Keywords: feed water heater, power plant efficiency, plant heat rate, thermal efficiency analysis

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10694 Seasonal and Monthly Field Soil Respiration Rate and Litter Fall Amounts of Kasuga-Yama Hill Primeval Forest

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani


The seasonal (January, April, July and October) and monthly soil respiration rate and the monthly litter fall amounts were examined in the laurel-leaved (B_B-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (B_B-2 and PW) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The change of the seasonal soil respiration rate corresponded to that of the soil temperature. The soil respiration rate was higher in October when fresh organic matter was supplied in the forest floor than in April in spite of the same temperature. The seasonal soil respiration rate of B_B-1 was higher than that of B_B-2, which corresponded to more numbers of bacteria and fungi counted by the dilution plate method and by the direct count method by microscopy in B_B-1 than that of B_B-2. The seasonal soil respiration rate of B_B-2 was higher than that of PW, which corresponded to more microbial biomass by the direct count method by microscopy in B_B-2 than that of PW. The correlation coefficient with the seasonal soil respiration and the soil temperature was higher than that of the monthly soil respiration. The soil respiration carbon was more than the litter fall carbon. It was suggested that the soil respiration included in the carbon dioxide which was emitted by the plant root and soil animal, or that the litter fall supplied to the forest floor included in animal and plant litter.

Keywords: field soil respiration rate, forest soil, litter fall, mineralization rate

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10693 A Multicriteria Mathematical Programming Model for Farm Planning in Greece

Authors: Basil Manos, Parthena Chatzinikolaou, Fedra Kiomourtzi


This paper presents a Multicriteria Mathematical Programming model for farm planning and sustainable optimization of agricultural production. The model can be used as a tool for the analysis and simulation of agricultural production plans, as well as for the study of impacts of various measures of Common Agriculture Policy in the member states of European Union. The model can achieve the optimum production plan of a farm or an agricultural region combining in one utility function different conflicting criteria as the maximization of gross margin and the minimization of fertilizers used, under a set of constraints for land, labor, available capital, Common Agricultural Policy etc. The proposed model was applied to the region of Larisa in central Greece. The optimum production plan achieves a greater gross return, a less fertilizers use, and a less irrigated water use than the existent production plan.

Keywords: sustainable optimization, multicriteria analysis, agricultural production, farm planning

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10692 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen


The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures on grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress of grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate of grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increased and decreased with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increased in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increased in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume

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10691 The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array

Authors: Anatoly D. Pluzhnikov, Elena N. Pribludova, Alexander G. Ryndyk


In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.

Keywords: antenna pattern, array, signal processing, spatial resolution

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10690 Influence of Infrared Radiation on the Growth Rate of Microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana

Authors: Natalia Politaeva, Iuliia Smiatskaia, Iuliia Bazarnova, Iryna Atamaniuk, Kerstin Kuchta


Nowadays, the progressive decrease of primary natural resources and ongoing upward trend in terms of energy demand, have resulted in development of new generation technological processes which are focused on step-wise production and residues utilization. Thus, microalgae-based 3rd generation bioeconomy is considered one of the most promising approaches that allow production of value-added products and sophisticated utilization of residues biomass. In comparison to conventional biomass, microalgae can be cultivated in wide range of conditions without compromising food and feed production, and thus, addressing issues associated with negative social and environmental impacts. However, one of the most challenging tasks is to undergo seasonal variations and to achieve optimal growing conditions for indoor closed systems that can cover further demand for material and energetic utilization of microalgae. For instance, outdoor cultivation in St. Petersburg (Russia) is only suitable within rather narrow time frame (from mid-May to mid-September). At earlier and later periods, insufficient sunlight and heat for the growth of microalgae were detected. On the other hand, without additional physical effects, the biomass increment in summer is 3-5 times per week, depending on the solar radiation and the ambient temperature. In order to increase biomass production, scientists from all over the world have proposed various technical solutions for cultivators and have been studying the influence of various physical factors affecting biomass growth namely: magnetic field, radiation impact, and electric field, etc. In this paper, the influence of infrared radiation (IR) and fluorescent light on the growth rate of microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana has been studied. The cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana was carried out in 500 ml cylindrical glass vessels, which were constantly aerated. To accelerate the cultivation process, the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes at 500 rpm following 120 minutes of rest time. At the same time, the metabolic needs in nutrients were provided by the addition of micro- and macro-nutrients in the microalgae growing medium. Lighting was provided by fluorescent lamps with the intensity of 2500 ± 300 lx. The influence of IR was determined using IR lamps with a voltage of 220 V, power of 250 W, in order to achieve the intensity of 13 600 ± 500 lx. The obtained results show that under the influence of fluorescent lamps along with the combined effect of active aeration and variable mixing, the biomass increment on the 2nd day was three times, and on the 7th day, it was eight-fold. The growth rate of microalgae under the influence of IR radiation was lower and has reached 22.6·106 cells·mL-1. However, application of IR lamps for the biomass growth allows maintaining the optimal temperature of microalgae suspension at approximately 25-28°C, which might especially be beneficial during the cold season in extreme climate zones.

Keywords: biomass, fluorescent lamp, infrared radiation, microalgae

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10689 Evaluating the Logistic Performance Capability of Regeneration Processes

Authors: Thorben Kuprat, Julian Becker, Jonas Mayer, Peter Nyhuis


For years now, it has been recognized that logistic performance capability contributes enormously to a production enterprise’s competitiveness and as such is a critical control lever. In doing so, the orientation on customer wishes (e.g. delivery dates) represents a key parameter not only in the value-adding production but also in product regeneration. Since production and regeneration processes have different characteristics, production planning and control measures cannot be directly transferred to regeneration processes. As part of a special research project, the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics Hannover is focused on increasing the logistic performance capability of regeneration processes for complex capital goods. The aim is to ensure logistic targets are met by implementing a model specifically designed to align the capacities and load in regeneration processes.

Keywords: capacity planning, complex capital goods, logistic performance, regeneration process

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10688 Nonparametric Specification Testing for the Drift of the Short Rate Diffusion Process Using a Panel of Yields

Authors: John Knight, Fuchun Li, Yan Xu


Based on a new method of the nonparametric estimator of the drift function, we propose a consistent test for the parametric specification of the drift function in the short rate diffusion process using observations from a panel of yields. The test statistic is shown to follow an asymptotic normal distribution under the null hypothesis that the parametric drift function is correctly specified, and converges to infinity under the alternative. Taking the daily 7-day European rates as a proxy of the short rate, we use our test to examine whether the drift of the short rate diffusion process is linear or nonlinear, which is an unresolved important issue in the short rate modeling literature. The testing results indicate that none of the drift functions in this literature adequately captures the dynamics of the drift, but nonlinear specification performs better than the linear specification.

Keywords: diffusion process, nonparametric estimation, derivative security price, drift function and volatility function

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10687 Complex Analysis of Annual Plats Utilization for Particleboard Production

Authors: Petra Gajdačová


The presented research deals with a complex evaluation of after-harvest remnants utilization for particleboard production. Agricultural crops that are in the Czech Republic widely grown are in the scope of interest. Researches dealing with composites from agricultural rests solved mostly physical and mechanical properties of produced materials. For the commercialization of these results, however, one another step is essential. It is needed to evaluate the composites production from agricultural rests more comprehensive, take into account all aspects that affect their production, not only material characteristics of produced composites. In this study, descriptive, comparative and synthesis methods were used. Results of this research include a supply stability forecast, technical and technological differences of production of particleboards from agricultural rests and quantification of an economical potential of the agricultural rests.

Keywords: agricultural crops, annual plant, composite material, particleboard

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10686 Integrated Vegetable Production Planning Considering Crop Rotation Rules Using a Mathematical Mixed Integer Programming Model

Authors: Mohammadali Abedini Sanigy, Jiangang Fei


In this paper, a mathematical optimization model was developed to maximize the profit in a vegetable production planning problem. It serves as a decision support system that assists farmers in land allocation to crops and harvest scheduling decisions. The developed model can handle different rotation rules in two consecutive cycles of production, which is a common practice in organic production system. Moreover, different production methods of the same crop were considered in the model formulation. The main strength of the model is that it is not restricted to predetermined production periods, which makes the planning more flexible. The model is classified as a mixed integer programming (MIP) model and formulated in PYOMO -a Python package to formulate optimization models- and solved via Gurobi and CPLEX optimizer packages. The model was tested with secondary data from 'Australian vegetable growing farms', and the results were obtained and discussed with the computational test runs. The results show that the model can successfully provide reliable solutions for real size problems.

Keywords: crop rotation, harvesting, mathematical model formulation, vegetable production

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10685 Effect of Feed Rate on Grinding Circuits and Cyclone Efficiency

Authors: Patel Himeshkumar Ashokbhai, Suchit Sharma, Arvind Kumar Garg


The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of change in feed rate on grinding circuit and cyclone efficiency in case of lead-zinc ore. The following experiments and analysis were conducted on beneficiation circuit of Sindesar Khurd (SK) mines under Hindustan Zinc Ltd. subsidiary of Vedanta Group of Companies, a leading producer of lead-Zinc, silver and cadmium (as by products) in India. Feed rate is an important variable in beneficiation circuit operation. Optimizing feed rate is indispensable for any grinding circuit and directly effects cyclone efficiency. The size analysis of ore in grinding circuit along with cyclone efficiency on varying feed rates establishes their interdependence. Feed rate determines retention time ore gets within grinding circuit. Retention time in turn determines degree of liberation of mineral. Inadequate liberation causes decreased circuit efficiency. In this paper we have studied the effect of varying feed rate on (1) D80 particle size of different sections of different streams of grinding circuit (2) Re-circulating load (3) Cyclone efficiency. As a conclusion, this study gives some clues to operate grinding circuits and hydro-cyclones in more efficient way regarding beneficiation of Lead-zinc ore.

Keywords: cyclone efficiency, feed rate, grinding circuit, re-circulating load

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10684 Analysis of Palm Oil Production and Rubber Production to Gross Domestic Product in Ten Districts of West Kalimantan

Authors: Evy Sulistianingsih, Mariatul Kiftiah, Dedi Rosadi, Heni Wahyuni


This research attempts to analyse palm oil production and rubber production to prosperity of the community of ten districts in West Kalimantan namely Sanggau, Sintang, Sambas, Ketapang, Bengkayang, Landak, Singkawang, Kapuas Hulu, Melawi and Sekadau by panel regression. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the districts will be used to be a prosperity indicator on this research. Based on the result of analysis, it can be concluded that palm oil and rubber production statistically give contribution to GDP. Adjusted coefficient determination of Fixed Effect Model indicates that 76% of GDP’s variation can be explained by palm oil and rubber production. In another point of view, there should be a district’s government intervention to regulate the plantations. In addition, there is an obligation of the government to monitor regularly the plantations and to conduct researches in order to govern better planning of lands that have been used to the plantations. So that, the environmental effects that have been caused by the plantation can be diminished.

Keywords: gross domestic product (GDP), panel, palm, welfare

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10683 Influence of Applied Inorganic and Organic Nitrogen Fertilizers on Nitrogen Forms in Biochar-Treated Soil

Authors: Eman H. El-Gamal, Maher E. Saleh, Mohamed Rashad, Ibrahim Elsokkary, Mona M. Abd El-Latif


Biochar application to calcareous soils could potentially influence the nitrogen dynamics that affect the bioavailability of plants. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incubation periods on the changes of nitrogen levels (total nitrogen TN and exchangeable ammonium NH₄⁺ and nitrate NO₃⁻) in biochar-treated calcareous soil. The incubation course was extended to 144 days at 30 ± 3 ℃ and at 50% of soil water holding capacity (WHC). Two types of biochars were obtained by pyrolysis at 500 ℃ from rice husk (RHB) and sugarcane bagasse (SCBB). The experiment was planned in a factorial experimental design with three factors (6 periods '24 days for each period' × 3 biochar types 'un-amended, RHB and SCBB' × 3 nitrogen fertilizers 'control, ammonium nitrate; AN and animal manure; AM') in a completely randomized design. The results obtained showed that the highest level of TN was found in the first 24 days of the incubation period in all treatments. However, the amount of TN was decreased with proceeding incubation period up to 144 days and reached to the lowest level at the end of incubation with values of change rate was 17.5, 16.6, and 14.6 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for the un-amended, RHB and SCBB treated soil, respectively. The values of change rate in biochar-soils treated with nitrogen fertilizers were decreased gradually through the whole incubation time from 127.22 to 12.45 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and from 65.00 to 13.43 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for AN and AM respectively, in the case of RHB-soil. While in SCBB-soil, these values were decreased from 70.83 to 12.13 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and from 59.17 to 11.48 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for AN and AM treatments, respectively. The lowest concentration of exchangeable NH₄⁺ was generally found through the period from 24-48 days of incubation. However, the addition of nitrogen fertilizers, enhanced NH₄⁺ production through incubation periods. In the case of RHB-soil, the value of change rate in NH₄⁺ level in the first 24 days of incubation was 0.43 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and with the addition of AN and AM this value increased to 1.54 and 4.38 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹, respectively. In the case of SCBB-soil, the value of change rate in NH₄⁺ level was 0.29 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ which increased to 1.04 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ at the end of incubation, and due to the addition of AN and AM this value increased to 2.78 and 1.90 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ in the first 24 days of incubation period, respectively. However, as compared to the control treatment, the lowest rate of change in NH₄⁺ level was found at the end of incubation. On the other hand, incubation of all biochars-amended soil and treated with AN and AM decreased the concentration levels of NO₃⁻, especially through the first 24-72 days of incubation period. As a result, the values of change rate in NO₃⁻ concentrations in all treatments were almost negative.

Keywords: ammonium nitrate, animal manure, biochar, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse

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10682 Environmental Potentials within the Production of Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Florian Gschösser, Walter Purrer


The paper shows examples for the (environmental) optimization of production processes for asphalt mixtures applied for typical road pavements in Austria and Switzerland. The conducted “from-cradle-to-gate” LCA firstly analyzes the production one cubic meter of asphalt and secondly all material production processes for exemplary highway pavements applied in Austria and Switzerland. It is shown that environmental impacts can be reduced by the application of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and by the optimization of specific production characteristics, e.g. the reduction of the initial moisture of the mineral aggregate and the reduction of the mixing temperature by the application of low-viscosity and foam bitumen. The results of the LCA study demonstrate reduction potentials per cubic meter asphalt of up to 57 % (Global Warming Potential–GWP) and 77 % (Ozone depletion–ODP). The analysis per square meter of asphalt pavement determined environmental potentials of up to 40 % (GWP) and 56 % (ODP).

Keywords: asphalt mixtures, environmental potentials, life cycle assessment, material production

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10681 Effect of Lignocellulose-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Termite Gut on the Nutritive Value of Wheat Straw as Ruminant Feed

Authors: Ayoub Azizi-Shotorkhoft, Tahereh Mohammadabadi, Hosein Motamedi, Morteza Chaji, Hasan Fazaeli


This study was conducted to investigate nutritive value of wheat straw processed with termite gut symbiotic bacteria with lignocellulosic-degrading potential including Bacillus licheniformis, Ochrobactrum intermedium and Microbacterium paludicola in vitro. These bacteria were isolated by culturing termite guts contents in different culture media containing different lignin and lignocellulosic materials that had been prepared from water-extracted sawdust and wheat straw. Results showed that incubating wheat straw with all of three isolated bacteria increased (P<0.05) acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL) compared to control, and highest amount of APPL observed following treatment with B. licheniformis. Highest and lowest (P<0.05) in vitro gas production and ruminal organic matter digestibility were obtained when treating wheat straw with B. licheniformis and control, respectively. However, other fermentation parameters such as b (i.e., gas production from the insoluble fermentable fractions at 144h), c (i.e., rate of gas production during incubation), ruminal dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, partitioning factor, pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration were similar between experimental treatments (P>0.05). It is concluded that processing wheat straw with isolated bacteria improved its nutritive value as ruminants feed.

Keywords: termite gut bacteria, wheat straw, nutritive value, ruminant

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10680 System Engineering Design of Offshore Oil Drilling Production Platform from Marine Environment

Authors: C. Njoku Paul


This paper deals with systems engineering applications design for offshore oil drilling production platform in the Nigerian Marine Environment. Engineering Design model of the distribution and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons discharged into marine environment production platform and sources of impact of an offshore is treated.

Keywords: design of offshore oil drilling production platform, marine, environment, petroleum hydrocarbons

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10679 Finite Element Model to Evaluate Gas Conning Phenomenon in Naturally Fractured Oil Reservoirs

Authors: Reda Abdel Azim


Gas conning phenomenon considered one of the prevalent matter in oil field applications as it significantly affects the amount of produced oil, increase cost of production operation and it has a direct effect on oil reservoirs recovery efficiency as well. Therefore, evaluation of such phenomenon and study the reservoir mechanisms that may strongly affect invading gas to the producing formation is crucial. Gas conning is a result of an imbalance between two major forces controlling the oil production: gravitational and viscous forces especially in naturally fractured reservoirs where the capillary pressure forces are negligible. Once the gas invading the producing formation near the wellbore due to large producing oil rate, the oil gas contact will change and such reservoirs are prone to gas conning. Moreover, the oil volume expected to be produced requires the use of long horizontal perforated well. This work presents a numerical simulation study to predict and propose solutions to gas coning in naturally fractured oil reservoirs. The simulation work is based on discrete fractures and permeability tensors approaches. The governing equations are discretized using finite element approach and Galerkin’s least square technique (GLS) is employed to stabilize the equation solutions. The developed simulator is validated against Eclipse-100 using horizontal fractures. The matrix and fracture properties are modelled. Critical rate, breakthrough time and GOR are determined to be used in investigation of the effect of matrix and fracture properties on gas coning. Results show that fracture distribution in terms of diverse dip and azimuth has a great effect on conning occurring. In addition, fracture porosity, anisotropy ratio, and fracture aperture.

Keywords: gas conning, finite element, fractured reservoirs, multiphase

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