Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Behnam Mahdiyan Nasl

18 Investigation of the Effects of the Whey Addition on the Biogas Production of a Reactor Using Cattle Manure for Biogas Production

Authors: Behnam Mahdiyan Nasl

Abstract:

In a lab-scale research, the effects of feeding whey into the biogas system and how to solve the probable problems arising were analysed. In the study a semi-continuous glass reactor, having a total capacity of 13 liters and having a working capacity of 10 liters, was placed in an incubator, and the temperature was tried to be held at 38 °C. At first, the reactor was operated by adding 5 liters of animal manure and water with a ratio of 1/1. By passing time, the production rate of the gas reduced intensively that on the fourth day there was no production of gas and the system stopped working. In this condition, the pH was adjusted and by adding NaOH, it was increased from 5.4 to 7. On 48th day, the first gas measurement was done and an amount of 12.07 % of CH₄ was detected. After making buffer in the ambient, the number of bacteria existing in the cattle’s manure and contributing to the gas production was thought to be not adequate, and up to 20 % of its volume 2 liters of mud was added to the reactor. 7 days after adding the anaerobic mud, second gas measurement was carried out, and biogas including 43 % CH₄ was obtained. From the 61st day of the study, the cheese whey with the animal manure was started to be added with an amount of 40 mL per day. However, by passing time, the raising of the microorganisms existed in the whey (especially Ni and Co), the percent of methane in the biogas decreased. In fact, 2 weeks after adding PAS, the gas measurement was done and 36,97 % CH₄ was detected. 0,06 mL Ni-Co (to gain a concentration of 0.05 mg/L in the reactor’s mixture) solution was added to the system for 15 days. To find out the effect of the solution on archaea, 7 days after stopping addition of the solution, methane gas was found to have a 9,03 % increase and reach 46 %. Lastly, the effects of adding molasses to the reactor were investigated. The effects of its activity on the bacteria was analysed by adding 4 grams of it to the system. After adding molasses in 10 days, according to the last measurement, the amount of methane gas reached up to 49%.

Keywords: Energy, Biogas, cattle manure, cheese whey

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17 Injury Prevention among Construction Workers: A Case Study on Iranian Steel Bar Bending Workers

Authors: S. Behnam Asl, H. Sadeghi Naeini, L. Sadat Ensaniat, R. Khorshidian, S. Alipour

Abstract:

Nowadays, the construction industry is growing, especially among developing countries. Iran also has a critical role in these industries in terms of workers disorders. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) account for 7% of the whole diseases in the society, which makes some limitations. One of the main factors which causes WMSDs is awkward posture. Steel bar bending is considered as one of the prominent performance among construction workers. In this case study, we aimed to find the major tasks of bar benders and the most important risk factors related to it. This study was carried out among twenty workers (18-45 years) as our volunteer samples in some construction sites with less than 6 floors in two regions of Tehran municipality. The data was gathered through in depth observation, interview and questionnaire. Also postural analysis was done by OWAS method. In another part of study we used NMQ for gathering some data about psychosocial effects of work related disorders. Our findings show that 64% of workers were not aware of work risks, about 59% of workers had troubles in their wrists, hands, especially workers who worked in steel bar bending. In 46% cases lower back pain was in prevalence. Considering gathered data and results, awkward postures and long term tasks and their duration are known as the main risk factors of WMSDs among construction workers, meaning that work-rest schedule and tools design should be reconsidered to make an ergonomic condition for the mentioned workers.

Keywords: bar benders, construction workers, musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), OWAS method

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16 Control of Underactuated Biped Robots Using Event Based Fuzzy Partial Feedback Linearization

Authors: Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Omid Heydarnia, Behnam Dadashzadeh, M. R. Sayyed Noorani

Abstract:

Underactuated biped robots control is one of the interesting topics in robotics. The main difficulties are its highly nonlinear dynamics, open-loop instability, and discrete event at the end of the gait. One of the methods to control underactuated systems is the partial feedback linearization, but it is not robust against uncertainties and disturbances that restrict its performance to control biped walking and running. In this paper, fuzzy partial feedback linearization is presented to overcome its drawback. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method to generate stable and robust biped walking and running gaits.

Keywords: Fuzzy Control, underactuated system, biped robot, partial feedback linearization

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15 Numerical Investigation of Natural Convection of Pine, Olive and Orange Leaves

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Nazli Jowkar, Behnam Amiri

Abstract:

Heat transfer of leaves is a crucial factor in optimal operation of metabolic functions in plants. In order to quantify this phenomenon in different leaves and investigate the influence of leaf shape on heat transfer, natural convection for pine, orange and olive leaves was simulated as representatives of different groups of leaf shapes. CFD techniques were used in this simulation with the purpose to calculate heat transfer of leaves in similar environmental conditions. The problem was simulated for steady state and three-dimensional conditions. From obtained results, it was concluded that heat fluxes of all three different leaves are almost identical, however, total rate of heat transfer have highest and lowest values for orange leaves and pine leaves, respectively.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Heat Flux, natural convection, Computational Fluid Dynamic

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14 Sustainable Ecological Agricultural Systems in Bangladesh: Environmental, Economic and Social Perspective of Compost

Authors: Protima Chakraborty

Abstract:

The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. NASL (Northern Agro Services Limited) is pursuing efforts to promote ecological agriculture with emphasis on better use of organic fertilizer resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper examines the sustainability of two production systems in terms of their environmental soundness, economic viability and social acceptability based on empirical data collected through making demonstration land cultivation, a household survey, soil sample analysis, observations and discussions with key informants. Twelve indicators were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, and use of agrochemicals & Organic Compost. However, significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the ecological system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land show the positive difference of using compost rather than chemical fertilizer. The findings suggest that ecological agriculture has a tendency towards becoming ecologically, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably fewer agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of ecological agriculture.

Keywords: Environmental Sustainability, Conventional Agriculture, Bangladesh, compost, organic fertilizer, social acceptability, economic viability

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13 The Effect of Masonry Infills on the Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ameri, Ali Massumi, Behnam Mahboubi

Abstract:

The performance of masonry infilled frames during the past earthquakes shows that the infill panels play a major role as earthquake-resistant elements. The present study examines the influence of infill panels on seismic behavior of RC frame structures. For this purpose, several low- and mid-rise RC frames (two-, four-, seven-, and ten story) were numerically investigated. Reinforced masonry infill panels were then placed within the frames and the models were subjected to several nonlinear incremental static and dynamic analyses. The results of analyses showed that the use of reinforced masonry infill panels in RC frame structures can have beneficial effects on structural performance. It was confirmed that the use of masonry infill panels results in an increment in strength and stiffness of the framed buildings, followed by a reduction in displacement demand for the structural systems.

Keywords: nonlinear static analysis, incremental dynamic analysis, reinforced masonry infill panels, low-rise reinforced concrete frames, mid-rise reinforced concrete frames

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12 The Application of Morphological Principles in Compilation of Solutions for Urban-Rural Problems, Case Study: Baghshater Neighborhood, Locating in Tehran, Iran Region1

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Elnaz Mohsenin

Abstract:

Today, with the rapid growth of urbanization, urban issues are so problematic more than ever. These problems have various origins and they should be studied in different aspects. One of these problems is destroying the structure and identity of urban-rural textures around cities. This destruction appears due to an uncontrolled and unplanned growth of large cities inside and/or connecting suburban areas to the cities. These textures which were called urban-rural areas are faced with the dual identity of rural and urban tissues. It should be noted that, urban-rural areas have the potential for creating urban habitats with the rural nature. However; these areas, due to lack of planning and proper management have encountered serious problems. The main objective of this article is offering some solutions for the structural-physical problems of urban-rural areas with the using of morphological principles and studies. In this case, after morphological studies of one of urban-rural texture example, and also with the use of offered research literature, general solutions have been suggested to solve some of these textures' issues.

Keywords: Morphology, typo- morphology, urban-rural, urban texture

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11 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric-Based AC Current Measuring Sensor

Authors: Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Behnam Dadashzadeh, Easa Ali Abbasi, Reza Jahangiri

Abstract:

Electrical current measurement is a suitable method for the performance determination of electrical devices. There are two contact and noncontact methods in this measuring process. Contact method has some disadvantages like having direct connection with wire which may endamage the system. Thus, in this paper, a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam which has a permanent magnet on its free end is used to measure electrical current in a noncontact way. In mathematical modeling, based on Galerkin method, the governing equation of the cantilever beam is solved, and the equation presenting the relation between applied force and beam’s output voltage is presented. Magnetic force resulting from current carrying wire is considered as the external excitation force of the system. The results are compared with other references in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model. Finally, the effects of geometric parameters on the output voltage and natural frequency are presented.

Keywords: cantilever beam, piezoelectric, electrical current measurement, forced excitation

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10 Parametric Design as an Approach to Respond to Complexity

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Zahrasadat Saide Zarabadi

Abstract:

A city is an intertwined texture from the relationship of different components in a whole which is united in a one, so designing the whole complex and its planning is not an easy matter. By considering that a city is a complex system with infinite components and communications, providing flexible layouts that can respond to the unpredictable character of the city, which is a result of its complexity, is inevitable. Parametric design approach as a new approach can produce flexible and transformative layouts in any stage of design. This study aimed to introduce parametric design as a modern approach to respond to complex urban issues by using descriptive and analytical methods. This paper firstly introduces complex systems and then giving a brief characteristic of complex systems. The flexible design and layout flexibility is another matter in response and simulation of complex urban systems that should be considered in design, which is discussed in this study. In this regard, after describing the nature of the parametric approach as a flexible approach, as well as a tool and appropriate way to respond to features such as limited predictability, reciprocating nature, complex communications, and being sensitive to initial conditions and hierarchy, this paper introduces parametric design.

Keywords: Complex System, Complexity theory, Parametric Design, Flexibility

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9 Past, Present, and Future of Robotics Technology in Construction Industry (Literature Review)

Authors: Samira Haghbin, Behnam Daryayelaal, Zeinab Amiri

Abstract:

As a result of rapid progress of technology in various industries, the only way to survive in a competitive market of business is to update one's situation along with the said developments. During recent decades, Robotics and automation of the construction operation has emerged as one of the important technologies grabbing the attention of various industries and specially the construction industry. Because of the coming labor shortage of the aging society in the near future, robots will be used in construction fields more than ever. By predicting the condition of Robotics in world's future construction industry, we can make necessary preparations to face with needs imposed by the time and stay ahead. This article takes a library study approach and presents a literature review of existing studies with an aim to investigate the use of robotics in past, present and future of construction industry and make predictions on its' growth and change process. Therefore, to make familiar with this kind of technology and its' requirements in the construction industry, the status of Robotics in construction industry of different countries of the world has been studied and necessary context for its' future progress is expressed. It is hoped that identifying needs and required contexts will facilitate further development of advanced technologies such as robotics industry and lead to more preparation for future.

Keywords: construction industry, Construction Automation, future of robotics, trends of automation

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8 The Effect of Benson Relaxation Method on Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients in 2012-2013, Kermanshah, Iran

Authors: Fateme Hadadian, Behnam Khaledi Paveh, Hosein Feizi

Abstract:

Background: High number of patients with end-stage renal disease worldwide, and Iran and the patients required hemodialysis, As well as symptoms and treatment process and its impact on quality of life The researcher had to take a step towards solving these problems. Methods: In randomized clinical trial in 60 hemodialysis patients admitted to hospital hemodialysis Imam Reza (AS) were studied. Using questionnaires dialysis patients' QOL, quality of life was measured in patients and controls were divided randomly into two groups. Benson's relaxation method for the experimental group and two months at home, once per day, respectively and the control group received no special action. Immediately after the end of the period with was used for evaluating the quality of life in both the experimental and control groups were survey and data using independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The general dimensions of quality of life scores before and after intervention, there was significant difference (P=0/001). But this difference was not significant after QOL (P=0/2). Between QOL scores before and after treatment between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0/02). Conclusion: Benson relaxation has the desired effect on quality of life in hemodialysis patients and can be used as a useful method to enhance the quality of life in hemodialysis patients, implementation and training will be given.

Keywords: Biomedicine, Quality of Life, hemodialysis, Benson muscle relaxation

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7 Vegetation Index-Deduced Crop Coefficient of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Using Remote Sensing: Case Study on Four Basins of Golestan Province, Iran

Authors: Hoda Zolfagharnejad, Behnam Kamkar, Omid Abdi

Abstract:

Crop coefficient (Kc) is an important factor contributing to estimation of evapotranspiration, and is also used to determine the irrigation schedule. This study investigated and determined the monthly Kc of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using five vegetation indices (VIs): Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI), and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) of four basins in Golestan province, Iran. 14 Landsat-8 images according to crop growth stage were used to estimate monthly Kc of wheat. VIs were calculated based on infrared and near infrared bands of Landsat 8 images using Geographical Information System (GIS) software. The best VIs were chosen after establishing a regression relationship among these VIs with FAO Kc and Kc that was modified for the study area by the previous research based on R² and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The result showed that local modified SAVI with R²= 0.767 and RMSE= 0.174 was the best index to produce monthly wheat Kc maps.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Wheat, vegetation indices, crop coefficient

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6 Numerical Study of Rayleight Number and Eccentricity Effect on Free Convection Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Annulus

Authors: Behnam Amiri, Ali Reza Tahavvor‚ Saeed Hosseini

Abstract:

Concentric and eccentric annulus is used frequently in technical and industrial applications such as nuclear reactors, thermal storage system and etc. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate two dimensional free convection of laminar flow in annulus with isotherm cylinders surface and cooler inner surface. Problem studied in thirty different cases. Due to natural convection continuity and momentum equations are coupled and must be solved simultaneously. Finite volume method is used for solving governing equations. The purpose was to obtain the eccentricity effect on Nusselt number in different Rayleight numbers, so streamlines and temperature fields must be determined. Results shown that the highest Nusselt number values occurs in degree of eccentricity equal to 0.5 upward for inner cylinder and degree of eccentricity equal to 0.3 upward for outer cylinder. Side eccentricity reduces the outer cylinder Nusselt number but increases inner cylinder Nusselt number. The trend in variation of Nusselt number with respect to eccentricity remain similar in different Rayleight numbers. Correlations are included to calculate the Nusselt number of the cylinders.

Keywords: natural convection, nusselt number, concentric, eccentric, annulus

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5 Proposing an Optimal Pattern for Evaluating the Performance of the Staff Management of the Water and Sewage Organization in Western Azerbaijan Province, Iran

Authors: Tohid Eskandarzadeh, Nader Bahlouli, Turaj Behnam, Azra Jafarzadeh

Abstract:

The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to propose an optimal pattern to evaluate the staff management performance of the water and sewage organization. The performance prism-model was used to evaluate the following significant dimensions of performance: organizational strategies, organizational processes, organization capabilities, stakeholders’ partnership and satisfaction. In the present study, a standard, valid and reliable questionnaire was used to obtain data about the five dimensions of the performance prism model. 169 sample respondents were used for responding the questionnaire who were selected from the staff of water and waste-water organization in western Azerbaijan, Iran. Also, Alpha coefficient was used to check the reliability of the data-collection instrument which was measured to be beyond 0.7. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by means of SPSS version 18. The results obtained from the data analysis indicated that the performance of the staff management of the water and waste-water organization in western Azerbaijan was acceptable in terms of organizational strategies, organizational process, stakeholders’ partnership and satisfaction. Nevertheless, it was found that the performance of the staff management with respect to organizational abilities was average. Indeed, the researchers drew the conclusion that the current performance of the staff management in this organization in western Azerbaijan was less than ideal performance.

Keywords: Water, Performance Evaluation, performance prism model, waste-water organization

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4 Cyclic Behaviour of Wide Beam-Column Joints with Shear Strength Ratios of 1.0 and 1.7

Authors: Hamdolah Behnam, J. S. Kuang, Roy Y. C. Huang

Abstract:

Beam-column connections play an important role in the reinforced concrete moment resisting frame (RCMRF), which is one of the most commonly used structural systems around the world. The premature failure of such connections would severely limit the seismic performance and increase the vulnerability of RCMRF. In the past decades, researchers primarily focused on investigating the structural behaviour and failure mechanisms of conventional beam-column joints, the beam width of which is either smaller than or equal to the column width, while studies in wide beam-column joints were scarce. This paper presents the preliminary experimental results of two full-scale exterior wide beam-column connections, which are mainly designed and detailed according to ACI 318-14 and ACI 352R-02, under reversed cyclic loading. The ratios of the design shear force to the nominal shear strength of these specimens are 1.0 and 1.7, respectively, so as to probe into differences of the joint shear strength between experimental results and predictions by design codes of practice. Flexural failure dominated in the specimen with ratio of 1.0 in which full-width plastic hinges were observed, while both beam hinges and post-peak joint shear failure occurred for the other specimen. No sign of premature joint shear failure was found which is inconsistent with ACI codes’ prediction. Finally, a modification of current codes of practice is provided to accurately predict the joint shear strength in wide beam-column joint.

Keywords: Seismic Vulnerability, joint shear strength, reversed cyclic loading, wide beam-column joints

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3 Urban Neighborhood Center Location Evaluating Method Based On UNA the GIS Spatial Analysis Tools: Kerman's Neighborhood in Tehran Case

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Elnaz Mohsenin, Shadabeh Gashtasbi Iraei, MohammadAli Aghajani

Abstract:

Urban neighborhoods, as important urban forming cells, play a key role in creating urban texture and integrated form. Nowadays, most of neighborhood divisions are based on urban management systems but without considering social issues and the other aspects of urban life. This can cause problems such as providing inappropriate services for city dwellers, the loss of local identity and etc. In this regard for regenerating of such neighborhoods, it is essential to locate neighborhood centers with appropriate access and services for all residents. The main objective of this article is reaching to the location of neighborhood centers in a way that, most of issues relating to the physical features (such as the form of access network and texture permeability and etc.) and other qualities such as land uses, densities and social and economic features can be done simultaneously. This paper attempts to use methods of spatial analysis in order to surveying spatial structure and space syntax of urban textures and Urban Network Analysis Systems. This can be done by one of GIS toolbars which is named UNA (Urban Network Analysis) with the use of its five functions (include: Reach, Betweenness, Gravity, Closeness, Straightness).These functions were written according to space syntax theory and offer its relating output. This paper tries to locate and evaluate the optimal location of neighborhood centers in order to create local centers. This is done through weighing of each of these functions and taking into account of spatial features.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, urban network, evaluate optimal location, Local centers, location of neighborhood centers

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2 Investigating Combined Effect of Aerobic Training and Crataegus elbursensis Extract on Plasma Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Behnam Hasanzadeh, Ailin Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of Crataegus monogyna on VEGF variations and plasma angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: A number of 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control Crataegus monogyna (N=8), training Crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on the treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of Crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg Crataegus monogyna extract per gram of body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior verna cava. Results: the results showed that progressive endurance training caused insignificant reductions in plasma VEGF concentration in the training group, Crataegus monogyna group and training-Crataegus monogyna group comparing the control group. Plasma ANG-1 concentration reduced in the training, Crataegus monogyna and training-Crataegus monogyna groups while plasma ANG-2 concentration significantly increased in the Crataegus monogyna group (P=0.022) comparing with the control group. The results showed that the ratio of plasma ANG-2 to ANG-1 significantly increased in the Crataegus monogyna group (P=0.028) comparing with the control group. Conclusion: the findings suggest that combination of aerobic training and Crataegus monogyna extract has no synergistic effect on anti-angiogenesis indicators and Crataegus monogyna extract had a stronger effect on anti-angiogenesis indicators.

Keywords: Aerobic Training, VEGF, angiopoetin-1/2, Crataegus monogyna extract

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1 Measurement of Intermediate Slip Rate of Sabzpushan Fault Zone in Southwestern Iran, Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Dating

Authors: Iman Nezamzadeh, Ali Faghih, Behnam Oveisi

Abstract:

In order to reduce earthquake hazards in urban areas, it is necessary to perform comprehensive studies to understand the dynamics of the active faults and identify potentially high risk areas. The fault slip-rates in Late Quaternary sediment are critical indicators of seismic hazard and also provide valuable data to recognize young crustal deformations. To measure slip-rates accurately, is needed to displacement of geomorphic markers and ages of quaternary sediment samples of alluvial deposit that deformed by movements on fault. In this study we produced information about Intermediate term slip rate of Sabzpushan Fault Zone (SPF) within the central part of the Zagros Mountains of Iran using OSL dating technique to make better analysis of seismic hazard and seismic risk reduction for Shiraz city. For this purpose identifiable geomorphic fluvial surfaces help us to provide a reference frame to determine differential or absolute horizontal and vertical deformation. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is an alternative and independent method of determining the burial age of mineral grains in Quaternary sediments. Field observation and satellite imagery show geomorphic markers that deformed horizontally along the Sabzpoushan Fault. Here, drag folds is forming because of evaporites material of Miocen Formation. We estimate 2.8±0.5 mm/yr (mm/y) horizontal slip rate along the Sabzpushan fault zone, where ongoing deformation is involve with drug folding. The Soltan synclinal structure, close to the Sabzpushan fault, shows slight uplift rate due to active core-extrousion.

Keywords: Geomorphic Markers, Active Tectonics, Iran, Zagros, slip rate, OSL, Sabzpushan Fault Zone

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