Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3079

Search results for: farm planning

3079 Optimal Type and Installation Time of Wind Farm in a Power System, Considering Service Providers

Authors: M. H. Abedi, A. Jalilvand

Abstract:

The economic development benefits of wind energy may be the most tangible basis for the local and state officials’ interests. In addition to the direct salaries associated with building and operating wind projects, the wind energy industry provides indirect jobs and benefits. The optimal planning of a wind farm is one most important topic in renewable energy technology. Many methods have been implemented to optimize the cost and output benefit of wind farms, but the contribution of this paper is mentioning different types of service providers and also time of installation of wind turbines during planning horizon years. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the problem. It is observed that an appropriate layout of wind farm can cause to minimize the different types of cost.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind farm, optimization, planning

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3078 A Multicriteria Mathematical Programming Model for Farm Planning in Greece

Authors: Basil Manos, Parthena Chatzinikolaou, Fedra Kiomourtzi

Abstract:

This paper presents a Multicriteria Mathematical Programming model for farm planning and sustainable optimization of agricultural production. The model can be used as a tool for the analysis and simulation of agricultural production plans, as well as for the study of impacts of various measures of Common Agriculture Policy in the member states of European Union. The model can achieve the optimum production plan of a farm or an agricultural region combining in one utility function different conflicting criteria as the maximization of gross margin and the minimization of fertilizers used, under a set of constraints for land, labor, available capital, Common Agricultural Policy etc. The proposed model was applied to the region of Larisa in central Greece. The optimum production plan achieves a greater gross return, a less fertilizers use, and a less irrigated water use than the existent production plan.

Keywords: sustainable optimization, multicriteria analysis, agricultural production, farm planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
3077 Analysis of Farm Management Skills in Broiler Poultry Producers in Botswana

Authors: Som Pal Baliyan

Abstract:

The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze farm management skills in broiler poultryproducers in Botswana. The study adopted a descriptive and correlation research design. The population of the study was the poultry farm operators who had been in broiler poultry farming at least for two years. Based on the information from literature, a questionnaire was constructed for data collection on seven areas of farm management skills namely; planning skills, accounting and financial management skills, production management skills, product procurement and marketing skills, decision making skills, risk management skills, and specific technical skills. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were accomplished by a panel of experts and by calculating the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, respectively. Data were collected through a survey of 60 randomly sampled poultry farm operators in Botswana. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistical tools whereby the level of farm management skills were determined by calculating means and standard deviations of the management skills among the broiler producers. The level of farm management skills in broilers producers was discussed. All the seven farm management skills were ranked based on their calculated means. The specific technical skills and risk management skills were the highest and the lowest ranked farm management skills, respectively.Findings revealed that the broiler producers had skills above the average level only in specific technical skills whereas the skill levels in the remaining six farm management skills under study were found below the average level. This prevailing low level of farm management skills can be justified asthe cause of failure or poor performance of the broiler poultry farms in Botswana. Therefore, in order to improve the efficiency and productivityin broiler production in the country, it was recommended that the broiler poultry producers should be adequately trained in areas of planning skills, financial management skills, production management skills, product procurement and marketing skills, decision making skills and risk management skills.

Keywords: poultry production, broiler production, management skills, levels of skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
3076 Characterization and Evaluation of Soil Resources for Sustainable Land Use Planning of Timatjatji Community Farm, Limpopo, South Africa

Authors: M. Linda Phooko, Phesheya E. Dlamini, Vusumuzi E. Mbanjwa, Rhandu Chauke

Abstract:

The decline of yields as a consequence of miss-informed land-use decisions poses a threat to sustainable agriculture in South Africa. The non-uniform growth pattern of wheat crop and the yields below expectations has been one of the main concerns for Timatjatji community farmers. This study was then conducted to characterize, classify, and evaluate soils of the farm for sustainable land use planning. A detailed free survey guided by surface features was conducted on a 25 ha farm to check soil variation. It was revealed that Sepane (25%), Bonheim (21%), Rensburg (18%), Katspruit (15%), Arcadia (12%) and Dundee (9%) were the dominant soil forms found across the farm. Field soil description was done to determine morphological characteristics of the soils which were matched with slope percentage and climate to assess the potential of the soils. The land capability results showed that soils were generally shallow due to high clay content in the B horizon. When the climate of the area was factored in (i.e. land potential), it further revealed that the area has low cropping potential due to heat, moisture stress and shallow soils. This implies that the farm is not suitable for annual cropping but can be highly suitable for planted pastures.

Keywords: characterization, land capability, land evaluation, land potential

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3075 Manure Management Systems in Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya, Türkiye

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

Abstract:

Goat and sheep milk is quite significant in human nutrition. It is considered as more important day by day. This study was carried out in order to determine applied manure management system and their possibilities of improvement in goat and sheep farm in between 2012 and 2013 years. In the study, it was investigated manure management systems of 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms. It was analyzed the manure collecting, storage and treatment features of farms and whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, it was determined that the applied manure management systems in the farm were insufficient. Planning the manure management systems in goat and sheep breeding is appropriate technical criteria is useful in respect of the animal welfare, animal health, the health of workers in the barn and environmental pollution.

Keywords: goat farm, sheep farm, manure storage, manure management

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
3074 On-Farm Diversification in Vietnam: Determinants and Trends

Authors: Diep Thanh Tung, Joachim Aurbacher

Abstract:

This study aims to measure the level of on-farm diversification in Vietnam. The empirical results of the research carried out reflect regional differences in terms of on-farm diversification and its determinants. Households in the northern regions have adapted to the fragmented and small-sized parcels of land held by diversifying their on-farm activities. In contrast, the Mekong delta region in the south of Vietnam is characterized by larger agricultural parcels and a specialization in rice production. Land use fragmentation, as reflected by a large number of plots in a given area, is one of the most important reasons for the high levels of on-farm diversification seen, while the higher share of non-farm income in total income is the reason of lower levels of on-farm diversification. Households have reacted to natural and economic shocks by diversifying their on-farm activities. The non-stationary Markov chain model used here shows various diversification scenarios and trends. In most cases, on-farm diversification generally tends to reduce over the next few years.

Keywords: diversification, simpson index, fixed effects, non-stationary markov chain

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3073 Flood Risk Assessment and Adapted to the Climate Change by a Trade-Off Process in Land Use Planning

Authors: Nien-Ming Hong, Kuei-Fang Huang

Abstract:

Climate change is an important issue in future, which seriously affects water resources for a long term planning and management. Flood assessment is highly related with climate and land use. Increasing rainfall and urbanization will induce the inundated area in future. For adapting the impacts of climate change, a land use planning is a good strategy for reducing flood damage. The study is to build a trade-off process with different land use types. The Ta-Liao watershed is the study area with three types of land uses that are build-up, farm and forest. The build-up area is concentrated in the downstream of the watershed. Different rainfall amounts are applied for assessing the land use in 1996, 2005 and 2013. The adapted strategies are based on retarding the development of urban and a trade-off process. When a land changes from farm area to built-up area in downstream, this study is to search for a farm area and change it to forest/grass area or building a retention area in the upstream. For assessing the effects of the strategy, the inundation area is simulated by the Flo-2D model with different rainfall conditions and land uses. The results show inundation maps of several cases with land use change planning. The results also show the trade-off strategies and retention areas can decrease the inundated area and divide the inundated area, which are better than retarding urban development. The land use change is usually non-reverse and the planning should be constructed before the climate change.

Keywords: climate change, land use change, flood risk assessment, land use planning

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3072 Modeling and Simulation for Infection Processes of Bird Flu within a Poultry Farm

Authors: Tertia Delia Nova, Masaji Watanabge

Abstract:

Infection of bird flu within a poultry farm involves hosts, virus, and medium. Intrusion of bird flu into a poultry farm divides the population into two groups; healthy and susceptible chickens and infected chickens. A healthy and susceptible bird is infected to become an infected bird. Bird flu viruses spread among chickens through medium such as air and droppings, and increase in hosts. A model for an infection process of bird flu within a poultry farm is described, numerical techniques are illustrated, and numerical results are introduced.

Keywords: bird flu, poultry farm, model for an infection process, flu viruses

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
3071 Risk Measurement and Management Strategies in Poultry Farm Enterprises in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Donatus Otuiheoma Ohajianya, Augusta Onyekachi Unamba

Abstract:

This study analyzed risk among poultry farm enterprises in Imo State of Nigeria. Specifically, it examined sources of risks, the major risks associated with poultry farm enterprise, and the risk-reducing strategies among the poultry farm enterprises in the study area. Primary data collected in 2015 with validated questionnaire from 120 proportionately and randomly selected poultry farm enterprises were used for the study. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and W-Statistic that was validated with Pearson Criterion (X2). The results showed that major risk sources affecting poultry farm enterprises were production, marketing, financial and political in that order. The results found a W-Statistic value of 0.789, which was verified by Pearson Criterion to obtain X2-Calculated value of 4.65 which is lower that X2-Critical value of 11.07 at 5% significant level. The risk-reducing strategies were found to be diversification, savings, co-operative marketing, borrowing, and insurance. It was recommended that government and donor agencies should make policies aimed at encouraging poultry farm enterprises adopt the highlighted risk-reducing strategies in risk management to improve their productivity and farm income.

Keywords: risk, measurement, management, poultry farm, Imo State

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
3070 Off-Farm Work and Cost Efficiency in Staple Food Production among Small-Scale Farmers in North Central Nigeria

Authors: C. E. Ogbanje, S. A. N. D. Chidebelu, N. J. Nweze

Abstract:

The study evaluated off-farm work and cost efficiency in staple food production among small-scale farmers in North Central Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 360 respondents (participants and non-participants in off-farm work). Primary data obtained were analysed using stochastic cost frontier and test of means’ difference. Capital input was lower for participants (N2,596.58) than non-participants (N11,099.14). Gamma (γ) was statistically significant. Farm size significantly (p<0.01) increased cost outlay for participants and non-participants. Average input prices of enterprises one and two significantly (p<0.01) increased cost. Sex, household size, credit obtained, formal education, farming experience, and farm income significantly (p<0.05) reduced cost inefficiency for non-participants. Average cost efficiency was 11%. Farm capital was wasted. Participants’ substitution of capital for labour did not put them at a disadvantage. Extension agents should encourage farmers to obtain financial relief from off-farm work but not to the extent of endangering farm cost efficiency.

Keywords: cost efficiency, mean difference, North Central Nigeria, off-farm work, participants and non-participants, small-scale farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
3069 Assessing the Actions of the Farm Mangers to Execute Field Operations at Opportune Times

Authors: G. Edwards, N. Dybro, L. J. Munkholm, C. G. Sørensen

Abstract:

Planning agricultural operations requires an understanding of when fields are ready for operations. However determining a field’s readiness is a difficult process that can involve large amounts of data and an experienced farm manager. A consequence of this is that operations are often executed when fields are unready, or partially unready, which can compromise results incurring environmental impacts, decreased yield and increased operational costs. In order to assess timeliness of operations’ execution, a new scheme is introduced to quantify the aptitude of farm managers to plan operations. Two criteria are presented by which the execution of operations can be evaluated as to their exploitation of a field’s readiness window. A dataset containing the execution dates of spring and autumn operations on 93 fields in Iowa, USA, over two years, was considered as an example and used to demonstrate how operations’ executions can be evaluated. The execution dates were compared with simulated data to gain a measure of how disparate the actual execution was from the ideal execution. The presented tool is able to evaluate the spring operations better than the autumn operations as required data was lacking to correctly parameterise the crop model. Further work is needed on the underlying models of the decision support tool in order for its situational knowledge to emulate reality more consistently. However the assessment methods and evaluation criteria presented offer a standard by which operations' execution proficiency can be quantified and could be used to identify farm managers who require decisional support when planning operations, or as a means of incentivising and promoting the use of sustainable farming practices.

Keywords: operation management, field readiness, sustainable farming, workability

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
3068 The Sustainability of Farm Forestry Management in Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Nuraeni, Suryanti, Saida, Annas Boceng

Abstract:

Farm forestry is a forest where farmers or landowners do cultivation and farming activities on their land. This study aims to determine the dimensions of sustainable development of farm forestry and to analyze the leverage factors to improve the sustainability status of farm forestry management in Bulukumba Regency. This research was conducted in Kajang District, Bulukumba Regency. The analysis of the sustainability of farm forestry management applied Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), a modification of the Rapid Appraisal of The Status of Farming (RAPFARM). The index value of farm forestry sustainability was by 62.01% for ecological dimension, 51.54% for economic dimension, 61.00% for the social and cultural dimension, and 63.24% for legal and institutional dimension with sustainable enough category status. Meanwhile, the index value for the technology and infrastructure was by 47.16% of less sustainable category status. The result of leverage analysis of attributes for the dimensions of ecological, economic, social and cultural, legal and institutional as well as infrastructure and technology afforded twenty-two (22) leverage sensitive factors that influence the sustainability of farm forestry.

Keywords: farm forestry, South Sulawesi, management, sustainability

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3067 Sustainable Management of Agricultural Resources in Irrigated Agriculture

Authors: Basil Manos, Parthena Chatzinikolaou, Fedra Kiomourtzi

Abstract:

This paper presents a mathematical model for the sustainable management of agricultural resources in irrigated agriculture. This is a multicriteria mathematical programming model and used as a tool for the planning, analysis and simulation of farm plans in rural irrigated areas, as well as for the study of impacts of the various policies in irrigated agriculture. The model can achieve the optimum farm plan of an agricultural region taking in account different conflicting criteria as the maximization of gross margin and the minimization of fertilizers used, under a set of constraints for land, labor, available capital, common agricultural policy etc. The proposed model was applied to four prefectures in central Greece. The results show that in all prefectures, the optimum farm plans achieve greater income and less environmental impacts (less irrigated water use and less fertilizers use) than the existent plans.

Keywords: sustainable use of agricultural resources, irrigated agriculture, multicriteria analysis, optimum income

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
3066 Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Siegfried Bauer

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the migration process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households. The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants of migration at farm household level are household age, economically active males and females, number of young and old dependent members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other hand, the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability of economically adult male in the household, number of young dependents and agricultural land holding.

Keywords: determinants, Heckman Probit model, migration, rural-urban

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
3065 Assessing the Effect of Grid Connection of Large-Scale Wind Farms on Power System Small-Signal Angular Stability

Authors: Wenjuan Du, Jingtian Bi, Tong Wang, Haifeng Wang

Abstract:

Grid connection of a large-scale wind farm affects power system small-signal angular stability in two aspects. Firstly, connection of the wind farm brings about the change of load flow and configuration of a power system. Secondly, the dynamic interaction is introduced by the wind farm with the synchronous generators (SGs) in the power system. This paper proposes a method to assess the two aspects of the effect of the wind farm on power system small-signal angular stability. The effect of the change of load flow/system configuration brought about by the wind farm can be examined separately by displacing wind farms with constant power sources, then the effect of the dynamic interaction of the wind farm with the SGs can be also computed individually. Thus, a clearer picture and better understanding on the power system small-signal angular stability as affected by grid connection of the large-scale wind farm are provided. In the paper, an example power system with grid connection of a wind farm is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach.

Keywords: power system small-signal angular stability, power system low-frequency oscillations, electromechanical oscillation modes, wind farms, double fed induction generator (DFIG)

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3064 General Mathematical Framework for Analysis of Cattle Farm System

Authors: Krzysztof Pomorski

Abstract:

In the given work we present universal mathematical framework for modeling of cattle farm system that can set and validate various hypothesis that can be tested against experimental data. The presented work is preliminary but it is expected to be valid tool for future deeper analysis that can result in new class of prediction methods allowing early detection of cow dieseaes as well as cow performance. Therefore the presented work shall have its meaning in agriculture models and in machine learning as well. It also opens the possibilities for incorporation of certain class of biological models necessary in modeling of cow behavior and farm performance that might include the impact of environment on the farm system. Particular attention is paid to the model of coupled oscillators that it the basic building hypothesis that can construct the model showing certain periodic or quasiperiodic behavior.

Keywords: coupled ordinary differential equations, cattle farm system, numerical methods, stochastic differential equations

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3063 Farm Diversification and the Corresponding Policy for Its Implementation in Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili

Abstract:

The paper shows the necessity of farm diversification in accordance with the current trends in agricultural sector of Georgia. The possibilities for the diversification and the corresponding economic policy are suggested. The causes that hinder diversification of farms are revealed, possibilities of diversification are suggested and the ability of increasing employment through diversification is proved. Index of harvest diversification is calculated based on the areas used for cereals and legumes, potatoes and vegetables and other food crops. Crop and livestock production indexes are analyzed, correlation between crop capacity index and value-added per one worker and one ha is studied. Based on the research farm diversification strategies and priorities of corresponding economic policy are presented. Based on the conclusions relevant recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: farm diversification, diversification index, agricultural development policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
3062 The Fadama Initiative: Implications for Human Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Albert T. Akume, Yahya M. Abdullahi

Abstract:

The impact of poverty on individual and society is grave, hence the efforts by the government to eradicate or alleviate. In Nigeria the various efforts to reduce rural poverty by empowering them and making the process of their development self-sustaining have ended dismally. That notwithstanding, government determination to conquer poverty has not diminish as in the early 1990s the government with financial collaboration from the World Bank and African Development Bank introduced the fadama project. It is against this backdrop that this paper uses the documentary and analytical research methods to examine the implication the fadama development project has for community capacity development and human security in Nigeria. From the analysis it was discovered the fadama project improved household income of fadama farmers, community empowerment, participatory development planning and support for demand driven productive investment in farm and non-farm activities including community infrastructures. Despite this impressive result the fadama project is challenged by conflict especially in northern Nigeria and late delivery of necessary farm consumables that aid improved productivity. It was therefore recommended that the government should strengthen her various state security institutions to proactively mitigate conflicts and to ensure that farm consumables and other support services reach farmers timely.

Keywords: capacity development, empowerment, fadama, human security, poverty reduction, theory of change, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
3061 Study for an Optimal Cable Connection within an Inner Grid of an Offshore Wind Farm

Authors: Je-Seok Shin, Wook-Won Kim, Jin-O Kim

Abstract:

The offshore wind farm needs to be designed carefully considering economics and reliability aspects. There are many decision-making problems for designing entire offshore wind farm, this paper focuses on an inner grid layout which means the connection between wind turbines as well as between wind turbines and an offshore substation. A methodology proposed in this paper determines the connections and the cable type for each connection section using K-clustering, minimum spanning tree and cable selection algorithms. And then, a cost evaluation is performed in terms of investment, power loss and reliability. Through the cost evaluation, an optimal layout of inner grid is determined so as to have the lowest total cost. In order to demonstrate the validity of the methodology, the case study is conducted on 240MW offshore wind farm, and the results show that it is helpful to design optimally offshore wind farm.

Keywords: offshore wind farm, optimal layout, k-clustering algorithm, minimum spanning algorithm, cable type selection, power loss cost, reliability cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
3060 Agroecological and Socioeconomic Determinants of Conserving Diversity On-Farm: The Case of Wheat Genetic Resources in Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse

Abstract:

Conservation of crop genetic resources presents a challenge of identifying specific determinants driving maintenance of diversity at farm and agroecosystems. The objectives of this study were to identify socioeconomic, market and agroecological determinants of farmers’ maintenance of wheat diversity at the household level and derive implications for policies in designing on-farm conservation programs. We assess wheat diversity at farm level using household survey data. A household decision making model is conceptualized using microeconomic theory to assess and identify factors influencing on-farm rice diversity. The model is then tested econometrically by using various factors affecting farmers’ variety choice and diversity decisions. The findings show that household-specific socioeconomic, agroecological and market factors are important in determining on-farm wheat diversity. The significant variables in explaining richness and evenness of wheat diversity include distance to the nearest market, subsistence ratio, modern variety sold, land types and adult labour working in agriculture. The statistical signs of the factors determining wheat diversity are consistent in explaining the richness, dominance and evenness among rice varieties. Finally, the study implies that the cost-effective means of promoting and sustaining on-farm conservation programmes is to target them in market isolated geographic locations of high crop diversity where farm households have more heterogeneity of agroecological conditions and more active family adult labour working on-farm.

Keywords: diversity indices, dominance, evenness, on-farm conservation, wheat diversity, richness

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3059 Some Factors Affecting to Farm Size of Duck Farming

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Ahmad Ramadhan Siregar

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to know some factors affecting farm size of duck farming (case study in Pinrang district, South Sulawesi). This research was conducted in 2013. Total sample was 45 duck farmers which were selected from 6 regions in Mattiro Sompe sub district, Pinrang district, South Sulawesi province through stratified random sampling. Data were collected through interviews using questionnaires and observation. Multiple regression equation was used to analyze the data. Dependent variable was duck population, while age of respondents, farming experience, land size, education, and income level as independent variables. This research revealed that R2 was 0.920. Simultaneously, age of respondents, farming experience, land size, education, and income level significantly influenced farm size of duck farming (P < 1%). Only income influenced farm size of duck farming (P < 1%).

Keywords: duck, dry system, factors, farm-size

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3058 Villar Settlement Farm School for the Aetas: Assimilation through American Colonial Education in Zambales, Philippines

Authors: Julian E. Abuso, Alberto T. Paala Jr.

Abstract:

The creation of settlement farm schools at the outset of American colonization of the Philippines was not a matter of accident; rather, their establishment was a major component of a grand plan on public education based on the benevolent assimilation policy of the United States. This argument is illustrated by the case of Villar Settlement Farm School, a school for the Aetas as a non-Christian tribal community in 1907. The study aims to: (1) identify and describe the antecedents for the establishment of Settlement Farm School, (2) explicate the cultural conflicts encountered by Aetas in school, (3) appraise the consequences of education as acculturation among Aeta population. The study made use of the following: historical data based on primary and secondary sources and life histories from primary informants. The Settlement Farm School for the Aetas was borne out of the American’s change in policy from military to civilian authority, recognition of education as a tool for benevolent assimilation. The narratives of informants manifested resistance to certain aspects of the educational process.

Keywords: settlement farm school Aetas, tribe, colonial education, Aeta, non-Christian tribal community

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
3057 Understanding Indonesian Smallholder Dairy Farmers’ Decision to Adopt Multiple Farm: Level Innovations

Authors: Rida Akzar, Risti Permani, Wahida , Wendy Umberger

Abstract:

Adoption of farm innovations may increase farm productivity, and therefore improve market access and farm incomes. However, most studies that look at the level and drivers of innovation adoption only focus on a specific type of innovation. Farmers may consider multiple innovation options, and constraints such as budget, environment, scarcity of labour supply, and the cost of learning. There have been some studies proposing different methods to combine a broad variety of innovations into a single measurable index. However, little has been done to compare these methods and assess whether they provide similar information about farmer segmentation by their ‘innovativeness’. Using data from a recent survey of 220 dairy farm households in West Java, Indonesia, this study compares and considers different methods of deriving an innovation index, including expert-weighted innovation index; an index derived from the total number of adopted technologies; and an index of the extent of adoption of innovation taking into account both adoption and disadoption of multiple innovations. Second, it examines the distribution of different farming systems taking into account their innovativeness and farm characteristics. Results from this study will inform policy makers and stakeholders in the dairy industry on how to better design, target and deliver programs to improve and encourage farm innovation, and therefore improve farm productivity and the performance of the dairy industry in Indonesia.

Keywords: adoption, dairy, household survey, innovation index, Indonesia, multiple innovations dairy, West Java

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
3056 Progress in Replacing Antibiotics in Farm Animal Production

Authors: Debabrata Biswas

Abstract:

The current trend in the development of antibiotic resistance by multiple bacterial pathogens has resulted in a troubling loss of effective antibiotic options for human. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens has necessitated higher dosages and combinations of multiple antibiotics, further exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. Zoonotic bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (such as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli or EHEC), and Listeria are the most common and predominant foodborne enteric infectious agents. It was observed that these pathogens gained/developed their ability to survive in the presence of antibiotics either in farm animal gut or farm environment and researchers believe that therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antibiotic use in farm animal production might play an important role in it. The mechanism of action of antimicrobial components used in farm animal production in genomic interplay in the gut and farm environment, has not been fully characterized. Even the risk of promoting the exchange of mobile genetic elements between microbes specifically pathogens needs to be evaluated in depth, to ensure sustainable farm animal production, safety of our food and to mitigate/limit the enteric infection with multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. Due to the consumer’s demand and considering the current emerging situation, many countries are in process to withdraw antibiotic use in farm animal production. Before withdrawing use of the sub-therapeutic antibiotic or restricting the use of therapeutic antibiotics in farm animal production, it is essential to find alternative natural antimicrobials for promoting the growth of farm animal and/or treating animal diseases. Further, it is also necessary to consider whether that compound(s) has the potential to trigger the acquisition or loss of genetic materials in zoonotic and any other bacterial pathogens. Development of alternative therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antimicrobials for farm animal production and food processing and preservation and their effective implementation for sustainable strategies for farm animal production as well as the possible risk for horizontal gene transfer in major enteric pathogens will be focus in the study.

Keywords: food safety, natural antimicrobial, sustainable farming, antibiotic resistance

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3055 Wind Farm Power Performance Verification Using Non-Parametric Statistical Inference

Authors: M. Celeska, K. Najdenkoski, V. Dimchev, V. Stoilkov

Abstract:

Accurate determination of wind turbine performance is necessary for economic operation of a wind farm. At present, the procedure to carry out the power performance verification of wind turbines is based on a standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In this paper, nonparametric statistical inference is applied to designing a simple, inexpensive method of verifying the power performance of a wind turbine. A statistical test is explained, examined, and the adequacy is tested over real data. The methods use the information that is collected by the SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. The study has used data on the monthly output of wind farm in the Republic of Macedonia, and the time measuring interval was from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. At the end, it is concluded whether the power performance of a wind turbine differed significantly from what would be expected. The results of the implementation of the proposed methods showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.

Keywords: canonical correlation analysis, power curve, power performance, wind energy

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3054 Impact of Farm Settlements' Facilities on Farm Patronage in Oyo State

Authors: Simon Ayorinde Okanlawon

Abstract:

The youths’ prevalent negative attitude to farming is partly due to amenities and facilities found in the urban centers at the expense of the rural areas. Hence, there is the need to create a befitting and conducive farm environment to retain farm employees and attract the youth to farming. This can be achieved through the provision of services and amenities that will ensure a comfortable standard of living higher than that obtained by a person of equal status in other forms of employment in urban centers, thereby eliminating the psychological feeling of lowered self-esteem associated with farming. This study assessed farm settlements’ facilities and patronage in Oyo State with a view to using the information to encourage sustainable agriculture in Nigeria. The study becomes necessary because of the dearth of information on the state of facilities in the farm settlements as it affects patronage of farm settlements for sustainable agriculture in the developing countries like Nigeria. The study utilized three purposely selected farm settlements- Ogbomoso, Fasola and Ilora out of the seven existing ones n Oyo State. One hundred percent (100%) of the 262 residential buildings in the three settlements were sampled, from where a household head from each of the buildings was randomly chosen. This translates to 262 household heads served with questionnaire out of which 47.7% of the questionnaires were recovered. Information obtained included respondents’ residency categories, residents’ status, residency years, housing types, types of holding and number of acres/holding. Others include the socio-economic attributes such as age, gender, income, educational status of respondents, assessment of existing facilities in the selected sites, the level of patronage of the farm settlements including perceived pull factors that can enhance farm settlements patronage. The study revealed that the residents were not satisfied with the adequacy and quality of all the facilities available in their settlements. Residents’ satisfaction with infrastructural facilities cannot be statistically linked with location across the study area. Findings suggested that residents of Ogbomoso farm settlements were not enjoying adequate provision of water supply and road as much as those from Ilora and Fasola. Patronage of the farm settlements were largely driven by farming activities and sale of farm produce. The respondents agreed that provision of farm resort centers, standard recreational and tourism facilities, vacation employment opportunities for youths, functional internet and communication networks among others are likely to boost the level of patronage of the farm settlements. The study concluded that improvement of the facilities both in quality and quantity will encourage the youths in going back to farming. It then recommends that maintenance of existing facilities and provision of more facilities such as resort centers be ensured.

Keywords: encourage, farm settlements' facilities, Oyo state, patronage

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
3053 Impact of the Government Ghana Block Farm Program on Rural Households in Northern Ghana

Authors: Antwi Kwaku Dei, Lyford Conrad Power

Abstract:

This paper investigates the outcome of participating in the government of Ghana block farm program on rural households’ farm productivity, income, food security and nutritional status in Northern Ghana using cross-sectional data. Data analysis was done using the Instrumental Variable and the Heckman Selection Bias procedures. Our analysis indicates that participation in the block farm program significantly increased directly the productivity of maize, rice, and soybean by 21.3 percent, 15.8 percent, and 12.3 percent respectively. Also, the program participation was found to increase households’ farm income by 20 percent in northern Ghana. Furthermore, program participation was found to improve household food security and nutrition by 19 percent and 14 percent respectively through income effect. Based on the benefit-cost ratio of 1.59 the results from the study recommends that the program is expanded to other communities in the northern region. Further analysis indicates that rural households’ decision to participate in food security intervention programs is significantly influenced by factors including the gender of the household head, the age of the household head, and household size. Results of the study further show that gender of household head, household size, household monthly income, household assets, women educational status, the age of women, marital status of women, are significant determinants of food security and nutrition status in Northern Ghana.

Keywords: block farm program, farm productivity, , household food security, Northern Ghana

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3052 Self-reported Acute Pesticide Intoxication in Ethiopia

Authors: Amare Nigatu, Mågne Bratveit, Bente E. Moen

Abstract:

Background: Pesticide exposure is an important public health concern in Ethiopia, but there is limited information on pesticide intoxications. Residents may have an increased risk of pesticide exposure through proximity of their homes to farms using pesticides. Also the pesticide exposure might be related to employment at these farms. This study investigated the prevalence of acute pesticide intoxications (API) by residence proximity to a nearby flower farm and assessed if intoxications are related to working there or not. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 516 persons was conducted. Participants were grouped according to their residence proximity from a large flower farm; living within 5 kilometers and 5-12 kilometers away, respectively. In a structured interview, participants were asked if they had health symptoms within 48 hours of pesticide exposure in the past year. Those, who had experienced this and reported two or more typical pesticide intoxication symptoms, were considered as having had API. Chi-square and independent t-tests were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Confounding variables were adjusted by using binomial regression model. Results: The prevalence of API in the past year among the residents in the study area was 26%, and it was higher in the population living close to the flower farm (42%) compared to those living far away (11%), prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.2, 95% CI: 2.2-4.8, adjusted for age, gender & education. A subgroup living close to the farm & working there had significantly more API (56%) than those living close & did not work there (16%), adjusted PR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8-4.9. Flower farm workers reported more API (56%) than those not working there (13%,), adjusted PR = 4.0, 95% CI: 2.9-5.6. Conclusion: The residents living closer than 5 kilometers to the flower farm reported significantly higher prevalence of API than those living 5-12 kilometers away. This increased risk of API was associated with work at the flower farm.

Keywords: acute pesticide intoxications, self-reported symptoms, flower farm workers, living proximity

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3051 Resistance of Haemonchus spp. to Albendazole, Fenbendazole and Levamisole in 4 Goat Farms of Antioquia, Colombia

Authors: Jose D. Zapata-Torres, Esteban Naranjo-Gutiérrez, Angela M. Martínez-Valencia, Jenny J. Chaparro-Gutiérrez, David Villar-Argaiz

Abstract:

Reports of drug resistance have been made in every livestock host and to every anthelmintic class. In some regions of world, the extremely high prevalence of multi-drug resistance in nematodes of sheep and goats threatens the viability of small-ruminant industries. In the region of Antioquia, Colombia, no reports of nematode resistance have been documented due to a lack of veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole, fenbendazole, and levamisole to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goat farms of Antioquia by doing fecal egg count reduction tests. A total of 139 crossbreed goats from four separate farms were sampled for feces prior to, and 14 days following anthelmintc treatments. Individual fecal egg counts were performed using the modified three chamber McMaster technique. The anthelmintics administered at day 0 were albendazole (farm 1, n=63), fenbendazole (farm 2, n=20), and levamisole (farm 3 and 4, n= 37, and 19). Larval cultures were used to identify the genus of nematodes using Baermann`s technique and the morphological keys for identification of L3 in small ruminants. There was no difference in fecal egg counts between 0 and 14, with means (±SD) of 1681,5 ± 2121,5 and 1715,12 ± 1895,4 epg (eggs per gram), respectively. The egg count reductions for each anthelmintic and farm were 25,86% for albendazole (farm 1), 0% for fenbendazole (farm 2), 0% (farm 3), and 5,5% (farm 4) for levamisole. The genus of nematodes identified was predominantly Haemonchus spp., with 70,27% and 82,81% for samples from day 0 and 14, respectively. These results provide evidence of a total state of resistance to 3 common anthelmintics. Further research is needed to design integrate management programs to control nematodes in small ruminants in Colombia.

Keywords: anthelmintics, goat, haemonchus, resistance

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3050 Impact of HIV/AIDS on Food Security in Pala Sub-Location, Bondo District, Kenya

Authors: S. B. Otieno, Were Fred, E. W. Kabiru, K. Waza

Abstract:

Background: HIV/AIDS is leading to the loss of labor through sickness and subsequent death, this is leading to the neglect of farm and off-farm activities, with the subsequent loss of potential income and food security. The situation is sensitive to seasonal labour peaks in agriculture. This study was done to determine the impact of high HIV prevalence in farming systems and food security in Pala Bondo District, Kenya. Methods: In this study, 386 respondents were randomly chosen in Pala Sub-Location. The respondents and key informants were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: It was established that majority of respondents (67%) were between 18 and 35 years {χ2 = (1, N = 386) = 13.430, p = 0.000} (chimney effect). The study also established that 83.5% of respondents were married {χ2 = (1, N= 370) = 166.277 p = 0.000} and predominant occupation being farming and fishing (61%), while 52.8% of farm labour was by hand, 26% by oxen, and 4.9% mechanized. 73.2% of respondents only farm 0.25 to 2 acres, 48% mentioned lack of labour in land preparation {χ2 ((1,N = 321) = 113.146, p = 0.000), in planting {χ2 (1, N = 321) = 29.28, p = 0.000}. Majority of respondents lack food from January to June, during which 93% buy food. Conclusion: The high HIV prevalence in Pala has affected the farm labour leading to food insecurity.

Keywords: food security, HIV, AIDS, labour

Procedia PDF Downloads 183