Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4400

Search results for: public bike

4400 Mining Riding Patterns in Bike-Sharing System Connecting with Public Transportation

Authors: Chong Zhang, Guoming Tang, Bin Ge, Jiuyang Tang

Abstract:

With the fast growing road traffic and increasingly severe traffic congestion, more and more citizens choose to use the public transportation for daily travelling. Meanwhile, the shared bike provides a convenient option for the first and last mile to the public transit. As of 2016, over one thousand cities around the world have deployed the bike-sharing system. The combination of these two transportations have stimulated the development of each other and made significant contribution to the reduction of carbon footprint. A lot of work has been done on mining the riding behaviors in various bike-sharing systems. Most of them, however, treated the bike-sharing system as an isolated system and thus their results provide little reference for the public transit construction and optimization. In this work, we treat the bike-sharing and public transit as a whole and investigate the customers’ bike-and-ride behaviors. Specifically, we develop a spatio-temporal traffic delivery model to study the riding patterns between the two transportation systems and explore the traffic characteristics (e.g., distributions of customer arrival/departure and traffic peak hours) from the time and space dimensions. During the model construction and evaluation, we make use of large open datasets from real-world bike-sharing systems (the CitiBike in New York, GoBike in San Francisco and BIXI in Montreal) along with corresponding public transit information. The developed two-dimension traffic model, as well as the mined bike-and-ride behaviors, can provide great help to the deployment of next-generation intelligent transportation systems.

Keywords: riding pattern mining, bike-sharing system, public transportation, bike-and-ride behavior

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4399 Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Public Bicycle Projects in Chinese Cities

Authors: Xiujuan Wang, Weiguo Wang, Lei Yu, Xue Liu

Abstract:

There are many purported benefits of public bike systems, therefore, it has seen a sharp increase since 2008 in Hangzhou, China. However, there are few studies on the public bicycle system in Chinese cities. In order to make recommendations for the development of public bicycle systems, this paper analyzes the influencing factors by using the system dynamics method according to the main characteristics of Chinese cities. The main characteristics of Chinese cities lie in the city size and process of urbanization, traffic mode division, demographic characteristics, bicycle infrastructure and right of way, regime structure. Finally, under the context of Chinese bike sharing systems, these analyses results can help to design some feasible strategies for the planner to the development of the public bicycles.

Keywords: engineering of communication and transportation system, bicycle, public bike, characteristics of Chinese cities, system dynamics

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4398 Discussion on the Impact and Improvement Strategy of Bike Sharing on Urban Space

Authors: Bingying Liu, Dandong Ge, Xinlan Zhang, Haoyang Liang

Abstract:

Over the past two years, a new generation of No-Pile Bike sharing, represented by the Ofo, Mobike and HelloBike, has sprung up in various cities in China, and spread rapidly in countries such as Britain, Japan, the United States and Singapore. As a new green public transportation mode, bike sharing can bring a series of benefits to urban space. At first, this paper analyzes the specific impact of bike sharing on urban space in China. Based on the market research and data analyzing, it is found that bike sharing can improve the quality of urban space in three aspects: expanding the radius of public transportation service, filling service blind spots, alleviating urban traffic congestion, and enhancing the vitality of urban space. On the other hand, due to the immature market and the imperfect system, bike sharing has gradually revealed some difficulties, such as parking chaos, malicious damage, safety problems, imbalance between supply and demand, and so on. Then the paper investigates the characteristics of shared bikes, business model, operating mechanism on Chinese market currently. Finally, in order to make bike sharing serve urban construction better, this paper puts forward some specific countermeasures from four aspects. In terms of market operations, it is necessary to establish a public-private partnership model and set up a unified bike-sharing integrated management platform. From technical methods level, the paper proposes to develop an intelligent parking system for regulating parking. From policy formulation level, establishing a bike-sharing assessment mechanism would strengthen supervision. As to urban planning, sharing data and redesigning slow roadway is beneficial for transportation and spatial planning.

Keywords: bike sharing, impact analysis, improvement strategy, urban space

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4397 Visualization of the Mobility Patterns of Public Bike Sharing System in Seoul

Authors: Young-Hyun Seo, Hosuk Shin, Eun-Hak Lee, Seung-Young Kho

Abstract:

This study analyzed and visualized the rental and return data of the public bike sharing system in Seoul, Ttareungyi, from September 2015 to October 2017. With the surge of system users, the number of times of collection and distribution in 2017 increased by three times compared to 2016. The city plans to deploy about 20,000 public bicycles by the end of 2017 to expand the system. Based on about 3.3 million historical data, we calculated the average trip time and the number of trips from one station to another station. The mobility patterns between stations are graphically displayed using R and Tableau. Demand for public bike sharing system is heavily influenced by day and weather. As a result of plotting the number of rentals and returns of some stations on weekdays and weekends at intervals of one hour, there was a difference in rental patterns. As a result of analysis of the rental and return patterns by time of day, there were a lot of returns at the morning peak and more rentals at the afternoon peak at the center of the city. It means that stock of bikes varies largely in the time zone and public bikes should be rebalanced timely. The result of this study can be applied as a primary data to construct the demand forecasting function of the station when establishing the rebalancing strategy of the public bicycle.

Keywords: demand forecasting, mobility patterns, public bike sharing system, visualization

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4396 3D Frictionless Contact Case between the Structure of E-Bike and the Ground

Authors: Lele Zhang, Hui Leng Choo, Alexander Konyukhov, Shuguang Li

Abstract:

China is currently the world's largest producer and distributor of electric bicycle (e-bike). The increasing number of e-bikes on the road is accompanied by rising injuries and even deaths of e-bike drivers. Therefore, there is a growing need to improve the safety structure of e-bikes. This 3D frictionless contact analysis is a preliminary, but necessary work for further structural design improvement of an e-bike. The contact analysis between e-bike and the ground was carried out as follows: firstly, the Penalty method was illustrated and derived from the simplest spring-mass system. This is one of the most common methods to satisfy the frictionless contact case; secondly, ANSYS static analysis was carried out to verify finite element (FE) models with contact pair (without friction) between e-bike and the ground; finally, ANSYS transient analysis was used to obtain the data of the penetration p(u) of e-bike with respect to the ground. Results obtained from the simulation are as estimated by comparing with that from theoretical method. In the future, protective shell will be designed following the stability criteria and added to the frame of e-bike. Simulation of side falling of the improved safety structure of e-bike will be confirmed with experimental data.

Keywords: frictionless contact, penalty method, e-bike, finite element

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4395 A Study on Bicycle Riding Behavior on Bike-Only Road

Authors: Hyeon Jong Yoo, Jae Hwan Yang, Dong Kyu Kim

Abstract:

Recently, riding a bicycle is recommended as an eco-friendly means of transportation. In Seoul, the mayor has secured budget for extending bicycle infrastructure. As bicycle rental centers are adopted in places, more citizens are using bike rental service on bike-only roads for leisure. However, most of the citizens are not experienced in riding bicycles. They usually do not wear helmets, keep the balance of bicycle riding, and pay attention to nearby occasions. Therefore, in this study, bicycles on Han-river bike-only road were tracked, and their behaviors were analyzed in order to show how dangerously beginner riders are riding. The number of conflicts is calculated to evaluate riding safety on the most crowded bike-only road. As a result, conflicts between beginner riders and fast-driving skilled drivers are frequently observed especially at night, and on weekends. In conclusion, it is suggested that the government should acknowledge citizens the fact that bikes are vehicles and adopt a test for bike driving.

Keywords: bicycles, safety, bike-only road, policy proposal

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
4394 Associations between Sharing Bike Usage and Characteristics of Urban Street Built Environment in Wuhan, China

Authors: Miao Li, Mengyuan Xu

Abstract:

As a low-carbon travel mode, bicycling has drawn increasing political interest in the contemporary Chinese urban context, and the public sharing bikes have become the most popular ways of bike usage in China now. This research aims to explore the spatial-temporal relationship between sharing bike usage and different characteristics of the urban street built environment. In the research, street segments were used as the analytic unit of the street built environment defined by street intersections. The sharing bike usage data in the research include a total of 2.64 million samples that are the entire sharing bike distribution data recorded in two days in 2018 within a neighborhood of 185.4 hectares in the city of Wuhan, China. And these data are assigned to the 97 urban street segments in this area based on their geographic location. The built environment variables used in this research are categorized into three sections: 1) street design characteristics, such as street width, street greenery, types of bicycle lanes; 2) condition of other public transportation, such as the availability of metro station; 3) Street function characteristics that are described by the categories and density of the point of interest (POI) along the segments. Spatial Lag Models (SLM) were used in order to reveal the relationships of specific urban streets built environment characteristics and the likelihood of sharing bicycling usage in whole and different periods a day. The results show: 1) there is spatial autocorrelation among sharing bicycling usage of urban streets in case area in general, non-working day, working day and each period of a day, which presents a clustering pattern in the street space; 2) a statistically strong association between bike sharing usage and several different built environment characteristics such as POI density, types of bicycle lanes and street width; 3) the pattern that bike sharing usage is influenced by built environment characteristics depends on the period within a day. These findings could be useful for policymakers and urban designers to better understand the factors affecting bike sharing system and thus propose guidance and strategy for urban street planning and design in order to promote the use of sharing bikes.

Keywords: big data, sharing bike usage, spatial statistics, urban street built environment

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4393 Prospect and Challenges of Public Bicycle Sharing System in Indian Cities

Authors: Anil Kumar

Abstract:

Public Bicycle System (PBS), generally known as Public Bicycle Share System or Bike-Share, is a service provided to the everyday commuters in which several cycles are available on the shared system. The concept of PBS is new to the people of India and requires more study in the fields of essential requirements, major infrastructural requirements, social acceptability, and various challenges. In various Indian cities, MRTS, BRTS, Monorail, and other modes of transport have been adopted for the main haul of transport. These modes take more time, space and are also expensive to implement. At the same time, the PBS system is more economical and takes less time to implement. The main benefit of the PBS system is that it is more environmentally friendly. PBS is being implemented in many Indian cities for public use, but various challenges are associated with this. The study aims to determine what are the basic infrastructural requirements for PBS in India, as well as to determine to what extent a Public Bike Sharing System can provide a quality and efficient service to passengers as a primary method of transportation.

Keywords: public bicycle sharing system, sustainable transport, infrastructure, smart city

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4392 GSM and GPS Based Smart Helmet System for Sudden Accidental Rescue Operation

Authors: A. B. M. Aftabuzzaman, Md. Mahin Hossain, Md. Ifran Sharif Imthi, Md. Razu Ahmed, A. Z. M. Imran

Abstract:

The goals of the study are to develop a safety system that is combined with a smart helmet to reduce the likelihood of two-wheeler bike accidents and cases of drunk driving. The smart helmet and the limit switch both verify when a biker is wearing a helmet. The presence of alcohol in the rider's breath is detected using alcohol sensors. The bike remains turned off if the rider is not wearing a helmet or if the rider's breath contains alcohol. The bike will not start until the rider is wearing a helmet and there is no alcoholic substance present, indicating that the bike rider has not consumed alcohol. When the rider faces in an accident, instantly the smart helmet hits the ground and respective sensors detect the movement and tilt of the protective helmet and instantly sending the information about the location of accident to the rider's relatives and the crisis contact numbers which are introduced in the smart helmet respective device. So this project finding will ensure safe bike journey and improve safe commercial bike services in Bangladesh.

Keywords: smart helmet, GSM, GPS, bike, biker accident

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4391 E-Bike FE Model Analysis: Connection Stiffness of Elements with Different DOFs

Authors: Lele Zhang, Hui Leng Choo, Alexander Konyukhov, Shuguang Li

Abstract:

Finite Element (FE) model of simplified e-bike structure was generated by main frame with two tiers, which consisted of pipe, mass, beam, and shell elements (pipe 289, beam188, shell 181, shell 281, combin14, link11, mass21). These elements would be introduced and demonstrated using mathematical formulas. Based on coupling theory, constrain equations was proposed. Exporting all the parameters obtained from theory part, the connection stiffness matrix of the whole e-bike structure between each of these elements was detected.

Keywords: coupling theory, stiffness matrix, e-bike, finite element model

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4390 Significance of Bike-Frame Geometric Factors for Cycling Efficiency and Muscle Activation

Authors: Luen Chow Chan

Abstract:

With the advocacy of green transportation and green traveling, cycling has become increasingly popular nowadays. Physiology and bike design are key factors for the influence of cycling efficiency. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the significance of bike-frame geometric factors on cycling efficiency and muscle activation for different body sizes of non-professional Asian male cyclists. Participants who represented various body sizes, as measured by leg and back lengths, carried out cycling tests using a tailor-assembled road bike with different ergonomic design configurations including seat-height adjustments (i.e., 96%, 100%, and 104% of trochanteric height) and bike frame sizes (i.e., small and medium frames) for an assessable distance of 1 km. A specific power meter and self-developed adaptable surface electromyography (sEMG) were used to measure average pedaling power and cadence generated and muscle activation, respectively. The results showed that changing the seat height was far more significant than the body and bike frame sizes. The sEMG data evidently provided a better understanding of muscle activation as a function of different seat heights. Therefore, the interpretation of this study is that the major bike ergonomic design factor dominating the cycling efficiency of Asian participants with different body sizes was the seat height.

Keywords: bike frame sizes, cadence rate, pedaling power, seat height

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4389 Predictive Analytics of Bike Sharing Rider Parameters

Authors: Bongs Lainjo

Abstract:

The evolution and escalation of bike-sharing programs (BSP) continue unabated. Since the sixties, many countries have introduced different models and strategies of BSP. These include variations ranging from dockless models to electronic real-time monitoring systems. Reasons for using this BSP include recreation, errands, work, etc. And there is all indication that complex, and more innovative rider-friendly systems are yet to be introduced. The objective of this paper is to analyze current variables established by different operators and streamline them identifying the most compelling ones using analytics. Given the contents of available databases, there is a lack of uniformity and common standard on what is required and what is not. Two factors appear to be common: user type (registered and unregistered, and duration of each trip). This article uses historical data provided by one operator based in the greater Washington, District of Columbia, USA area. Several variables including categorical and continuous data types were screened. Eight out of 18 were considered acceptable and significantly contribute to determining a useful and reliable predictive model. Bike-sharing systems have become popular in recent years all around the world. Although this trend has resulted in many studies on public cycling systems, there have been few previous studies on the factors influencing public bicycle travel behavior. A bike-sharing system is a computer-controlled system in which individuals can borrow bikes for a fee or free for a limited period. This study has identified unprecedented useful, and pragmatic parameters required in improving BSP ridership dynamics.

Keywords: sharing program, historical data, parameters, ridership dynamics, trip duration

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4388 The Impact of Locations on the Perception of the Same Product: An Application to Motor Industry

Authors: Anna Claudia Pellicelli, Silvia Procacci

Abstract:

The study aims to demonstrate how different locations, where the same product is unveiled and tested, can provide a different result in terms of perception by the same kind of people. The experiment was done in occasion of the presentation of a new bike. A group of dealers has been invited in Lloret de Mar, two persons from the headquarter were present to run the presentation, together with an outsourced trainer. Half day dedicated to the theoretical presentation and half day to the test of the new bike on the road, including the test of its direct competitors. The same presentation, organized in the same way, has been delivered in Italy, in 4 locations often used to run business meetings with dealers. In the end of all days of the presentation, dealers had to fill a questionnaire regarding the evaluation of the different bikes tested. The result of the questionnaire showed how the group invited in Spain rated much higher the new bike compared with the dealers testing the bike in locations already known and close to their home. So, in terms of business strategy, it is important to take into account how the location and the way of presenting any product or service can have a favourable impact on the people we want to convince. The next step of the experiment will be to cross check the sales of that bike with the dealers and measure if there is a relation between the top sellers and the one that appreciated the bike the most, in Spain. It would mean that they were able to transfer to customers the same good feelings and impressions they had in Spain.

Keywords: product presentation, locations, emotional effect, business strategy

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4387 Aerodynamic Bicycle Torque Augmentation with a Wells Turbine in Wheels

Authors: Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

Cyclists often run through a crosswind and sometimes we experience the adverse pressure. We came to an idea that Wells turbine can be used as power augmentation device in the crosswind something like sails of a yacht. Wells turbine always rotates in the same direction irrespective of the incoming flow direction, and we use it in the small-scale power generation in the ocean where waves create an oscillating flow. We incorporate the turbine to the wheel of a bike. A commercial device integrates strain gauges in the crank of a bike and transmitted force and torque applied to the pedal of the bike as an e-mail to the driver’s mobile phone. We can analyze the unsteady data in a spreadsheet sent from the crank sensor. We run the bike with the crank sensor on the rollers at the exit of a low-speed wind tunnel and analyze the effect of the crosswind to the wheel with a Wells turbine. We also test the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine separately. Although power gain depends on the flow direction, several Watts increase might be possible by the Wells turbine incorporated to a bike wheel.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Wells turbine, bicycle, wind engineering

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4386 Assessing Sustainability of Bike Sharing Projects Using Envision™ Rating System

Authors: Tamar Trop

Abstract:

Bike sharing systems can be important elements of smart cities as they have the potential for impact on multiple levels. These systems can add a significant alternative to other modes of mass transit in cities that are continuously looking for measures to become more livable and maintain their attractiveness for citizens, businesses and tourism. Bike-sharing began in Europe in 1965, and a viable format emerged in the mid-2000s thanks to the introduction of information technology. The rate of growth in bike-sharing schemes and fleets has been very rapid since 2008 and has probably outstripped growth in every other form of urban transport. Today, public bike-sharing systems are available on five continents, including over 700 cities, operating more than 800,000 bicycles at approximately 40,000 docking stations. Since modern bike sharing systems have become prevalent only in the last decade, the existing literature analyzing these systems and their sustainability is relatively new. The purpose of the presented study is to assess the sustainability of these newly emerging transportation systems, by using the Envision™ rating system as a methodological framework and the Israeli 'Tel -O-Fun' – bike sharing project as a case study. The assessment was conducted by project team members. Envision™ is a new guidance and rating system used to assess and improve the sustainability of all types and sizes of infrastructure projects. This tool provides a holistic framework for evaluating and rating the community, environmental, and economic benefits of infrastructure projects over the course of their life cycle. This evaluation method has 60 sustainability criteria divided into five categories: Quality of life, leadership, resource allocation, natural world, and climate and risk. 'Tel -O-Fun' project was launched in Tel Aviv-Yafo on 2011 and today provides about 1,800 bikes for rent, at 180 rental stations across the city. The system is based on a complex computer terminal that is located in the docking stations. The highest-rated sustainable features that the project scored include: (a) Improving quality of life by: offering a low cost and efficient form of public transit, improving community mobility and access, enabling the flexibility of travel within a multimodal transportation system, saving commuters time and money, enhancing public health and reducing air and noise pollution; (b) improving resource allocation by: offering inexpensive and flexible last-mile connectivity, reducing space, materials and energy consumption, reducing wear and tear on public roads, and maximizing the utility of existing infrastructure, and (c) reducing of greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. Overall, 'Tel -O-Fun' project was highly scored as an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable infrastructure. The use of this practical framework for evaluation also yielded various interesting insights on the shortcoming of the system and the characteristics of good solutions. This can contribute to the improvement of the project and may assist planners and operators of bike sharing systems to develop a sustainable, efficient and reliable transportation infrastructure within smart cities.

Keywords: bike sharing, Envision™, sustainability rating system, sustainable infrastructure

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4385 Design and Implementation of the Embedded Control System for the Electrical Motor Based Cargo Vehicle

Authors: Syed M. Rizvi, Yiqing Meng, Simon Iwnicki

Abstract:

With an increased demand in the land cargo industry, it is predicted that the freight trade will rise to a record $1.1 trillion in revenue and volume in the following years to come. This increase is mainly driven by the e-commerce model ever so popular in the consumer market. Many innovative ideas have stemmed from this demand and change in lifestyle likes of which include e-bike cargo and drones. Rural and urban areas are facing air quality challenges to keep pollution levels in city centre to a minimum. For this purpose, this paper presents the design and implementation of a non-linear PID control system, employing a micro-controller and low cost sensing technique, for controlling an electrical motor based cargo vehicle with various loads, to follow a leading vehicle (bike). Within using this system, the cargo vehicle will have no load influence on the bike rider on different gradient conditions, such as hill climbing. The system is being integrated with a microcontroller to continuously measure several parameters such as relative displacement between bike and the cargo vehicle and gradient of the road, and process these measurements to create a portable controller capable of controlling the performance of electrical vehicle without the need of a PC. As a result, in the case of carrying 180kg of parcel weight, the cargo vehicle can maintain a reasonable spacing over a short length of sensor travel between the bike and itself.

Keywords: cargo, e-bike, microcontroller, embedded system, nonlinear pid, self-adaptive, inertial measurement unit (IMU)

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4384 Feasibility of Using Bike Lanes in Conjunctions with Sidewalks for Ground Drone Applications in Last Mile Delivery for Dense Urban Areas

Authors: N. Bazyar Shourabi, K. Nyarko, C. Scott, M. Jeihnai

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Ground drones have the potential to reduce the cost and time of making last-mile deliveries. They also have the potential to make a huge impact on human life. Despite this potential, little work has gone into developing a suitable feasibility model for ground drone delivery in dense urban areas. Today, most of the experimental ground delivery drones utilize sidewalks only, with just a few of them starting to use bike lanes, which a significant portion of some urban areas have. This study works on the feasibility of using bike lanes in conjunction with sidewalks for ground drone applications in last-mile delivery for dense urban areas. This work begins with surveying bike lanes and sidewalks within the city of Boston using Geographic Information System (GIS) software to determine the percentage of coverage currently available within the city. Then six scenarios are examined. Based on this research, a mathematical model is developed. The daily cost of delivering packages using each scenario is calculated by the mathematical model. Comparing the drone delivery scenarios with the traditional method of package delivery using trucks will provide essential information concerning the feasibility of implementing routing protocols that combine the use of sidewalks and bike lanes. The preliminary results of the model show that ground drones that can travel via sidewalks or bike lanes have the potential to significantly reduce delivery cost.

Keywords: ground drone, intelligent transportation system, last-mile delivery, sidewalk robot

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4383 Transportation Mode Classification Using GPS Coordinates and Recurrent Neural Networks

Authors: Taylor Kolody, Farkhund Iqbal, Rabia Batool, Benjamin Fung, Mohammed Hussaeni, Saiqa Aleem

Abstract:

The rising threat of climate change has led to an increase in public awareness and care about our collective and individual environmental impact. A key component of this impact is our use of cars and other polluting forms of transportation, but it is often difficult for an individual to know how severe this impact is. While there are applications that offer this feedback, they require manual entry of what transportation mode was used for a given trip, which can be burdensome. In order to alleviate this shortcoming, a data from the 2016 TRIPlab datasets has been used to train a variety of machine learning models to automatically recognize the mode of transportation. The accuracy of 89.6% is achieved using single deep neural network model with Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) architecture applied directly to trip data points over 4 primary classes, namely walking, public transit, car, and bike. These results are comparable in accuracy to results achieved by others using ensemble methods and require far less computation when classifying new trips. The lack of trip context data, e.g., bus routes, bike paths, etc., and the need for only a single set of weights make this an appropriate methodology for applications hoping to reach a broad demographic and have responsive feedback.

Keywords: classification, gated recurrent unit, recurrent neural network, transportation

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4382 A Method for Evaluating Gender Equity of Cycling from Rawls Justice Perspective

Authors: Zahra Hamidi

Abstract:

Promoting cycling, as an affordable environmentally friendly mode of transport to replace private car use has been central to sustainable transport policies. Cycling is faster than walking and combined with public transport has the potential to extend the opportunities that people can access. In other words, cycling, besides direct positive health impacts, can improve people mobility and ultimately their quality of life. Transport literature well supports the close relationship between mobility, quality of life, and, well being. At the same time inequity in the distribution of access and mobility has been associated with the key aspects of injustice and social exclusion. The pattern of social exclusion and inequality in access are also often related to population characteristics such as age, gender, income, health, and ethnic background. Therefore, while investing in transport infrastructure it is important to consider the equity of provided access for different population groups. This paper proposes a method to evaluate the equity of cycling in a city from Rawls egalitarian perspective. Since this perspective is concerned with the difference between individuals and social groups, this method combines accessibility measures and Theil index of inequality that allows capturing the inequalities ‘within’ and ‘between’ groups. The paper specifically focuses on two population characteristics as gender and ethnic background. Following Rawls equity principles, this paper measures accessibility by bikes to a selection of urban activities that can be linked to the concept of the social primary goods. Moreover, as growing number of cities around the world have launched bike-sharing systems (BSS) this paper incorporates both private and public bikes networks in the estimation of accessibility levels. Additionally, the typology of bike lanes (separated from or shared with roads), the presence of a bike sharing system in the network, as well as bike facilities (e.g. parking racks) have been included in the developed accessibility measures. Application of this proposed method to a real case study, the city of Malmö, Sweden, shows its effectiveness and efficiency. Although the accessibility levels were estimated only based on gender and ethnic background characteristics of the population, the author suggests that the analysis can be applied to other contexts and further developed using other properties, such as age, income, or health.

Keywords: accessibility, cycling, equity, gender

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4381 Prospective Analysis of Micromobility in the City of Medellín

Authors: Saúl Rivero, Estefanya Marín, Katherine Bolaño, Elena Urán, Juan Yepes, Andrés Cossio

Abstract:

Medellín is the Colombian city with the best public transport systems in the country, which is made up of two metro lines, five metrocables, two BRT-type bus lines, and a tram. But despite the above, the Aburrá Valley, the area in which the city is located, has about 3000 km of roads, which for the existing population of 3.2 million inhabitants, gives an indicator of 900 meters of road per 1000 inhabitants, which is lower than the country's average, which is approximately 3900 meters. In addition, given that in Medellín, there is approximately one vehicle for every three inhabitants, the problems of congestion and environmental pollution have worsened over the years. In this sense, due to the limitations of physical space, the low public investment in road infrastructure, it is necessary to opt for mobility alternatives according to the above. Among the options for the city, there is what is known as micromobility. Micromobility is understood to be those small and light means of transport that are used for short distances, that use electrical energy, such as skateboards and bicycles. Taking into account the above, in this work, the current state and future of micromobility in the city of Medellín were analyzed, carrying out a prospective analysis, supported by a PEST analysis, but also of the crossed impact matrices; of influence and dependence; and the technique of the actor's game. The analysis was carried out for two future scenarios: one normal and one optimistic. Result of the analysis, it was determined that micromobility as an alternative social practice to mobility in the city of Medellín has favorable conditions since the local government has adopted strategies such as the Metropolitan Bicycle Master Plan of Valle de Aburrá and the plan " Bicycle paths in the city: more public spaces for life,” where a projection of 400 kilometers of bicycle paths was estimated by the year 2030, as for that same year it is expected that 10% of all trips in the region will be in bike mode. The total trip indicator is an achievable goal, while that of the number of kilometers of bike paths would be close to being met.

Keywords: electric vehicles, micromobilty, public transport, sustainable transport

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4380 The Severity of Electric Bicycle Injuries Compared to Classic Bicycle Injuries in Children: A Retrospective Review

Authors: Tali Capua, Karin Hermon, Miguel Glatstein, Oren Tavor, Ayelet Rimon

Abstract:

Background: Electric bicycles (E-bikes) are one of a wide range of light electric vehicles that provide convenient local transportation and attractive recreational opportunities. Along with their growing use worldwide, the E-bike related injury rate increases. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to specifically compare E-bike with classic bicycle related injuries in children. Methods: Data of all pediatric ( < 16 years of age) bicycle related injuries presenting to an urban level I trauma center between 2014 and 2015 were collected and analyzed. The recorded data included age, gender, details of the accident, as well severity of injury, medical diagnosis, and the outcome. Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were calculated for each patient. Data of E-bike related injuries and classic bicycle were then compared. Results: A total of 124 bicycle related injuries and 97 E-bike related injuries presented to the emergency department. Once pedestrians and bicycle passengers were removed, the groups of riders consisted of 111 bikers and 85 E-bikers. The mean age of bikers was 9.9 years (range 3-16 years) and of E-bikers was 13.7 years (range 7.5-16 years). Injuries to the head and the extremities were common in both groups. Compared to bikers, E-bikers had significantly more injuries to intra-abdominal organs (p = 0.04). Twenty patients (16%) with bicycle related injuries were admitted, and 13 (15%) patients with E-bike related injuries, of the latter group four underwent surgical intervention. ISS scores were low overall, but the injuries of higher severity (ISS > 9) were among the E-bikers. Conclusions: This study provides unique information which suggests that injuries in E-bikers tend to be more severe than in classic bikers. There is a need for regulation regarding the use of E-bikes to enhance the safety of both bikers and other road and pavement users.

Keywords: bicycle, electric bicycle, injury, pediatric, trauma

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4379 Traffic Study and Proposal for a Bike Lane for the University of the Basque Country

Authors: Elisabete Alberdi, Irantzu Álvarez, Laura Girón

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The objective of this work is to propose a cycle path or network of paths to the UPV/EHU Campus in Leioa. The proposal will be presented from the point of view of sustainability. In order to achieve this, the roads that are already built will be used, and the road or network will be proposed to be built with the least amount of money possible. To select the most suitable route for the bike lane, various sources of information have been used. Through this data, we analyse the transport infrastructure and the mobility around the UPV/EHU Campus in Leioa. This work aims to satisfy the mobility needs of users on the University Campus to contribute to the sustainability of the campus.

Keywords: cycle lane, sustainability, accessibility, transport, agenda 2030

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4378 Spatial Variability of Environmental Parameters and Its Relationship with an Environmental Injustice on the Bike Paths of Santiago, Chile

Authors: Alicia Muñoz, Pedro Oyola, Cristian Henriquez

Abstract:

Pollution in Santiago de Chile has a spatial variability due to different factors, including meteorological parameters and emission sources. Socioenvironmental aspects are also significant for pollution in the canopy layer since it influences the type of edification, vegetal mass proportion and other environmental conditions. This study analyzes spatially urban pollution in Santiago, specifically, from the bike path perspective. Bike paths are located in high traffic zones, as consequence, users are constantly exposed to urban pollution. Measurements were made at the higher polluted hour, three days a week, including three transit regimes, on the most polluted month of the year. The environmental parameters are fine particulate matter (Model 8520, DustTrak Aerosol Monitor, TSI), temperature and relative humidity; it was also considerate urban parameters as sky view factor and vegetal mass. Identification of an environmental injustice will be achieved with a spatial modeling, including all urban factors and environmental mediations with an economic index of population.

Keywords: canopy layer, environmental injustice, spatial modeling, urban pollution

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4377 Cycleloop Personal Rapid Transit: An Exploratory Study for Last Mile Connectivity in Urban Transport

Authors: Suresh Salla

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In this paper, author explores for most sustainable last mile transport mode addressing present problems of traffic congestion, jams, pollution and travel stress. Development of energy-efficient sustainable integrated transport system(s) is/are must to make our cities more livable. Emphasis on autonomous, connected, electric, sharing system for effective utilization of systems (vehicles and public infrastructure) is on the rise. Many surface mobility innovations like PBS, Ride hailing, ride sharing, etc. are, although workable but if we analyze holistically, add to the already congested roads, difficult to ride in hostile weather, causes pollution and poses commuter stress. Sustainability of transportation is evaluated with respect to public adoption, average speed, energy consumption, and pollution. Why public prefer certain mode over others? How commute time plays a role in mode selection or shift? What are the factors play-ing role in energy consumption and pollution? Based on the study, it is clear that public prefer a transport mode which is exhaustive (i.e., less need for interchange – network is widespread) and intensive (i.e., less waiting time - vehicles are available at frequent intervals) and convenient with latest technologies. Average speed is dependent on stops, number of intersections, signals, clear route availability, etc. It is clear from Physics that higher the kerb weight of a vehicle; higher is the operational energy consumption. Higher kerb weight also demands heavier infrastructure. Pollution is dependent on source of energy, efficiency of vehicle, average speed. Mode can be made exhaustive when the unit infrastructure cost is less and can be offered intensively when the vehicle cost is less. Reliable and seamless integrated mobility till last ¼ mile (Five Minute Walk-FMW) is a must to encourage sustainable public transportation. Study shows that average speed and reliability of dedicated modes (like Metro, PRT, BRT, etc.) is high compared to road vehicles. Electric vehicles and more so battery-less or 3rd rail vehicles reduce pollution. One potential mode can be Cycleloop PRT, where commuter rides e-cycle in a dedicated path – elevated, at grade or underground. e-Bike with kerb weight per rider at 15 kg being 1/50th of car or 1/10th of other PRT systems makes it sustainable mode. Cycleloop tube will be light, sleek and scalable and can be modular erected, either on modified street lamp-posts or can be hanged/suspended between the two stations. Embarking and dis-embarking points or offline stations can be at an interval which suits FMW to mass public transit. In terms of convenience, guided e-Bike can be made self-balancing thus encouraging driverless on-demand vehicles. e-Bike equipped with smart electronics and drive controls can intelligently respond to field sensors and autonomously move reacting to Central Controller. Smart switching allows travel from origin to destination without interchange of cycles. DC Powered Batteryless e-cycle with voluntary manual pedaling makes it sustainable and provides health benefits. Tandem e-bike, smart switching and Platoon operations algorithm options provide superior through-put of the Cycleloop. Thus Cycleloop PRT will be exhaustive, intensive, convenient, reliable, speedy, sustainable, safe, pollution-free and healthy alternative mode for last mile connectivity in cities.

Keywords: cycleloop PRT, five-minute walk, lean modular infrastructure, self-balanced intelligent e-cycle

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4376 The Effects of Mountain Biking as Psychomotor Instrument in Physical Education: Balance’s Evaluation

Authors: Péricles Maia Andrade, Temístocles Damasceno Silva, Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro

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The school physical education is going through several changes over the years, and diversification of its content from specific interests is one of the reasons for these changes, soon, the formality in education do not have to stay out, but needs to open up the possibilities offered by the world, so the Mountain Bike, an adventure sport, offers several opportunities for intervention Its application in the school allows diverse interventions in front of the psychomotor development, besides opening possibilities for other contents, respecting the previous experiences of the students in their common environment. The choice of theme was due to affinity with the practice and experience of the Mountain Bike at different levels. Both competitive as recreational, professional standard and amateur, focus as principle the bases of the Cycling, coupled with the inclusion in the Centre for Studies in Management of Sport and Leisure and of the Southwest Bahia State University and the preview of the modality's potential to help the children’s psychomotor development. The goal of this research was to demonstrate like a pilot project the effects of the Mountain Bike as psychomotor instrument in physical education at one of the psychomotor valences, Balance, evaluating Immobility, Static Balance and Dynamic Balance. The methodology used Fonseca’s Psychomotor Battery in 10 students (n=10) of a brazilian public primary’s school, with ages between 9 and 11 years old to use the Mountain Biking contents. The balance’s skills dichotomized in Regular and Good. Regarding the variable Immobility, in the initial test, regardless of gender, 70% (n = 7) were considered Regular. After four months of activity, the Good profile, which had only 30% (n = 3) of the sample, evolved to 60% (n = 6). As in Static and Dynamic Balance there was an increase of 30% (n = 3) and 50% (n = 5) respectively for Good. Between genders, female evolution was better for Good in Immobility and in Static Equilibrium. Already the male evolution was better observed in the Dynamic Equilibrium, with 66.7% (n = 4) for Good. Respecting the particularities of the motor development, an indication of the positive effects of the MTB for the evolution in the balance perceived, necessitating studies with greater sampling.

Keywords: psychomotricity, balance, mountain biking, education

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4375 Travel Behavior Simulation of Bike-Sharing System Users in Kaoshiung City

Authors: Hong-Yi Lin, Feng-Tyan Lin

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In a Bike-sharing system (BSS), users can easily rent bikes from any station in the city for mid-range or short-range trips. BSS can also be integrated with other types of transport system, especially Green Transportation system, such as rail transport, bus etc. Since BSS records time and place of each pickup and return, the operational data can reflect more authentic and dynamic state of user behaviors. Furthermore, land uses around docking stations are highly associated with origins and destinations for the BSS users. As urban researchers, what concerns us more is to take BSS into consideration during the urban planning process and enhance the quality of urban life. This research focuses on the simulation of travel behavior of BSS users in Kaohsiung. First, rules of users’ behavior were derived by analyzing operational data and land use patterns nearby docking stations. Then, integrating with Monte Carlo method, these rules were embedded into a travel behavior simulation model, which was implemented by NetLogo, an agent-based modeling tool. The simulation model allows us to foresee the rent-return behaviour of BSS in order to choose potential locations of the docking stations. Also, it can provide insights and recommendations about planning and policies for the future BSS.

Keywords: agent-based model, bike-sharing system, BSS operational data, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
4374 Friendly Public Spaces in Iran

Authors: Bibi Somayeh Aliakbari, Niknaz Kachooei, Fatemeh Amiri Najafabadi

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According to the results of contemporary urbanism, social living moved into buildings and the quality of urban space has been declining. But still, there are life in open public space and it is one of reason attendance and activities of people in open public spaces.The purpose of this research is finding reason creation friendly public space in urban spaces and also use these in new urban spaces.The research methodology consisted of a qualitative model based on observation and graphical analysis. In this paper case study is public space historical, moderns in urban scales and local scales in Iran.This paper shows that Existence of friendly public space in cities cause is attendance and activities of people in open public spaces that it is reason the revitalization of public open spaces in cities.

Keywords: public space, public open space, friendly public space, Iran

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4373 Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach for Ensuring Community Satisfaction on Public-Private Partnership Projects

Authors: Jason Salim, Zhouyang Lu

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Private sector involvement in Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects may raise public suspicion, as PPP is often mistaken as merely a partnership between private and government agencies without consideration for greater “public” (community). This public marginalization is crucial to be dealt with because undermining opinion of majority may cause problems such as protests and/ or low demand. Game theory approach applied in this paper shows that probability of public acceptance towards a project is affected by overall public’s perception on Private sectors’ possible profit accumulation from the project. On the contrary, goodwill of the government and private coalition alone is not enough to minimize the probability of public opposition towards a PPP project. Additionally, the threat of loss or damage raised from public opposition does not affect the profit-maximization behavior of Private sectors.

Keywords: community satisfaction, game theory, non-cooperative, PPP, public policy

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4372 Public Service Ethics in Public Administration: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Kalsoom Sumra

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The increasing concern of public sector reforms brings new challenges to public service ethics in developing countries not only at central level but also at local level. This paper aims to identify perceptions on public service ethics of public officials and examines more generally the understanding of public servants in Pakistan towards public service ethics in local public organizations. The study uses an independently administered structured questionnaire to collect data to know the extent of the recognition of public service ethics in local organizations. A total of 150 completed questionnaires are analyzed received from public servants working at the local level in Pakistan. The analysis explores how traditional, social patterns and cultural ethics can provide us with a rounded picture of the main antecedents, moderators of public service ethics in Pakistan. Moreover, the findings of this study contribute in association of public service ethics which are crucial in ongoing political and administrative culture of Pakistan, the most crucial core for public organizational ethical climate. This study also has numerous implications for local public administration and it highlights the importance of expanding research agenda on public service ethics in developing settings with challenging institutional contexts with imperfect training and operating environments. This study may well be particularly important for practice of public service ethics in developing countries in public administration. To the best of author’s knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to provide an initial step in practical implications to emphasize relevant public service ethics in public administration in developing transparent and accountable organization.

Keywords: public service ethics, accountability and transparency, public service reforms, public administration, organizational ethical climate

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4371 Implementation of Total Quality Management in Public Sector: Case of Tunisia

Authors: Rafla Hchaichi

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The public administration is currently experiencing in the field of quality unprecedented effervescence. However, in a globalized world more and more competitive, public services are confronted with the need to improve their performances which push public companies to implement quality approaches. Quality approaches have taken diverse forms such as service commitment, labels, certifications and the Common Assessment Framework. This paper provides an overview on the strategy for administrative development in Tunisia since the Carthaginian civilization until today. It outlines the evolution of quality management in the Tunisian public context while focusing on the National Referential of Quality of Administrative Services.

Keywords: quality approach, the common assessment framework, service commitment, label, certification, quality of public service, performance of public service, Tunisian Public Service

Procedia PDF Downloads 438