Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Volker Landersheim

12 Emissions and Total Cost of Ownership Assessment of Hybrid Propulsion Concepts for Bus Transport with Compressed Natural Gases or Diesel Engine

Authors: Volker Landersheim, Daria Manushyna, Thinh Pham, Dai-Duong Tran, Thomas Geury, Omar Hegazy, Steven Wilkins


Air pollution is one of the emerging problems in our society. Targets of reduction of CO₂ emissions address low-carbon and resource-efficient transport. (Plug-in) hybrid electric propulsion concepts offer the possibility to reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) and emissions for public transport vehicles (e.g., bus application). In this context, typically, diesel engines are used to form the hybrid propulsion system of the vehicle. Though the technological development of diesel engines experience major advantages, some challenges such as the high amount of particle emissions remain relevant. Gaseous fuels (i.e., compressed natural gases (CNGs) or liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) represent an attractive alternative to diesel because of their composition. In the framework of the research project 'Optimised Real-world Cost-Competitive Modular Hybrid Architecture' (ORCA), which was funded by the EU, two different hybrid-electric propulsion concepts have been investigated: one using a diesel engine as internal combustion engine and one using CNG as fuel. The aim of the current study is to analyze specific benefits for the aforementioned hybrid propulsion systems for predefined driving scenarios with regard to emissions and total cost of ownership in bus application. Engine models based on experimental data for diesel and CNG were developed. For the purpose of designing optimal energy management strategies for each propulsion system, maps-driven or quasi-static models for specific engine types are used in the simulation framework. An analogous modelling approach has been chosen to represent emissions. This paper compares the two concepts regarding their CO₂ and NOx emissions. This comparison is performed for relevant bus missions (urban, suburban, with and without zero-emission zone) and with different energy management strategies. In addition to the emissions, also the downsizing potential of the combustion engine has been analysed to minimize the powertrain TCO (pTCO) for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The results of the performed analyses show that the hybrid vehicle concept using the CNG engine shows advantages both with respect to emissions as well as to pTCO. The pTCO is 10% lower, CO₂ emissions are 13% lower, and the NOx emissions are more than 50% lower than with the diesel combustion engine. These results are consistent across all usage profiles under investigation.

Keywords: bus transport, emissions, hybrid propulsion, pTCO, CNG

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11 Education of Purchasing Professionals in Austria: Competence Based View

Authors: Volker Koch


This paper deals with the education of purchasing professionals in Austria. In this education, equivalent and measurable criteria are collected in order to create a comparison. The comparison shows the problem. To make the aforementioned comparison possible, methodologies such as KODE-Competence Atlas or presentations in a matrix form are used. The result shows the content taught and whether there are any similarities or interesting differences in the current Austrian purchasers’ formations. Purchasing professionals learning competencies are also illustrated in the study result.

Keywords: competencies, education, purchasing professional, technological-oriented

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10 Concept of a Low Cost Gait Rehabilitation Robot for Children with Neurological Dysfunction

Authors: Mariana Volpini, Volker Bartenbach, Marcos Pinotti, Robert Riener


Restoration of gait ability is an important task in the rehabilitation of people with neurological disorders presenting a great impact in the quality of life of an individual. Based on the motor learning concept, robotic assisted treadmill training has been introduced and found to be a feasible and promising therapeutic option in neurological rehabilitation but unfortunately it is not available for most patients in developing countries due to the high cost. This paper presents the concept of a low cost rehabilitation robot to help consolidate the robotic-assisted gait training as a reality in clinical practice in most countries. This work indicates that it is possible to build a simpler rehabilitation device respecting the physiological trajectory of the ankle.

Keywords: bioengineering, gait therapy, low cost rehabilitation robot, rehabilitation robotics

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9 Identifying Concerned Citizen Communication Style During the State Parliamentary Elections in Bavaria

Authors: Volker Mittendorf, Andre Schmale


In this case study, we want to explore the Twitter-use of candidates during the state parliamentary elections-year 2018 in Bavaria, Germany. This paper focusses on the seven parties that probably entered the parliament. Against this background, the paper classifies the use of language as populism which itself is considered as a political communication style. First, we determine the election campaigns which started in the years 2017 on Twitter, after that we categorize the posting times of the different direct candidates in order to derive ideal types from our empirical data. Second, we have done the exploration based on the dictionary of concerned citizens which contains German political language of the right and the far right. According to that, we are analyzing the corpus with methods of text mining and social network analysis, and afterwards we display the results in a network of words of concerned citizen communication style (CCCS).

Keywords: populism, communication style, election, text mining, social media

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8 Semi-Supervised Outlier Detection Using a Generative and Adversary Framework

Authors: Jindong Gu, Matthias Schubert, Volker Tresp


In many outlier detection tasks, only training data belonging to one class, i.e., the positive class, is available. The task is then to predict a new data point as belonging either to the positive class or to the negative class, in which case the data point is considered an outlier. For this task, we propose a novel corrupted Generative Adversarial Network (CorGAN). In the adversarial process of training CorGAN, the Generator generates outlier samples for the negative class, and the Discriminator is trained to distinguish the positive training data from the generated negative data. The proposed framework is evaluated using an image dataset and a real-world network intrusion dataset. Our outlier-detection method achieves state-of-the-art performance on both tasks.

Keywords: one-class classification, outlier detection, generative adversary networks, semi-supervised learning

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7 Sport and Psychological Need Satisfaction: A Cross Sectional Study Applied to Children and Adolescents with Disabilities

Authors: Isabel Stolz, Vera Tillmann, Volker Anneken


The relationship between sport participation and psychological need satisfaction was examined by an analysis of interest and involvement in the sport of 937 children and adolescents with disabilities and their self-perceived need satisfaction. The Children’s intrinsic need-satisfaction Scale (CINSS) has been used to measure sport-related need satisfaction in this cross-sectional study. CINSS scores for the dimensions competence, autonomy and relatedness of the study’s participants were generally located in higher score levels. Significant relations between interest and involvement in sport and higher levels of psychological need satisfaction were found in the questioned children and adolescents. Examining the results of each need, the competence-dimension displayed a particular relevance for an increased sport-related lifestyle. The further results showed a negative correlation between children’s need satisfaction and a lack of confidence of participating in sport. A negative correlation was also found between children’s need satisfaction and experiencing difficulties in making contact with others. Despite the general interest in sport and the wish to participate in another sporting activity, the participation of the questioned children and adolescents in organized sport is comparatively low and decreases with age. Participation in sport seems to be beneficial to children and adolescents with disabilities’ psychological need satisfaction. This research highlights the positive impact of sport on psychological need satisfaction of children and adolescents with disabilities and emphasizes the demand for greater participation in organized sport for children and adolescents with disabilities.

Keywords: children and adolescents, health, physical activity, sport

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6 Materials for Electrically Driven Aircrafts: Highly Conductive Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Simon Bard, Martin Demleitner, Florian Schonl, Volker Altstadt


For an electrically driven aircraft, whose engine is based on semiconductors, alternative materials are needed. The avoid hotspots in the materials thermally conductive polymers are necessary. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of these materials should remain. Herein, the work of three years in a project with airbus and Siemens is presented. Different strategies have been pursued to achieve conductive fiber-reinforced composites: Metal-coated carbon fibers, pitch-based fibers and particle-loaded matrices have been investigated. In addition, a combination of copper-coated fibers and a conductive matrix has been successfully tested for its conductivity and mechanical properties. First, prepregs have been produced with a laboratory scale prepreg line, which can handle materials with maximum width of 300 mm. These materials have then been processed to fiber-reinforced laminates. For the PAN-fiber reinforced laminates, it could be shown that there is a strong dependency between fiber volume content and thermal conductivity. Laminates with 50 vol% of carbon fiber offer a conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, those with 66 vol% of fiber a thermal conductivity of 1 W/mK. With pitch-based fiber, the conductivity enhances to 1.5 W/mK for 61 vol% of fiber, compared to 0.81 W/mK with the same amount of fibers produced from PAN (+83% in conducitivity). The thermal conductivity of PAN-based composites with 50 vol% of fiber is at 0.6 W/mK, their nickel-coated counterparts with the same fiber volume content offer a conductivity of 1 W/mK, an increase of 66%.

Keywords: carbon, electric aircraft, polymer, thermal conductivity

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5 Describing Professional Purchasers' Performance Applying the 'Big Five Inventory': Findings from a Survey in Austria

Authors: Volker Koch, Sigrid Swobodnik, Bernd M. Zunk


The success of companies on globalized markets is significantly influenced by the performance of purchasing departments and, of course, the individuals employed as professional purchasers. Nonetheless, this is generally accepted in practice, in literature as well as in empirical research, only insufficient attention was given to the assessment of this relationship between the personality of professional purchasers and their individual performance. This paper aims to describe the relationship against the background of the 'Big Five Inventory'. Based on the five dimensions of a personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) a research model was designed. The research model divides the individual performance of professional purchasers into two major dimensions: operational and strategic. The operational dimension consists of the items 'cost', 'quality delivery' and 'flexibility'; the strategic dimension comprises the positions 'innovation', 'supplier satisfaction' as wells as 'purchasing and supply management integration in the organization'. To test the research model, a survey study was performed, and an online questionnaire was sent out to purchasing professionals in Austrian companies. The data collected from 78 responses was used to test the research model applying a group comparison. The comparison points out that there is (i) an influence of the purchasers’ personality on the individual performance of professional purchasers and (ii) a link between purchasers’ personality to a high or a low individual performance of professional purchasers. The findings of this study may help human resource managers during staff recruitment processes to identify the 'right performing personality' for an operational and/or a strategic position in purchasing departments.

Keywords: big five inventory, individual performance, personality, purchasing professionals

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4 Thermal Hysteresis Activity of Ice Binding Proteins during Ice Crystal Growth in Sucrose Solution

Authors: Bercem Kiran-Yildirim, Volker Gaukel


Ice recrystallization (IR) which occurs especially during frozen storage is an undesired process due to the possible influence on the quality of products. As a result of recrystallization, the total volume of ice remains constant, but the size, number, and shape of ice crystals change. For instance, as indicated in the literature, the size of ice crystals in ice cream increases due to recrystallization. This results in texture deterioration. Therefore, the inhibition of ice recrystallization is of great importance, not only for food industry but also for several other areas where sensitive products are stored frozen, like pharmaceutical products or organs and blood in medicine. Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have the unique ability to inhibit ice growth and in consequence inhibit recrystallization. This effect is based on their ice binding affinity. In the presence of IBP in a solution, ice crystal growth is inhibited during temperature decrease until a certain temperature is reached. The melting during temperature increase is not influenced. The gap between melting and freezing points is known as thermal hysteresis (TH). In literature, the TH activity is usually investigated under laboratory conditions in IBP buffer solutions. In product applications (e.g., food) there are many other solutes present which may influence the TH activity. In this study, a subset of IBPs, so-called antifreeze proteins (AFPs), is used for the investigation of the influence of sucrose solution concentration on the TH activity. For the investigation, a polarization microscope (Nikon Eclipse LV100ND) equipped with a digital camera (Nikon DS-Ri1) and a cold stage (Linkam LTS420) was used. In a first step, the equipment was established and validated concerning the accuracy of TH measurements based on literature data.

Keywords: ice binding proteins, ice crystals, sucrose solution, thermal hysteresis

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3 Work, Pension and Physical Activity: Findings from an Interview Study

Authors: Sonia Lippke, Eric Rost, Volker Cihlar


Objective: To examine the interrelation of physical activity with work-related variables in older individuals to determine pathways to promote the maintenance of an aging workforce’s ability and motivation to work. Design/methodology/approach: An interview-study was conducted with N=5,002 community-dwelling people aged 55 to 70 years (for T1). N=2,501 (50%) were interviewed 3 years later again (T2). Correlation-, Chi²-, MANOVA and moderated mediation analyses were performed. Findings: The less people worked, the more physically active they were. Working was only related to calendar age but not to subjective age. Men and women only differed in working hours and an interaction of gender and pension regarding working hours and subjective health revealed: Controlled for calendar age, the amount of worked hours while receiving pension was about the same in men and women, however, men worked significantly more hours if they did not receive pension. The relationship between physical activity and worked hours was mediated by life investment and subjective health in women, and by subjective health in men. Practical implications: Developing good health through performing physical activity should be done as part of work-place health promotion or by work organization and HR management to enable, and motivate older individuals to work even when receiving pension. Thus, such initiates should not only offered for younger and middle aged employees. Physical activity and company-facilitated sports activities can be an integral part in this. Originality/value: This is the first study testing these mechanisms in this age group, indicating the importance of not only understanding physical activity as a time challenge to work but also the potential to protect workability and to work aside from receiving pension.

Keywords: life investment, moderated mediation, physical activity, older workers, subjective health

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2 Protein-Enrichment of Oilseed Meals by Triboelectrostatic Separation

Authors: Javier Perez-Vaquero, Katryn Junker, Volker Lammers, Petra Foerst


There is increasing importance to accelerate the transition to sustainable food systems by including environmentally friendly technologies. Our work focuses on protein enrichment and fractionation of agricultural side streams by dry triboelectrostatic separation technology. Materials are fed in particulate form into a system dispersed in a highly turbulent gas stream, whereby the high collision rate of particles against surfaces and other particles greatly enhances the electrostatic charge build-up over the particle surface. A subsequent step takes the charged particles to a delimited zone in the system where there is a highly uniform, intense electric field applied. Because the charge polarity acquired by a particle is influenced by its chemical composition, morphology, and structure, the protein-rich and fiber-rich particles of the starting material get opposite charge polarities, thus following different paths as they move through the region where the electric field is present. The output is two material fractions, which differ in their respective protein content. One is a fiber-rich, low-protein fraction, while the other is a high-protein, low-fiber composition. Prior to testing, materials undergo a milling process, and some samples are stored under controlled humidity conditions. In this way, the influence of both particle size and humidity content was established. We used two oilseed meals: lupine and rapeseed. In addition to a lab-scale separator to perform the experiments, the triboelectric separation process could be successfully scaled up to a mid-scale belt separator, increasing the mass feed from g/sec to kg/hour. The triboelectrostatic separation technology opens a huge potential for the exploitation of so far underutilized alternative protein sources. Agricultural side-streams from cereal and oil production, which are generated in high volumes by the industries, can further be valorized by this process.

Keywords: bench-scale processing, dry separation, protein-enrichment, triboelectrostatic separation

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1 Policy Views of Sustainable Integrated Solution for Increased Synergy between Light Railways and Electrical Distribution Network

Authors: Mansoureh Zangiabadi, Shamil Velji, Rajendra Kelkar, Neal Wade, Volker Pickert


The EU has set itself a long-term goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% of the 1990 levels by 2050 as set in the Energy Roadmap 2050. This paper reports on the European Union H2020 funded E-Lobster project which demonstrates tools and technologies, software and hardware in integrating the grid distribution, and the railway power systems with power electronics technologies (Smart Soft Open Point - sSOP) and local energy storage. In this context this paper describes the existing policies and regulatory frameworks of the energy market at European level with a special focus then at National level, on the countries where the members of the consortium are located, and where the demonstration activities will be implemented. By taking into account the disciplinary approach of E-Lobster, the main policy areas investigated includes electricity, energy market, energy efficiency, transport and smart cities. Energy storage will play a key role in enabling the EU to develop a low-carbon electricity system. In recent years, Energy Storage System (ESSs) are gaining importance due to emerging applications, especially electrification of the transportation sector and grid integration of volatile renewables. The need for storage systems led to ESS technologies performance improvements and significant price decline. This allows for opening a new market where ESSs can be a reliable and economical solution. One such emerging market for ESS is R+G management which will be investigated and demonstrated within E-Lobster project. The surplus of energy in one type of power system (e.g., due to metro braking) might be directly transferred to the other power system (or vice versa). However, it would usually happen at unfavourable instances when the recipient does not need additional power. Thus, the role of ESS is to enhance advantages coming from interconnection of the railway power systems and distribution grids by offering additional energy buffer. Consequently, the surplus/deficit of energy in, e.g. railway power systems, is not to be immediately transferred to/from the distribution grid but it could be stored and used when it is really needed. This will assure better energy management exchange between the railway power systems and distribution grids and lead to more efficient loss reduction. In this framework, to identify the existing policies and regulatory frameworks is crucial for the project activities and for the future development of business models for the E-Lobster solutions. The projections carried out by the European Commission, the Member States and stakeholders and their analysis indicated some trends, challenges, opportunities and structural changes needed to design the policy measures to provide the appropriate framework for investors. This study will be used as reference for the discussion in the envisaged workshops with stakeholders (DSOs and Transport Managers) in the E-Lobster project.

Keywords: light railway, electrical distribution network, Electrical Energy Storage, policy

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