Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: Steven Wilkins

69 Cardiopulmonary Disease in Bipolar Disorder Patient with History of SJS: Evidence Based Case Report

Authors: Zuhrotun Ulya, Muchammad Syamsulhadi, Debree Septiawan

Abstract:

Patients with bipolar disorder are three times more likely to suffer cardiovascular disorders than the general population, which will influence their level of morbidity and rate of mortality. Bipolar disorder also affects the pulmonary system. The choice of long term-monotherapy and other combinative therapies have clinical impacts on patients. This study investigates the case of a woman who has been suffering from bipolar disorder for 16 years, and who has a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome. At present she is suffering also from cardiovascular and pulmonary disorder. An analysis of the results of this study suggests that there is a relationship between cardiovascular disorder, drug therapies, Steven Johnson Syndrome and mood stabilizer obtained from the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and ProQuest (publications between 2005 and 2015). Combination therapy with mood stabilizer is recommended for patients who do not have side effect histories from these drugs. The replacement drugs and combinations may be applied, especially for those with bipolar disorders, and the combination between atypical antipsychotic groups and mood stabilizers is often made. Clinicians, however, should be careful with the patients’ physical and metabolic changes, especially those who have experienced long-term therapy and who showed a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome (for which clinicians probably prescribed one type of medicine).

Keywords: cardiopulmonary disease, bipolar disorder, SJS, therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
68 Emissions and Total Cost of Ownership Assessment of Hybrid Propulsion Concepts for Bus Transport with Compressed Natural Gases or Diesel Engine

Authors: Volker Landersheim, Daria Manushyna, Thinh Pham, Dai-Duong Tran, Thomas Geury, Omar Hegazy, Steven Wilkins

Abstract:

Air pollution is one of the emerging problems in our society. Targets of reduction of CO₂ emissions address low-carbon and resource-efficient transport. (Plug-in) hybrid electric propulsion concepts offer the possibility to reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) and emissions for public transport vehicles (e.g., bus application). In this context, typically, diesel engines are used to form the hybrid propulsion system of the vehicle. Though the technological development of diesel engines experience major advantages, some challenges such as the high amount of particle emissions remain relevant. Gaseous fuels (i.e., compressed natural gases (CNGs) or liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) represent an attractive alternative to diesel because of their composition. In the framework of the research project 'Optimised Real-world Cost-Competitive Modular Hybrid Architecture' (ORCA), which was funded by the EU, two different hybrid-electric propulsion concepts have been investigated: one using a diesel engine as internal combustion engine and one using CNG as fuel. The aim of the current study is to analyze specific benefits for the aforementioned hybrid propulsion systems for predefined driving scenarios with regard to emissions and total cost of ownership in bus application. Engine models based on experimental data for diesel and CNG were developed. For the purpose of designing optimal energy management strategies for each propulsion system, maps-driven or quasi-static models for specific engine types are used in the simulation framework. An analogous modelling approach has been chosen to represent emissions. This paper compares the two concepts regarding their CO₂ and NOx emissions. This comparison is performed for relevant bus missions (urban, suburban, with and without zero-emission zone) and with different energy management strategies. In addition to the emissions, also the downsizing potential of the combustion engine has been analysed to minimize the powertrain TCO (pTCO) for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The results of the performed analyses show that the hybrid vehicle concept using the CNG engine shows advantages both with respect to emissions as well as to pTCO. The pTCO is 10% lower, CO₂ emissions are 13% lower, and the NOx emissions are more than 50% lower than with the diesel combustion engine. These results are consistent across all usage profiles under investigation.

Keywords: bus transport, emissions, hybrid propulsion, pTCO, CNG

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67 Angle of Arrival Estimation Using Maximum Likelihood Method

Authors: Olomon Wu, Hung Lu, Nick Wilkins, Daniel Kerr, Zekeriya Aliyazicioglu, H. K. Hwang

Abstract:

Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar has received increasing attention in recent years. MIMO radar has many advantages over conventional phased array radar such as target detection, resolution enhancement, and interference suppression. In this paper, the results are presented from a simulation study of MIMO Uniformly-Spaced Linear Array (ULA) antennas. The performance is investigated under varied parameters, including varied array size, Pseudo Random (PN) sequence length, number of snapshots, and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). The results of MIMO are compared to a traditional array antenna.

Keywords: MIMO radar, phased array antenna, target detection, radar signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
66 To Estimate the Association between Visual Stress and Visual Perceptual Skills

Authors: Vijay Reena Durai, Krithica Srinivasan

Abstract:

Introduction: The two fundamental skills involved in the growth and wellbeing of any child can be categorized into visual motor and perceptual skills. Visual stress is a disorder which is characterized by visual discomfort, blurred vision, misspelling words, skipping lines, letters bunching together. There is a need to understand the deficits in perceptual skills among children with visual stress. Aim: To estimate the association between visual stress and visual perceptual skills Objective: To compare visual perceptual skills of children with and without visual stress Methodology: Children between 8 to 15 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. All children with monocular visual acuity better than or equal to 6/6 were included. Visual perceptual skills were measured using test for visual perceptual skills (TVPS) tool. Reading speed was measured with the chosen colored overlay using Wilkins reading chart and pattern glare score was estimated using a 3cpd gratings. Visual stress was defined as change in reading speed of greater than or equal to 10% and a pattern glare score of greater than or equal to 4. Results: 252 children participated in this study and the male: female ratio of 3:2. Majority of the children preferred Magenta (28%) and Yellow (25%) colored overlay for reading. There was a significant difference between the two groups (MD=1.24±0.6) (p<0.04, 95% CI 0.01-2.43) only in the sequential memory skills. The prevalence of visual stress in this group was found to be 31% (n=78). Binary logistic regression showed that odds ratio of having poor visual perceptual skills was OR: 2.85 (95% CI 1.08-7.49) among children with visual stress. Conclusion: Children with visual stress are found to have three times poorer visual perceptual skills than children without visual stress.

Keywords: visual stress, visual perceptual skills, colored overlay, pattern glare

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65 Efficient Model Selection in Linear and Non-Linear Quantile Regression by Cross-Validation

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung, Steven N. MacEachern

Abstract:

Check loss function is used to define quantile regression. In the prospect of cross validation, it is also employed as a validation function when underlying truth is unknown. However, our empirical study indicates that the validation with check loss often leads to choosing an over estimated fits. In this work, we suggest a modified or L2-adjusted check loss which rounds the sharp corner in the middle of check loss. It has a large effect of guarding against over fitted model in some extent. Through various simulation settings of linear and non-linear regressions, the improvement of check loss by L2 adjustment is empirically examined. This adjustment is devised to shrink to zero as sample size grows.

Keywords: cross-validation, model selection, quantile regression, tuning parameter selection

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64 The Locus of Action - Tinted Windows

Authors: Devleminck Steven, Debackere Boris

Abstract:

This research is about the ways artists and scientists deal with (and endure) new meaning and comprehend and construct the world. The project reflects on the intense connection between comprehension and construction and their place of creation – the ‘locus of action’. It seeks to define a liquid form of understanding and analysis capable of approaching our complex liquid world as discussed by Zygmunt Bauman. The aim is to establish a multi-viewpoint theoretical approach based on the dynamic concept of the Flâneur as introduced by Baudelaire, replacing single viewpoint categorization. This is coupled with the concept of thickening as proposed by Clifford Geertz with its implication of interaction between multi-layers of meaning. Here walking and looking is introduced as a method or strategy, a model or map, providing a framework of understanding in conditions of hybridity and change.

Keywords: action, art, liquid, locus, negotiation, place, science

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
63 Erythema Multiforme Exudativum Major Caused by Isoniazid Hypersensitivity in a Child

Authors: Azwin Lubis, Rika Hapsari, Zahrah Hikmah, Anang Endaryanto, Ariyanto Harsono

Abstract:

Erythema Multiforme Exudativum Major (EMEM) is one of the drug allergy diseases. Drug allergies caused by isoniazid rarely causes EMEM. Cutaneous reactions caused by isoniazid were obtained in 0.98% of patients, but the precise occurrence of Steven Johnson’s Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermolisis Necrolisis (TEN) due to isoniazid is not known for certain. We present this case to show hypersensitivity of isoniazid in a child. Based on the history of drug intake, physical diagnostic tests, drug elimination and provocation; we established the diagnosis of isoniazid hypersensitivity. The child showed improvement on skin manifestation after stopped isoniazid therapy.

Keywords: erythema multiforme exudativum major, hypersensitivity, elimination test, provocation test

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
62 Paper-Based Detection Using Synthetic Gene Circuits

Authors: Vanessa Funk, Steven Blum, Stephanie Cole, Jorge Maciel, Matthew Lux

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Paper-based synthetic gene circuits offer a new paradigm for programmable, fieldable biodetection. We demonstrate that by freeze-drying gene circuits with in vitro expression machinery, we can use complimentary RNA sequences to trigger colorimetric changes upon rehydration. We have successfully utilized both green fluorescent protein and luciferase-based reporters for easy visualization purposes in solution. Through several efforts, we are aiming to use this new platform technology to address a variety of needs in portable detection by demonstrating several more expression and reporter systems for detection functions on paper. In addition to RNA-based biodetection, we are exploring the use of various mechanisms that cells use to respond to environmental conditions to move towards all-hazards detection. Examples include explosives, heavy metals for water quality, and toxic chemicals.

Keywords: cell-free lysates, detection, gene circuits, in vitro

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
61 General and Sport Specific Fitness Testing Practices: Global Developments

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Jed Smith, Lisa Chen, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg

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This study compared general conditioning and sport specific fitness tests used in China, European Union (EU), Russia, and the United States. A constant content comparison method was used to identify the differences. Data from the study indicated that there were shared test components, including aerobic fitness, muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility. However, the testing components and items, as well as the cut-off values of the analyzed tests varied by country for the same gender and age. Culturally unique methods of testing and preparing for the tests were identified. Additionally, evidence revealed support for lifelong fitness and long-term sport participation through comprehensive fitness and wellness guidelines for different age groups and through new internet-based technologies.

Keywords: fitness testing, global trends, new developments, worldwide comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
60 Assessment of an ICA-Based Method for Detecting the Effect of Attention in the Auditory Late Response

Authors: Siavash Mirahmadizoghi, Steven Bell, David Simpson

Abstract:

In this work a new independent component analysis (ICA) based method for noise reduction in evoked potentials is evaluated on for auditory late responses (ALR) captured with a 63-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) from 10 normal-hearing subjects. The performance of the new method is compared with a single channel alternative in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR), the number of channels with an SNR above an empirically derived statistical critical value and an estimate of the effect of attention on the major components in the ALR waveform. The results show that the multichannel signal processing method can significantly enhance the quality of the ALR signal and also detect the effect of the attention on the ALR better than the single channel alternative.

Keywords: auditory late response (ALR), attention, EEG, independent component analysis (ICA), multichannel signal processing

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59 Logistics Hub Location and Scheduling Model for Urban Last-Mile Deliveries

Authors: Anastasios Charisis, Evangelos Kaisar, Steven Spana, Lili Du

Abstract:

Logistics play a vital role in the prosperity of today’s cities, but current urban logistics practices are proving problematic, causing negative effects such as traffic congestion and environmental impacts. This paper proposes an alternative urban logistics system, leasing hubs inside cities for designated time intervals, and using handcarts for last-mile deliveries. A mathematical model for selecting the locations of hubs and allocating customers, while also scheduling the optimal times during the day for leasing hubs is developed. The proposed model is compared to current delivery methods requiring door-to-door truck deliveries. It is shown that truck traveled distances decrease by more than 60%. In addition, analysis shows that in certain conditions the approach can be economically competitive and successfully applied to address real problems.

Keywords: hub location, last-mile, logistics, optimization

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58 Measuring the Effect of the Privatization of the Kuwait Stock Exchange on Its Performance

Authors: Mohamad H. Atyeh, Wael Alrashed, Steven Telford

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to measure if there have been any notable changes in the trading actives of the Kuwait stock Exchange (KSE) after the privatization process that took place on the 25th of April 2016. The data that are used to test if there is any change in the KSE market performance are the daily indices for the period from the 25th of April 2016 till the 24th of October 2016 (after privatization) and a similar six months period before the date of the privatization from the 24th of October 2015 till the 24th of April 2016. In addition, as a control, the study included a period that is a period parallel to the six months period after the privatization. The results indicate that privatization is associated with lower variability for the majority of variables, but that the observed switch in slope direction is not actually a product of privatization, but rather one of serial correlation.

Keywords: privatization, Kuwait stock exchange (KSE), market capitalization (MCAP), capital markets authority (CMA), Boursa Kuwait securities company (BKSC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
57 An Integrated Cognitive Performance Evaluation Framework for Urban Search and Rescue Applications

Authors: Antonio D. Lee, Steven X. Jiang

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A variety of techniques and methods are available to evaluate cognitive performance in Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) applications. However, traditional cognitive performance evaluation techniques typically incorporate either the conscious or systematic aspect, failing to take into consideration the subconscious or intuitive aspect. This leads to incomplete measures and produces ineffective designs. In order to fill the gaps in past research, this study developed a theoretical framework to facilitate the integration of situation awareness (SA) and intuitive pattern recognition (IPR) to enhance the cognitive performance representation in USAR applications. This framework provides guidance to integrate both SA and IPR in order to evaluate the cognitive performance of the USAR responders. The application of this framework will help improve the system design.

Keywords: cognitive performance, intuitive pattern recognition, situation awareness, urban search and rescue

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
56 Voxel Models as Input for Heat Transfer Simulations with Siemens NX Based on X-Ray Microtomography Images of Random Fibre Reinforced Composites

Authors: Steven Latré, Frederik Desplentere, Ilya Straumit, Stepan V. Lomov

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A method is proposed in order to create a three-dimensional finite element model representing fibre reinforced insulation materials for the simulation software Siemens NX. VoxTex software, a tool for quantification of µCT images of fibrous materials, is used for the transformation of microtomography images of random fibre reinforced composites into finite element models. An automatic tool was developed to execute the import of the models to the thermal solver module of Siemens NX. The paper describes the numerical tools used for the image quantification and the transformation and illustrates them on several thermal simulations of fibre reinforced insulation blankets filled with low thermal conductive fillers. The calculation of thermal conductivity is validated by comparison with the experimental data.

Keywords: analysis, modelling, thermal, voxel

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
55 Neighbourhood Design for Independent Living of Adults with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Cate MacMillan, Nicholas J. Stevens, Johanna Rosier, Steven Boyd

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Choosing where to live is an important decision for anybody, however, this decision is more complex if you are an adult with intellectual disability. Our research asked adults with intellectual disability, parents and carers and disability, housing and built environment decision makers what they considered important in deciding where to live. If medical advances continue to improve the longevity of adults with intellectual disability, many of these adults will outlive their parents. With appropriate community support, and in appropriately designed neighbourhoods, many will be able to live independently. Our research suggests that the key to achieving independent living as an adult with intellectual disability is not so much about the house but the type of neighbourhood and its design. This paper presents the results of interviews and details a practical approach which will better inform urban development decision-makers in establishing safe, inclusive and accessible neighbourhood design.

Keywords: inclusion, independent living, intellectual disability, neighbourhoods, systems thinking, urban design and planning

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54 The Effect of Nylon and Kevlar Stitching on the Mode I Fracture of Carbon/Epoxy Composites

Authors: Nisrin R. Abdelal, Steven L. Donaldson

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Composite materials are widely used in aviation industry due to their superior properties; however, they are susceptible to delamination. Through-thickness stitching is one of the techniques to alleviate delamination. Kevlar is one of the most common stitching materials; in contrast, it is expensive and presents stitching fabrication challenges. Therefore, this study compares the performance of Kevlar with an inexpensive and easy-to-use nylon fiber in stitching to alleviate delamination. Three laminates of unidirectional carbon fiber-epoxy composites were manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process. One panel was stitched with Kevlar, one with nylon, and one unstitched. Mode I interlaminar fracture tests were carried out on specimens from the three composite laminates, and the results were compared. Fractographic analysis using optical and scanning electron microscope were conducted to reveal the differences between stitching with Kevlar and nylon on the internal microstructure of the composite with respect to the interlaminar fracture toughness values.

Keywords: carbon, delamination, Kevlar, mode I, nylon, stitching

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53 Influence of HIV Testing on Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices and Transmission among Undergraduate Youths in North-West University, Mafikeng

Authors: Paul Bigala, Samuel Oladipo, Steven Adebowale

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This study examines factors influencing knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices and Transmission (KHAPPT) among young undergraduate students (15-24 years). Knowledge composite index was computed for 820 randomly selected students. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression were used for the analyses (α=.05). The overall mean knowledge score was 16.5±3.4 out of a possible score of 28. About 83% of the students have undergone HIV test, 21.0% have high KHAPPT, 18% said there is cure for the disease, 23% believed that asking for condom is embarrassing and 11.7% said it is safe to share unsterilized sharp objects with friends or family members. The likelihood of high KHAPPT was higher among students who have had HIV test (OR=3.314; C.I=1.787-6.145, p<0.001) even when other variables were used as control. The identified predictors of high KHAPPT were; ever had HIV test, faculty, and ever used any HIV/AIDS prevention services. North-West University Mafikeng should intensify efforts on the HIV/AIDS awareness program on the campus.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS knowledge, undergraduate students, HIV testing, Mafikeng

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
52 An Intercontinental Comparison of Delay Discounting for Real and Hypothetical Money and Cigarettes among Cigarette Smokers

Authors: Steven R. Lawyer, Tereza Prihodova, Katerina Prihodova

Abstract:

Delay discounting (DD) is one of the most frequently used behavioral-economic measures of impulsive choice, but there are few cross-cultural comparisons of discounting, and to the best of our knowledge, none compare patterns of DD across different commodities or compare real and hypothetical rewards across cultures. The purpose of this study was to compare patterns of DD for both real and hypothetical money and cigarettes among participants in the USA and the Czech Republic. Adult smokers from the United States and the Czech Republic completed standard measures of DD for hypothetical and real money (~$10USD) and cigarettes (1 pack, or 20 cigarettes). Contrary to data from the USA sample, Czech Republic participants discounted the value of real money steeper than hypothetical money, though this could be related to the relatively poor fit of the hyperbolic decay function to DD for hypothetical money in the Czech sample. These findings suggest that there might be cultural differences in delay discounting that warrant further attention.

Keywords: delay discounting, temporal discounting, cigarette smoking, real rewards, hypothetical rewards

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
51 Tenofovir-Amino Acid Conjugates Act as Polymerase Substrates: Implications for Avoiding Cellular Phosphorylation in the Discovery of Nucleotide Analogs

Authors: Weijie Gu, Sergio Martinez, Hoai Nguyen, Hongtao Xu, Piet Herdewijn, Steven De Jonghe, Kalyan Das

Abstract:

Nucleotide analogs are used for treating viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. To become polymerase substrates, a nucleotide analog must be phosphorylated by cellular kinases, which are rate-limiting. The goal of this study is to develop dNTP/NTP analogs directly from nucleotides. Tenofovir (TFV) analogs were synthesized by conjugating with natural or unnatural amino acids. It demonstrates that some conjugates act as dNTP analogs, and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) catalytically incorporates the TFV part as the chain terminator. X-ray structures in complex with HIV-1 RT/dsDNA showed binding of the conjugates at the polymerase active site, however, in different modes in the presence of Mg²⁺ vs. Mn²⁺ ions. The adaptability of the compounds is seemingly essential for catalytic incorporation of TFV by RT. 4d with a carboxyl sidechain demonstrated the highest incorporation. 4e showed weak incorporation and rather behaved as a dNTP-competitive inhibitor. This result advocates the feasibility of designing NTP/dNTP analogs by chemical substitutions to nucleotide analogs.

Keywords: dNTP analogs, nucleotide analogs, polymerase, tenofovir, X-ray structure

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50 A Cellular Automaton Model Examining the Effects of Oxygen, Hydrogen Ions, and Lactate on Early Tumour Growth

Authors: Maymona Al-Husari, Craig Murdoch, Steven Webb

Abstract:

Some tumors are known to exhibit an extracellular pH that is more acidic than the intracellular, creating a 'reversed pH gradient' across the cell membrane and this has been shown to affect their invasive and metastatic potential. Tumour hypoxia also plays an important role in tumour development and has been directly linked to both tumour morphology and aggressiveness. In this paper, we present a hybrid mathematical model of intracellular pH regulation that examines the effect of oxygen and pH on tumour growth and morphology. In particular, we investigate the impact of pH regulatory mechanisms on the cellular pH gradient and tumour morphology. Analysis of the model shows that: low activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger or a high rate of anaerobic glycolysis can give rise to a 'fingering' tumour morphology; and a high activity of the lactate/H+ symporter can result in a reversed transmembrane pH gradient across a large portion of the tumour mass. Also, the reversed pH gradient is spatially heterogenous within the tumour, with a normal pH gradient observed within an intermediate growth layer, that is the layer between the proliferative inner and outermost layer of the tumour.

Keywords: acidic pH, cellular automaton, ebola, tumour growth

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49 Barriers and Drivers Towards the Use of Childhood Vaccination Services by Undocumented Migrant Caregivers in Sabah, Malaysia: A Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Michal Christina Steven, Mohd. Yusof Hj Ibrahim, Haryati Abdul Karim, Prabakaran Dhanaraj, Kelly Alexius Mansin

Abstract:

After 27 years, Malaysia reported polio cases in 2019 involving the children of the undocumented migrants living in Sabah. These undocumented migrants present a significant challenge in achieving the elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). Due to the recent polio outbreak among the undocumented migrant children in Sabah, an in-depth interview was conducted among the caregivers of undocumented migrant children to identify the barriers and drivers towards vaccinating their children. Financial barriers, legal citizenship status, language barrier, the COVID-19 pandemic, and physical barriers have been the barriers to access vaccination services by undocumented migrants. Five significant drivers for undocumented migrants to vaccinate their children are social influence, fear of disease, parental trust in healthcare providers, good support, and vaccine availability. Necessary action should be taken immediately to address the problems of vaccinating the children of undocumented migrants to prevent the re-emergence of VPD.

Keywords: Malaysia, polio, Sabah, undocumented migrants

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
48 Spatial Scale of Clustering of Residential Burglary and Its Dependence on Temporal Scale

Authors: Mohammed A. Alazawi, Shiguo Jiang, Steven F. Messner

Abstract:

Research has long focused on two main spatial aspects of crime: spatial patterns and spatial processes. When analyzing these patterns and processes, a key issue has been to determine the proper spatial scale. In addition, it is important to consider the possibility that these patterns and processes might differ appreciably for different temporal scales and might vary across geographic units of analysis. We examine the spatial-temporal dependence of residential burglary. This dependence is tested at varying geographical scales and temporal aggregations. The analyses are based on recorded incidents of crime in Columbus, Ohio during the 1994-2002 period. We implement point pattern analysis on the crime points using Ripley’s K function. The results indicate that spatial point patterns of residential burglary reveal spatial scales of clustering relatively larger than the average size of census tracts of the study area. Also, spatial scale is independent of temporal scale. The results of our analyses concerning the geographic scale of spatial patterns and processes can inform the development of effective policies for crime control.

Keywords: inhomogeneous K function, residential burglary, spatial point pattern, spatial scale, temporal scale

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47 A Multi-Objective Methodology for Selecting Lean Initiatives in Modular Construction Companies

Authors: Saba Shams Bidhendi, Steven Goh, Andrew Wandel

Abstract:

The implementation of lean manufacturing initiatives has produced significant impacts in improving operational performance and reducing manufacturing wastes in the production process. However, selecting an appropriate set of lean strategies is critical to avoid misapplication of the lean manufacturing techniques and consequential increase in non-value-adding activities. To the author’s best knowledge, there is currently no methodology to select lean strategies that considers their impacts on manufacturing wastes and performance metrics simultaneously. In this research, a multi-objective methodology is proposed that suggests an appropriate set of lean initiatives based on their impacts on performance metrics and manufacturing wastes and within manufacturers’ resource limitation. The proposed methodology in this research suggests the best set of lean initiatives for implementation that have highest impacts on identified critical performance metrics and manufacturing wastes. Therefore, manufacturers can assure that implementing suggested lean tools improves their production performance and reduces manufacturing wastes at the same time. A case study was conducted to show the effectiveness and validate the proposed model and methodologies.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, lean strategies, manufacturing wastes, manufacturing performance, optimisation, decision making

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
46 Measuring the Full Impact of Culture: Social Indicators and Canadian Cultural Policy

Authors: Steven Wright

Abstract:

This paper argues that there is an opportunity for PCH to further expand its relevance within the Canadian policy context by taking advantage of the growing international trend of using social indicators for public policy evaluation. Within the mandate and vision of PCH, there is an incomplete understanding of the value that the arts and culture provide for Canadians, specifically with regard to four social indicators: community development, civic engagement, life satisfaction, and work-life balance. As will be shown, culture and the arts have a unique role to play in such quality of life indicators, and there is an opportunity for PCH to aid in the development of a comprehensive national framework that includes these indicators. This paper lays out approach to understanding how social indicators may be included in the Canadian context by first illustrating recent trends in policy evaluation on a national and international scale. From there, a theoretical analysis of the connection between cultural policy and social indicators is provided. The second half of the paper is dedicated to explaining the shortcomings of Canadian cultural policy evaluation in terms of its tendency to justify expenditures related to arts and cultural activities in purely economic terms, and surveying how other governments worldwide are leading the charge in this regard.

Keywords: social indicators, evaluation, cultural policy, arts

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
45 Effect of Alloying Elements on Particle Incorporation of Boron Carbide Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

Authors: Steven Ploetz, Andreas Lohmueller, Robert F. Singer

Abstract:

The outstanding performance of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) regarding stiffness/weight ratio makes AMCs attractive material for lightweight construction. Low-density boride compounds promise simultaneously an increase in stiffness and decrease in composite density. This is why boron carbide is chosen for composite manufacturing. The composites are fabricated with the stir casting process. To avoid gas entrapment during mixing and ensure nonporous composites, partial vacuum is adapted during particle feeding and stirring. Poor wettability of boron carbide with liquid aluminum hinders particle incorporation, but alloying elements such as magnesium and titanium could improve wettability and thus particle incorporation. Next to alloying elements, adapted stirring parameters and impeller geometries improve particle incorporation and enable homogenous particle distribution and high particle volume fractions of boron carbide. AMCs with up to 15 vol.% of boron carbide particles are produced via melt stirring, resulting in an increase in stiffness and strength.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composites, boron carbide, stiffness, stir casting

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44 Vibration Analysis of a Solar Powered UAV

Authors: Kevin Anderson, Sukhwinder Singh Sandhu, Nouh Anies, Shilpa Ravichandra, Steven Dobbs, Donald Edberg

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a Finite Element based vibration analysis of a solar powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The purpose of this paper was to quantify the free vibration, forced vibration response due to differing point inputs in order to mimic the vibration induced by actuators (magnet in coil generators) used to aid in the flight of the UAV. A Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) study was performed in order to ascertain pertinent deigns stresses and deflections as well as aerodynamic parameters of the UAV airfoil. The 10 ft span airfoil is modeled using Mylar as the primary material. Results show that the free mode in bending is 4.8 Hz while the first forced bending mode is in the range of 16.2 to 16.7 Hz depending on the location of excitation. The free torsional bending mode is 28.3 Hz, and the first forced torsional mode is in the range of 26.4 to 27.8 Hz, depending on the location of excitation. The FSI results predict the coefficients of aerodynamic drag and lift of 0.0052 and 0.077, respectively, which matches hand-calculations used to validate the Finite Element based results. FSI based maximum von Mises stresses and deflections were found to be 0.282 MPa and 3.4 mm, respectively. Dynamic pressures on the airfoil range of 1.04 to 1.23 kPa corresponding to velocity magnitudes in the range of 22 to 66 m/s.

Keywords: ANSYS, finite element, FSI, UAV, vibrations

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43 Effect of Magnesium Inoculation on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Spheroidal Cast Iron Knuckle: A Focus on the Steering Arm

Authors: Steven Mavhungu, Didier Nyembwe, Daniel Sekotlong

Abstract:

The steering knuckle is an integral component of the suspension and stability control system of modern vehicles. Good mechanical properties with an emphasis on the fatigue properties are essential for this component as it is subjected to cyclical load of significant magnitude during service. These properties are a function of the microstructure achieved in the component during the various manufacturing processes including forging and casting. The strut mount of the knuckle is required to meet specified microstructure and mechanical properties. However, in line with the recent trend of stringent quality requirements of cast components, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have had to extend the specifications to other sections of the knuckle. This paper evaluates the effect of cored wire inoculation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the steering arm of a typical spheroidal cast iron component. The investigation shows that the use of a cored wire having higher rare earth content formulation could possibly lead to a homogeneous matrix containing consistent graphite nodule morphology. However, this was found not to be the condition for better mechanical properties along the knuckle arm in line with required specifications. The findings in this paper contribute to a better understanding of steering knuckle properties to allow its production for safer automobile applications.

Keywords: inoculation, magnesium cored wire, spheroidal graphie, steering knuckle

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
42 Nonlinear Porous Diffusion Modeling of Ionic Agrochemicals in Astomatous Plant Cuticle Aqueous Pores: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Eloise C. Tredenick, Troy W. Farrell, W. Alison Forster, Steven T. P. Psaltis

Abstract:

The agriculture industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops. More efficacious sprays provide many environmental and financial benefits. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The importance of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted, as the results of each uptake experiments are specific to each formulation of active ingredient and plant species. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a nonlinear porous diffusion model of ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which provides additions to a simple diffusion model through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating plant species' variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. The model could feasibly be adapted to other ionic active ingredients diffusing through other plant species' cuticles. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms.

Keywords: aqueous pores, ionic active ingredient, mathematical model, plant cuticle, porous diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
41 Electrodynamic Principles for Generation and Wireless Transfer of Energy

Authors: Steven D. P. Moore

Abstract:

An electrical discharge in the air induces an electromagnetic (EM) wave capable of wireless transfer, reception, and conversion back into electrical discharge at a distant location. Following Norton’s ground wave principles, EM wave radiation (EMR) runs parallel to the Earth’s surface. Energy in an EMR wave can move through the air and be focused to create a spark at a distant location, focused by a receiver to generate a local electrical discharge. This local discharge can be amplified and stored but also has the propensity to initiate another EMR wave. In addition to typical EM waves, lightning is also associated with atmospheric events, trans-ionospheric pulse pairs, the most powerful natural EMR signal on the planet. With each lightning strike, regardless of global position, it generates naturally occurring pulse-pairs that are emitted towards space within a narrow cone. An EMR wave can self-propagate, travel at the speed of light, and, if polarized, contain vector properties. If this reflective pulse could be directed by design through structures that have increased probabilities for lighting strikes, it could theoretically travel near the surface of the Earth at light speed towards a selected receiver for local transformation into electrical energy. Through research, there are several influencing parameters that could be modified to model, test, and increase the potential for adopting this technology towards the goal of developing a global grid that utilizes natural sources of energy.

Keywords: electricity, sparkgap, wireless, electromagnetic

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40 Rearrangement and Depletion of Human Skin Folate after UVA Exposure

Authors: Luai Z. Hasoun, Steven W. Bailey, Kitti K. Outlaw, June E. Ayling

Abstract:

Human skin color is thought to have evolved to balance sufficient photochemical synthesis of vitamin D versus the need to protect not only DNA but also folate from degradation by ultraviolet light (UV). Although the risk of DNA damage and subsequent skin cancer is related to light skin color, the effect of UV on skin folate of any species is unknown. Here we show that UVA irradiation at 13 mW/cm2 for a total exposure of 187 J/cm2 (similar to a maximal daily equatorial dose) induced a significant loss of total folate in epidermis of ex vivo white skin. No loss was observed in black skin samples, or in the dermis of either color. Interestingly, while the concentration of 5 methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) fell in white epidermis, a concomitant increase of tetrahydrofolic acid was found, though not enough to maintain the total pool. These results demonstrate that UVA indeed not only decreases folate in skin, but also rearranges the pool components. This could be due in part to the reported increase of NADPH oxidase activity upon UV irradiation, which in turn depletes the NADPH needed for 5-MTHF biosynthesis by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. The increased tetrahydrofolic acid might further support production of the nucleotide bases needed for DNA repair. However, total folate was lost at a rate that could, with strong or continuous enough exposure to ultraviolet radiation, substantially deplete light colored skin locally, and also put pressure on total body stores for individuals with low intake of folate.

Keywords: depletion, folate, human skin, ultraviolet

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